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The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic 509-31 BCE.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic 509-31 BCE."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise and Fall of the Roman Republic BCE

2 Republic or Empire? “We are in a wilderness without a single footstep to guide us.” - James Madison, 1789 CE - expansion - slavery - political factions

3 The Grandeur that Was Rome - language - civil law - religion

4 No one is so intellectually sluggish as not to want to understand how the Romans – in less than fifty-three years – conquered, and how they now govern, practically the whole inhabited world… - Polybius, BCE I. On the banks of the Tiber: Origins

5 The Hero(ine) and History Aeneas and Dido The Aeneid - Virgil, 19 BCE Punic Wars Julio-Claudian Dynasty Julio-Claudian Dynasty

6 Romulus and Remus

7 Birth of the Republic The Rape of Lucretia Livy 509 BCE, Tarquinio deposed 509 BCE, Tarquinio deposed

8 A. Etruscan culture 1. Hydraulic society 2. divination / fate - Augurs - Pulcher and the chickens divination - Augurs - Pulcher and the chickens divination

9 B. Latium (Latin) 1. Seven Hills 753 BCE 2. Paterfamilias - name: common, gens, birth Gaius Julius Caesar Marcus Porcius Cato

10 C. Class compromise 1. Law of 12 Tables 451 BCE - patricians v. plebians “plebiscite”

11 D. Consuls and Conquest 1. Political machinery - cursus honorum - - cursus honorum - Two Consuls served 1 year terms “Praetor” – “ military leader” military 305 BCE became a separate office and leaders then titled “CONSUL.”

12 2. Regional power - 2. Regional power - Roman-Italic Wars – Latins & Etruscans - Roman-Gaulish War – Celtic (Gaul) invasion - Samnite Wars 343 – 290 – Umbria - Pyrrhic War – Greek (Pyrrhus)

13 Paradox of Republican Rome Expand to survive… expand and die

14 II. The Punic Wars BCE Defining moment - Livy “eternal Rome” Rome becomes an empire, and loses its republic

15 B. First Punic War 264 – 241 B.C.E. 1. Roman expansion beyond Italy Fight between Syracuse and Messina

16 2. Naval power - Battle of Drepana 249 BCE Corvus (assault bridge)

17 3. Republic or Empire? - General Verres BCE - Republican institutions inadequate

18 C. Second Punic War BCE 1. Delenda est Carthago Cato the Elder

19 2. Italian campaigns BCE - Battle of Cannae 216 BCE 70 K? Hannibal Barca

20 3. Romans victorious in Sicily (212) and Africa (202) - death of Archimedes - Battle of Zama Scipio Africanus

21 D. Third Punic War BCE 1. Classical conquests

22 Legacy of the Punic Wars - empire gained, but at tremendous cost - opportunists disrupt republican machinery - strains on the paterfamilias

23 III. Agrarian Republic Cultural Life after the Punic Wars

24 A. Paterfamilias in peril 1. Spokesman of republican virtue Cato the Elder BCE Cato the Elder BCE

25 2. Latifundia system - loss of land / citizenship - colonial economy - slave labor v. free labor

26 B. Infirmitas Sexus 1. Republican mothers - divorce

27 C. Rebellious sons 1. Paternal power 2. Adoption an option

28 D. Slavery 1. Household to gang slavery - economic disparity

29 2. Spartacus’ revolt BCE 3. Origins of dictatorship - Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar “I’m Spartacus” “I’m Spartacus”

30 E. Equestrians 1. New money - officers, merchants, aristocrats of the empire 2. by-passed old orders - Gaius Gracchus

31 F. Religion 1. Civic religion - Vestal Virgins 2. Familial gods, spirits - ancestor worship

32 3. New gods 4. Religion as dissent Cult of Bacchus Republic / Empire not bound by common religion

33 IV. Fall of the Republic

34 Persecution of Bacchus cult revealed deeper problems - growing class disparity; slavery - traditional male status in decline - no unifying public religion - Patricians hostile to any reform - “bread and circuses” - Patricians hostile to any reform - “bread and circuses”

35 A. Divided republic 1. Gracchus Brothers Tribunes Tiberius land reform d. 133 Gaius expand citizenship d. 121 Undermined system → mob rule optimates v. populares

36 B. “Special” Commanders 1. Marius BCE - Numidian War 112 BCE - army v. republic - expanded citizenship populares

37 2. Social Wars 91 BCE Sulla BCE Return to oligarchy Cicero BCE Stoicism – duty to one’s role divine providence

38 C. The “New” Men in power 1. First Triumvirate 59 BC - Pompey, Crassus

39 2. Julius Caesar d. 44 BCE - Gallic conquests - “man of the people” - King? “Crossing the Rubicon”

40 3. The Egyptian “Witch” - Ptolemies - Ides of March, 44 BCE

41 4. Second Triumvirate 42 BCE - Octavian, Marc Antony, Lepidus - Battle of Actium 31 BCE

42 D. The End of the Republic Octavian changes name to Caesar Augustus “Invisible Monarchy” Senate remains, but republic is lost

43 VI. Rome in the Augustan Age

44 Why an Emperor? 1. [Rhetorical] defense of Republican virtues 2. Reform / civic peace 3. The Pax Romana 31 BCE CE

45 A. Invisible monarchy 1. What’s in a name? - Consul, Augustus 27 BCE, Governor - Imperium Maius, imperator - princeps civitatus

46 2. Reform the Senate 3. Build Equestrian class

47 B. Army reform 1. Addition by subtraction - 60 to 28 legions - dispersal - Praetorian Guard - Praetorian Guard

48 2. The Legionnaires - standing army / navy - long tours - chance for promotion - veterans benefits 3. The Auxiliaries - chance for citizenship Army was a crucial instrument in spreading influence

49 C. Urbanization (sort of) 1. Rural West, urban East - soldiers’ colonies - road network 2. Little Romes - fusion of cultures - loyal patricians - bureaucracy

50 D. Moral Regeneration 1. The “family values” Emperor - tax breaks for kids - stiff penalties for adultery, the unmarried 2. Pontifex maximus - cult of the Emperor


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