3 TOPIC OUTLINE A. Republican America in the early 1800s 1. Religion: Beginnings of the Second Great Awakening2. Women: Republican motherhood & education for women3. Cultural Nationalism4. Stirrings of IndustryB. Jefferson's Presidency (and Madison’s)1. Jefferson & the National Government2. The Courts and Marbury3. Louisiana4. Foreign Affairs: Troubles at Sea5. Expansion into the trans-Appalachian West & Indian resistanceC. War of 1812 and its consequences
4 Guiding QuestionTo what extent were developments during the period consistent with the vision of Thomas Jefferson and the Republicans, as opposed to the vision of Hamilton and the Federalists?
5 Competing Visions for America REPUBLICAN/JEFFERSON VISIONFEDERALIST (HAMILTON) VISIONGovernmentConstitutionEconomyForeign PolicyReligionCulture
6 National Development in the Early Republic A. AMERICA IN 1800National Developmentin the Early Republic
7 1. BEGINNINGS OF INDUSTRY Samuel SlaterEli Whitneycotton gininterchangeable partsRobert FultonThe Clermont (1807)TurnpikesThe Cotton Gin (National Archives)
10 2. RELIGION: BEGINNINGS OF THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING DeismUnitarianismSecond Great Awakening ( s)camp meetingsCharles FinneyJohn Wesley“burned over district’The Second Great Awakening,Henretta, America’s History 5e from
17 Election of 1800 Jefferson vs. Burr in House of Representatives First Peaceful Turnover of PowerTwelfth Amendment (1804)Hamilton-Burr duel (1804) >>Decline of FederalistsDivine, America Past & Present
18 Thomas Jefferson Well over 6 feet tall Not a good public speaker. One of the greatest writers among U.S. PresidentsA renaissance manIncredibly well-read in science and philosophyContinental Congress;assemblyman;Gov. of Virginia.;Author of Dec. of Independence;Min. to France;Sec. of State;Vice Pres.
19 Jefferson & National Gov’t Views on governmentstrict constructionismmajor functionsAlien & Sedition ActsArmy & NavyPublic spendingfederal debtExcise tax on whiskeyrest of Hamilton’s program?simplicity as PresidentPageant 13eThomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1805Collection of The New-York Historical Society
20 2. Struggle Over the Courts Judiciary Act of 1801“Midnight appointments”John Marshall (Ch. Justice )Marbury vs. Madison (1803)Judiciary Act of 1789judicial reviewsignificanceJohn Marshall
21 3. Louisiana PurchaseThe Problem: right of deposit, Pinckney’s Treaty (1795)Divine, America Past & Present 7e
22 3. Louisiana Purchase Problem Deal Dilemma Opposition Impact Henretta, America’s History 5e from
27 Lewis and Clark 1804-1806 Purposes: Explore new territory Claim to Oregonpolitical & trade relations with Indians
28 4. TROUBLES AT SEA Significance of American Shipping Barbary pirates Divine, America Past & Present
29 4. TROUBLES AT SEA Napoleanic wars (1803-1814) Impressment British Orders in Council (blockade)Napolean’s Continental SystemImpressment< 6000 US sailorsChesapeake Affair (1807)Embargo Act of 1807“Peaceable Coercion”Why not war?Who opposes?Manning the Navy, English engraving showing the impressment of American sailorsThe impressment of sailors into the British navy from American ships was one of the more prominent causes of the War of This 1790 engraving shows an American sailor being seized at gunpoint while those who might try to assist him are elbowed aside. (Library of Congress) [Pageant 13e]Manning the Navy, English engraving showing the impressment of American sailors (Library of Congress)
30 American Export Trade, 1790–1815 4. TROUBLES AT SEAEmbargo Act of 1807 ( )Non-Intercourse Act (1809)Effect on Britain?Macon’s Bill No. 2 (1810)Chart: Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;Cartoon: Steere, Independent SchoolAmerican Export Trade, 1790–1815
32 James Madison President 1809-1817 Dolley Madison (Portrait Gallery) Description: James Madison. Stuart, Gilbert, , artist. Credit: Library of Congress [ Pojer];Dolley Madison:http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/firstladies/dm4.htmlDolley Madison (Portrait Gallery)
33 5. CONFLICTS WITH WESTERN INDIANS Trans-Appalacian settlementPopulation density(Tecumseh: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, FMNH Neg. #A93851)
34 C. WAR OF 1812America'sSecond War forIndependence?
35 5. CONFLICTS WITH WESTERN INDIANS Native America,5. CONFLICTS WITH WESTERN INDIANSTrans-Appalacian settlementTenskwatawa (the Prophet)TecumsehRole of Britain?William Henry HarrisonBattle of Tippecanoe (1811)Pageant 13e;(Tecumseh: Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, FMNH Neg. #A93851)
37 War of 1812 - Causes War of 1812 (1812-1815) “War Hawks” Henry Clay (KY)John Calhoun (SC)Reasons US declared war1) Impressment of sailors2) Conflicts with Indians3) Desire for expansion“Mr. Madison’s War”Henry Clay
38 War of 1812 - Fighting York (Toronto) (1813) Battle of Lake Erie (summer 1813)Commodore Oliver Hazard PerryBattle of Thames (Oct 1813)Wm Henry HarrisonHorseshoe Bend (March 1814)Andrew JacksonPlattsburg (Sept 11, 1814)Key battle of warAttack on Washington (Aug 1814)Baltimore – Ft. McHenry“Star Spangled Banner” (1814)Francis Scott KeyBattle of New Orleans (Jan 1815)“Hero of New Orleans”Divine, America Past & Present
39 Oliver Hazard Perry At Battle Of Put-In-Bay, Sept. 1813
40 The burning of the Capitol Description: The burning of the Capitol. Mural by Allyn Cox.
41 The Battle of New Orleans. January 1815 Description: The Battle of New Orleans. January Copy of engraving by H.B. Hall after W. Momberger. Keywords: War of 1812 Credit: National Archives and Records Administration
42 War of 1812: Results Opposition to War Hartford Convention (Dec 1814)Treaty of Ghent(Dec 24, 1814)Attacking the Federalists (Library of Congress)brinkley 10th edDescription: Signing of Treaty of Ghent with Great Britain, December 24, [Pojer]
43 Results of the War of 1812 Draw militarily Small War and insignificant in military terms.Important consequences for the U.S.:Winners: War Hawks (favoring western expansion, national improvements, trade); Republicans, Andrew Jackson, William Henry HarrisonLosers: Indians, FederalistsNew Spirit of nationalism (Era of Good Feelings)Paranoia about Britain died away (“Second War for Independence”)Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)End of involvement in Europe for next 100 years.America looks inward