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On this day January 26 1939 Franco captures Barcelona During the Spanish Civil War, Barcelona, the Republican capital of Spain, falls to the Nationalist.

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Presentation on theme: "On this day January 26 1939 Franco captures Barcelona During the Spanish Civil War, Barcelona, the Republican capital of Spain, falls to the Nationalist."— Presentation transcript:

1 On this day January Franco captures Barcelona During the Spanish Civil War, Barcelona, the Republican capital of Spain, falls to the Nationalist forces of General Francisco Franco. In 1931, King Alfonso XIII approved elections to decide the government of Spain, and voters overwhelmingly chose to abolish the monarchy in favor of a liberal republic. Alfonso subsequently went into exile, and the Second Republic, initially dominated by middle-class liberals and moderate socialists, was proclaimed. During the first five years of the republic, organized labor and leftist radicals forced widespread liberal reforms as independence-minded Spanish regions such as Catalonia and the Basque provinces achieved virtual autonomy. The landed aristocracy, the church, and a large military clique increasingly employed violence in their opposition to the Second Republic, and in July 1936, General Francisco Franco led a right-wing army revolt in Morocco, which prompted the division of Spain into two key camps: the Nationalists and the Republicans. Franco's Nationalist forces rapidly overran much of the Republican-controlled areas in central and northern Spain, and Catalonia became a key Republican stronghold. During 1937, Franco unified the Nationalist forces under the command of the Falange, Spain's fascist party, while the Republicans fell under the sway of the communists. Germany and Italy aided Franco with an abundance of planes, tanks, and arms, while the Soviet Union aided the Republican side. In addition, small numbers of communists and other radicals from France, the USSR, America, and elsewhere formed the International Brigades to aid the Republican cause. The most significant contribution of these foreign units was the successful defense of Madrid until the end of the war. In June 1938, the Nationalists drove to the Mediterranean Sea and cut the Republicans' territory in two. Later in the year, Franco mounted a major offensive against Catalonia. In January 1939, its capital, Barcelona, was captured, and soon after the rest of Catalonia fell. With their cause all but lost, the Republicans attempted to negotiate a peace, but Franco refused. On March 28, 1939, the victorious Nationalists entered Madrid, and the bloody Spanish Civil War came to an end. Up to a million lives were lost in the conflict, the most devastating in Spanish history.

2 Republican Jeopardy! Answer: The Sons of Brutus The question: Who should be killed if one seeks to establish a free state?

3 The Lictors bring Brutus the bodies of his sons Jacques-Louis David (Fr.) 1789 “Anyone who sets up a tyranny and does not kill Brutus, anyone who introduces self government and does not kill the the sons of Brutus, cannot expect to survive long” Machiavelli Discourses Bk 3 ch 3

4 Machiavelli certainly sees quite a bit of good in republics: Republics are governed by the rule of law. Machiavelli seems to believe that rule of law is so important that even unjust laws should be allowed as long as they are obeyed. Republics give citizens a stake in their government. Republics allow their citizens to have a voice in the government. Republics allow for a government to continue after the death of a great leader. Republics also allow for loyal troops, something that Machiavelli highlights when criticizing the use of auxiliary troops (183). Republics may have some problems, however: Machiavelli inherently distrusts people. He believes that all people have evil impulses (92). Republics are limited by size or stability. Machiavelli favors the Roman model Leaders in republics sometimes have trouble justifying their power. Republics have traditionally had problems of stability. Questions Is stability more important than an individual’s rights? (see Machiavelli’s argument on ) Are the best republics necessarily expansionistic like Rome?

5 Natural resources Rich Poor Effects Endowments On capacity positive negative On denizens negative positive Considerations on the foundations of polities How can a polity realize the positive material benefits of natural wealth, and the positive motivational benefits of poor natural endowments?

6 Machiavelli: Forms and cycle of government Ideal forms Ideal forms Monarchy Aristocracy Democracy Corrupt forms Tyranny Oligarchy Anarchy Authority Principle Rule of one Rule of few Rule of many CYCLE REPEATS -- or polity is destroyed

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8 Human nature and politics “All men are…envious” Competition for standing breeds envy Assumptions and implications: Ambition motivates competition for standing The “Republican problematic”: How can greatness be realized, given human nature?

9 What is the ideal regime type for restraining the forces of regime failure and encouraging the chances of regime success? REPUBLIC – a form of political society characterized by a preponderance of commitment to the public good, realized by the arrangement of institutions designed to foster virtue and check corruption. Issues for republican polities FOUNDING ORGANIZING RULING Natural resources endowments effects Human resources motivations relations The fact of social distinctions Differences in interests elites commoners Institutions channeling/transforming conflict Sources of wisdom: desire for freedom desire for distinction judgment under restraint

10 What is the ideal regime type for restraining the forces of regime failure and encouraging the chances of regime success? REPUBLIC – a form of political society characterized by a preponderance of commitment to the public good, realized by the arrangement of institutions designed to foster virtue and check corruption. Issues for republican polities FOUNDING ORGANIZING RULING Natural resources endowments effects Human resources motivations relations The fact of social distinctions Differences in interests elites commoners Institutions channeling/transforming conflict Sources of wisdom: desire for freedom desire for distinction judgment under restraint

11 What is the ideal regime type for restraining the forces of regime failure and encouraging the chances of regime success? REPUBLIC – a form of political society characterized by a preponderance of commitment to the public good, realized by the arrangement of institutions designed to foster virtue and check corruption. Issues for republican polities FOUNDING ORGANIZING RULING Natural resources endowments effects Human resources motivations relations The fact of social distinctions Differences in interests elites commoners Institutions channeling/transforming conflict Sources of wisdom: desire for freedom desire for distinction judgment under restraint

12 What is the ideal regime type for restraining the forces of regime failure and encouraging the chances of regime success? REPUBLIC – a form of political society characterized by a preponderance of commitment to the public good, realized by the arrangement of institutions designed to foster virtue and check corruption. Issues for republican polities FOUNDING ORGANIZING RULING Natural resources endowments effects Human resources motivations relations The fact of social distinctions Differences in interests elites commoners Institutions channeling/transforming conflict Sources of wisdom: desire for freedom desire for distinction judgment under restraint

13 Summary: Machiavelli’s account of republicanism -- A "republican" government institutionalizes the authority principles of rule of one, the few, and the many. -- Social inequalities are inevitable as outlets for ambition, but must be restrained by institutional arrangements that make sacrifice for the public good, not private interest, the standard of merit. -- Social conflict is a powerful source of public commitment. Conflict can be turned to public benefit by: Dividing power in government Cultivating a culture of public scrutiny of individuals Establishing a legal system that enforces responsibility in the exercise of public privileges. Establishing policies that require citizens to perform their public duties.


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