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Political Parties Historical Development of the Parties.

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Presentation on theme: "Political Parties Historical Development of the Parties."— Presentation transcript:

1 Political Parties Historical Development of the Parties

2 Historical Development Historically, the two-party system has been characterized by long periods of dominance by one party followed by a long period of dominance by the otherHistorically, the two-party system has been characterized by long periods of dominance by one party followed by a long period of dominance by the other

3 Historical Development The eras begin & end with shifts in the voting population called realignments:The eras begin & end with shifts in the voting population called realignments: (1) Issues change(1) Issues change (2) New divisions form between groups(2) New divisions form between groups

4 Early Years First two political parties to emerge during Washington’s term of office were the Federalists & Anti- FederalistsFirst two political parties to emerge during Washington’s term of office were the Federalists & Anti- Federalists

5 Early Years Major issue in the beginning was the ratification of the ConstitutionMajor issue in the beginning was the ratification of the Constitution Federalists supporting itFederalists supporting it Anti-Federalists wanting guarantees individual freedoms & rights not included in the original documentAnti-Federalists wanting guarantees individual freedoms & rights not included in the original document

6 How was the issue resolved?

7 Early Years Issue was resolved with the addition of the Bill of Rights, but the parties did not disappear with the issueIssue was resolved with the addition of the Bill of Rights, but the parties did not disappear with the issue

8 Federalists Led by Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of Treasury)Led by Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of Treasury) Represented urban, business- oriented men who favored elitism & a strong central governmentRepresented urban, business- oriented men who favored elitism & a strong central government

9 Federalists Supported Hamilton’s establishment of the Bank of U.S.Supported Hamilton’s establishment of the Bank of U.S. Viewed it as forwarding their interests & beliefsViewed it as forwarding their interests & beliefs

10 Anti-Federalists Came to be known as the Democratic-RepublicansCame to be known as the Democratic-Republicans Led by Thomas JeffersonLed by Thomas Jefferson Favored strong state governments, rural interests, and a weaker central governmentFavored strong state governments, rural interests, and a weaker central government

11 Anti-Federalists Opposed the bank as an enemy of state control & rural interestsOpposed the bank as an enemy of state control & rural interests

12 “Era of Good Feeling” With Hamilton’s death & John Adams’ unpopularity as president, Jefferson emerged as the most popular leader of the turn of the 19 th centuryWith Hamilton’s death & John Adams’ unpopularity as president, Jefferson emerged as the most popular leader of the turn of the 19 th century

13 “Era of Good Feeling” As president, he gradually became more accepting of stronger central governmentAs president, he gradually became more accepting of stronger central government Two parties’ points of view seemed to merge most notably in the “Era of Good Feeling” presided over by James Monroe (one of Jefferson’s protégés)Two parties’ points of view seemed to merge most notably in the “Era of Good Feeling” presided over by James Monroe (one of Jefferson’s protégés)

14 “Era of Good Feeling” Democratic-Republicans emerged as the only partyDemocratic-Republicans emerged as the only party Dominance lasted until the mid-1800s, though under a new name, the DemocratsDominance lasted until the mid-1800s, though under a new name, the Democrats

15 Jacksonian Democracy Two-party system re-emerged with the appearance of Andrew JacksonTwo-party system re-emerged with the appearance of Andrew Jackson Represented to many the expanding country (newer states found much in common with the rural southern states but little with the established northeast)Represented to many the expanding country (newer states found much in common with the rural southern states but little with the established northeast)

16 Jacksonian Democracy New party emerged—the WhigsNew party emerged—the Whigs Represented many of the interests of the old Federalist partyRepresented many of the interests of the old Federalist party

17 Jacksonian Democracy Jackson’s election in 1828 was accomplished with a coalition between South & West, forming the new Democratic PartyJackson’s election in 1828 was accomplished with a coalition between South & West, forming the new Democratic Party

18 Jacksonian Democracy Jackson’s Democrats were a rawer sort than Jefferson’s (primarily gentlemen farmers from the South & Middle Atlantic states)Jackson’s Democrats were a rawer sort than Jefferson’s (primarily gentlemen farmers from the South & Middle Atlantic states)

