In this section you will learn that the split between Hamilton and Jefferson led to the growth of political parties in America.
Washington’s presidency (1789-1797) ended with a foreign policy warning that the U.S. remain neutral and “steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world”. This advice served to guide U.S. policy into the 20 th century.
Despite Washington’s admonitions to the contrary, the political differences between Jefferson/Madison, and Hamilton led to the formation of political parties.
Jefferson and Madison, envisioning an agrarian nation with limited government, founded the Democratic- Republican party which attracted farmers and workers to its ranks.
FEDERALISTS DEMOCRATIC- REPUBLICANS Strong national government Fear of mob rule Loose interpretation of the Constitution Favored national bank Pro manufacturing and shipping Supporters: lawyers, merchants, manufacturers, clergy Limited national government Fear of despotic rule Strict interpretation of the Constitution Opposed national bank Pro farming Supporters: farmers, tradespeople
In the election of 1797, the Federalist John Adams beat the Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson to become the second president of the United States.
The eye of God has instigated the American eagle to snatch from Jefferson's hand the "Constitution & Independence" of the U.S. before he can cast it on an "Altar to Gallic Despotism," whose flames are being fed by the writings of Thomas Paine, Helvetius, Rousseau, and other freethinkers.
Washington’s presidency ended with a foreign policy warning that the U.S. should ______. 1) ally its self with France 2) ally its self with England 3) protect its friends and neighbors from foreign attacks 4) adopt a policy of neutrality
The political differences between Jefferson/Madison, and Hamilton led to the formation of ______. 1) a House of Burgesses 2) political parties 3) the Constitution 4) Alien and Sedition acts
Jefferson and Madison, envisioning an agrarian nation with limited government, founded the ______ party. 1) Democratic- Republican 2) Anti-Federalist 3) Federalist 4) American- Independent
Alexander Hamilton, envisioning an industrial nation with a strong central government, founded the ______ party. 1) Tories 2) Federalist 3) Know-Nothing 4) Democratic- Republican
Which of the following represented the Federalist viewpoint: 1) Pro farming. 2) Limited national government. 3) Strong national government. 4) Strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Which of the following represented the Democratic-Republican viewpoint: 1) Loose interpretation of the Constitution. 2) Opposed national bank. 3) Pro manufacturing and shipping. 4) Strong national government.
Supporters of the ______ were often lawyers, merchants, manufacturers, and clergy. 1) Democratic- Republicans 2) states’ rights theory 3) Federalists 4) whisky rebellion
In the election of 1797, ______ beat Thomas Jefferson to become the second president of the United States. 1) George Washington 2) William Henry Harrison 3) William McKinley 4) John Adams
Supporters of the ______ were often farmers, and tradespeople. 1) Federalists 2) Democratic- Republicans 3) American- Independents 4) XYZ Affair
Per the Constitution, the second runner up, Thomas Jefferson, became the vice- president. Thus, the country had executive leadership from two opposing parties.
Because of a tense relationship between the U.S. and France during their war with Britain, Adams dispatched an envoy consisting of Charles Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall to hold talks in Paris.
After Adams’ French envoy was ignored for weeks, they were approached by three French agents (X, Y, and Z) who demanded a loan of 10 million dollars and a bribe of $250,000. The Americans refused.
The so called XYZ affair resulted in Congress canceling its treaties with France, allowing U.S. ships to seize French vessels, and expanding the army and navy.
The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 were aimed at silencing the critics of Adams’ administration by greatly increasing the wait time for immigrants to become citizens, arresting and/or deporting non- loyal aliens during war time, and outlawing the publication of any anti-government writing.
Per the Constitution, the ______ became the vice-president. 1) Speaker of the House 2) second runner up 3) president of the House of Burgesses 4) man with the greatest number of electoral votes
Who was not part of the envoy dispatched by John Adams to hold talks in Paris: 1) Grover Cleveland 2) Elbridge Gerry 3) John Marshall 4) Charles Pinckney
What was the XYZ affair? 1) A plot by the Democratic-Republicans to remove John Adams from office. 2) A tryst between Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings. 3) An attempt by French leaders to coerce and finagle America out of a large sum of money. 4) The inaugural ball held for America’s first president, George Washington.
The so called ______ resulted in Congress canceling its treaties with France, allowing U.S. ships to seize French vessels, and expanding the army and navy. 1) Continental Congress 2) XYZ affair 3) Treaty of Versailles 4) Navigation Acts
The ______ of 1798 were aimed at silencing the critics of Adams’ administration. 1) Townsend Acts 2) Intolerable Acts 3) Navigation Acts 4) Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts were an affront to the ______. 1) First Amendment freedoms of speech and press 2) office of the President 3) King of France, Louis XVI 4) Declaration of Independence
After the XYZ Affair, Adams reopened talks with the French which resulted in ______. 1) the French and Indian war 2) an end to the war between France and Britain 3) an alliance with the U.S. and France against Britain 4) the avoidance of war between France and the U.S.