19 Jacksonian Democracy During the Jacksonian era—universal manhood suffrage was achieved (virtually all men could vote)During the Jacksonian era—universal manhood suffrage was achieved (virtually all men could vote) Rural, anti-bank, small farmers from the South & West formed the backbone of the Democratic PartyRural, anti-bank, small farmers from the South & West formed the backbone of the Democratic Party

20 Jacksonian Democracy Whigs were left with:Whigs were left with: Old Federalist interestsOld Federalist interests Wealthy, rural Southerners who had little in common with other WhigsWealthy, rural Southerners who had little in common with other Whigs

21 Jacksonian Democracy Party was not ideologically coherentParty was not ideologically coherent Found some success by nominating & electing war heroes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor)Found some success by nominating & electing war heroes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor)

22 North/South Tensions Economic & social tensions developed between North & South by the 1840s & 50Economic & social tensions developed between North & South by the 1840s & 50 Whig party was threatened by splits between southern & northern wingsWhig party was threatened by splits between southern & northern wings

23 North/South Tensions As the Whigs were falling apart, a new Republican Party emerged from the issue of expansion of slavery into new territoriesAs the Whigs were falling apart, a new Republican Party emerged from the issue of expansion of slavery into new territories

24 North/South Tensions Election of 1860 brought the first Republican—Abraham Lincoln—into office—Election of 1860 brought the first Republican—Abraham Lincoln—into office— Setoff the secession of southern states & with them many supporters of the Democratic PartySetoff the secession of southern states & with them many supporters of the Democratic Party

25 North/South Tensions Civil War ended the dominance of the Democrats & ushered in a new Republican eraCivil War ended the dominance of the Democrats & ushered in a new Republican era Voters realigned—according to regional differences & conflicting points of view regarding expansion of slavery & states rightsVoters realigned—according to regional differences & conflicting points of view regarding expansion of slavery & states rights

26 Republican Era: 1861-1933 With the exception of Grover Cleveland & Woodrow Wilson, all presidents from Abraham Lincoln (1861-1895) through Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) were RepublicansWith the exception of Grover Cleveland & Woodrow Wilson, all presidents from Abraham Lincoln (1861-1895) through Herbert Hoover (1929-1933) were Republicans

27 Republican Era: 1861-1933 During most of the time, Republicans dominated the legislature as wellDuring most of the time, Republicans dominated the legislature as well

28 Republican Era: 1861-1933 By 1875 all of the southern states had been restored to the Union, but their power, as well as that of the Democratic Party, was much diminishedBy 1875 all of the southern states had been restored to the Union, but their power, as well as that of the Democratic Party, was much diminished

29 Republican Era: 1861-1933 Republicans came to champion the new era of the Industrial RevolutionRepublicans came to champion the new era of the Industrial Revolution Time when prominent businessmen, such as John Rockefeller & Andrew Carnegie, dominated politics as well as businessTime when prominent businessmen, such as John Rockefeller & Andrew Carnegie, dominated politics as well as business

30 Republican Era: 1861-1933 Republican party came to represent laissez-faireRepublican party came to represent laissez-faire Policy that advocated the free market & few government regulations on businessPolicy that advocated the free market & few government regulations on business

31 Republican Era: 1861-1933 Republican philosophy of the late 1800s favored the new industrialists, not the small farmer of the earlier eraRepublican philosophy of the late 1800s favored the new industrialists, not the small farmer of the earlier era

32 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969 Prosperous, business-oriented era survived several earlier recessions but not the Great Depression that gripped the country after the stock market crash of 1929Prosperous, business-oriented era survived several earlier recessions but not the Great Depression that gripped the country after the stock market crash of 1929

33 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969 Economic downturn of the economy caused major realignments of voters that swung the balance of power to the DemocratsEconomic downturn of the economy caused major realignments of voters that swung the balance of power to the Democrats

34 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969 Republican president, Herbert Hoover, was rejected in the election of 1932 in favor of the Democrat’s Franklin RooseveltRepublican president, Herbert Hoover, was rejected in the election of 1932 in favor of the Democrat’s Franklin Roosevelt FDR’s victory was accomplished because of the “Roosevelt Coalition” of votersFDR’s victory was accomplished because of the “Roosevelt Coalition” of voters

35 FDR’s Coalition Consisted of a combination of many different groups of voters that wished to see Hoover defeatedConsisted of a combination of many different groups of voters that wished to see Hoover defeated

36 FDR’s Coalition Composed of:Composed of: Eastern workersEastern workers Recent immigrantsRecent immigrants Southern & western farmersSouthern & western farmers BlacksBlacks Ideologically liberalIdeologically liberal

37 Roosevelt’s Democrats Established a government more actively involved in promoting social welfareEstablished a government more actively involved in promoting social welfare

38 FDR’s Presidency Ironically, the formerly states rights oriented Democrats now advocated a strong central government, but one dedicated to promoting the interests of ordinary peopleIronically, the formerly states rights oriented Democrats now advocated a strong central government, but one dedicated to promoting the interests of ordinary people

39 FDR’s Presidency Democrats dominated both legislative & executive branchesDemocrats dominated both legislative & executive branches

40 FDR’s Presidency Even the Supreme Court reined in its conservative leaningsEven the Supreme Court reined in its conservative leanings Although it did check FDR’s power with the famous “court packing” threatAlthough it did check FDR’s power with the famous “court packing” threat

41 FDR’s “Court-Packing” Threat In an effort to get more support for his New Deal programs form the Supreme Court, FDR encouraged Congress to increase the number of justices form 9 to 15In an effort to get more support for his New Deal programs form the Supreme Court, FDR encouraged Congress to increase the number of justices form 9 to 15 FDR eventually withdrew his planFDR eventually withdrew his plan

42 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969 FDR was elected to unprecedented four terms & was followed by another Democrat, Harry TrumanFDR was elected to unprecedented four terms & was followed by another Democrat, Harry Truman Even though a Republican, Dwight Eisenhower, was elected president in 1952, Congress remained DemocratEven though a Republican, Dwight Eisenhower, was elected president in 1952, Congress remained Democrat

43 Second Democratic Era: 1933-1969 Democrats regained the White House in 1960 & retained it throughout the presidencies of John F. Kennedy & Lyndon JohnsonDemocrats regained the White House in 1960 & retained it throughout the presidencies of John F. Kennedy & Lyndon Johnson

44 Era of Divided Government: 1969- 2000 Richard Nixon’s election in 1968 did not usher in a new era of Republican dominated governmentRichard Nixon’s election in 1968 did not usher in a new era of Republican dominated government Instead a new balance of power between the Democrats & Republicans came into beingInstead a new balance of power between the Democrats & Republicans came into being

45 Era of Divided Government: 1969- 2000 With few exceptions, control of the legislature & the presidency has been “divided” between the two major parties since the late 1940sWith few exceptions, control of the legislature & the presidency has been “divided” between the two major parties since the late 1940s

46 Era of Divided Government: 1969- 2000 When one party holds the presidency, the other has dominated Congress, or at least the SenateWhen one party holds the presidency, the other has dominated Congress, or at least the Senate

47 Era of Divided Government: 1969- 2000 Division brings with it the problem of “gridlock”Division brings with it the problem of “gridlock” Tendency to paralyze decision making, with one branch advocating one policy & the other another contradictory policyTendency to paralyze decision making, with one branch advocating one policy & the other another contradictory policy

48 Era of Divided Government: 1969- 2000 Scholars have various theories about the causes of the new division of powerScholars have various theories about the causes of the new division of power One cause might be the declining power of political parties in generalOne cause might be the declining power of political parties in general

49 Republican Hold on the Presidency From 1969 through 1993, and 2000- 2008, the Republicans held the presidency except during:From 1969 through 1993, and 2000- 2008, the Republicans held the presidency except during: Carter presidency – 1977-1981Carter presidency – 1977-1981 Clinton presidency – 1993-2001Clinton presidency – 1993-2001

50 Republican Hold on the Presidency Starting in the 1960s, Republicans began to pay more attention to the power of electronic media & to the importance of paid professional consultantsStarting in the 1960s, Republicans began to pay more attention to the power of electronic media & to the importance of paid professional consultants

51 Republican Hold on the Presidency Evolved into a well-financed, efficient organizationEvolved into a well-financed, efficient organization Depended heavily on professionals to help locate & promote the best candidate for officeDepended heavily on professionals to help locate & promote the best candidate for office

52 Republican Hold on the Presidency Some experts believe that these changes were largely responsible for Richard Nixon’s victory in 1968Some experts believe that these changes were largely responsible for Richard Nixon’s victory in 1968 Nixon was carefully coached & his campaign was carefully managed to take advantage of electronic mediaNixon was carefully coached & his campaign was carefully managed to take advantage of electronic media

53 Republican Hold on the Presidency Campaign made extensive use of public opinion polls to determine strategyCampaign made extensive use of public opinion polls to determine strategy New emphasis also influenced party’s choice of candidates in 1980 & 1984New emphasis also influenced party’s choice of candidates in 1980 & 1984 Former TV & film actor Ronald Reagan was master of the mediaFormer TV & film actor Ronald Reagan was master of the media

54 Republican Hold on the Presidency Party also took advantage of new technology & generated computerized mailings to raise large sums of money for campaignsParty also took advantage of new technology & generated computerized mailings to raise large sums of money for campaigns By the mid-1980s, Republicans were raising much more money than the Democrats wereBy the mid-1980s, Republicans were raising much more money than the Democrats were

55 Republican Hold on the Presidency During the same period, Democrats were changing in many opposite ways than the RepublicansDuring the same period, Democrats were changing in many opposite ways than the Republicans

56 Republican Hold on the Presidency Democrats became more concerned with grass roots, or common man representationDemocrats became more concerned with grass roots, or common man representation

57 Republican Hold on the Presidency Democrats were reacting at least partly to the break-up of the old Roosevelt Coalition, but also to the disastrous 1968 convention in Chicago that showed the party as highly factionalized & lacking leadershipDemocrats were reacting at least partly to the break-up of the old Roosevelt Coalition, but also to the disastrous 1968 convention in Chicago that showed the party as highly factionalized & lacking leadership

58 Republican Hold on the Presidency As a result, they gained a reputation as being:As a result, they gained a reputation as being: disorganized disorganized disuniteddisunited

59 Republican Hold on the Presidency In 1969, the Democratic party appointed a special McGovern-Fraser Commission to review the party’s structure & delegate selection proceduresIn 1969, the Democratic party appointed a special McGovern-Fraser Commission to review the party’s structure & delegate selection procedures

60 Republican Hold on the Presidency Commission determined that minorities, women, youth, and the poor were not adequately represented at the party conventionCommission determined that minorities, women, youth, and the poor were not adequately represented at the party convention

61 Republican Hold on the Presidency Party adopted guidelines that increased the representation & participation of these groupsParty adopted guidelines that increased the representation & participation of these groups

62 Republican Hold on the Presidency Number of super-delegates (governors, members Congress & other party leaders) was reduced substantiallyNumber of super-delegates (governors, members Congress & other party leaders) was reduced substantially

63 Republican Hold on the Presidency 1972 convention selected as their candidate George McGovern1972 convention selected as their candidate George McGovern Liberal who lost a landslide to Republican Richard NixonLiberal who lost a landslide to Republican Richard Nixon

64 Republican Hold on the Presidency Although Democrat Jimmy Carter won the presidency in 1976, he was defeated by Ronald Reagan in 1980Although Democrat Jimmy Carter won the presidency in 1976, he was defeated by Ronald Reagan in 1980 Republican Party held the presidency since, with the exception of the Clinton presidency (1992-2000)Republican Party held the presidency since, with the exception of the Clinton presidency (1992-2000)

65 Republican Hold on the Presidency During the Reagan presidency, the Democrats began to adopt some of the Republican strategies:During the Reagan presidency, the Democrats began to adopt some of the Republican strategies: Computerized mailing listsComputerized mailing lists Opinion pollsOpinion polls Paid consultantsPaid consultants

66 Republican Hold on the Presidency Using newly adopted Republican party strategies, the Democratic party managed to get their candidate, Bill Clinton to the White House in 1993, a position that he held for two termsUsing newly adopted Republican party strategies, the Democratic party managed to get their candidate, Bill Clinton to the White House in 1993, a position that he held for two terms


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