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Republican and Imperial Rome. The Ancient Etruscans (800-500 BC)

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Presentation on theme: "Republican and Imperial Rome. The Ancient Etruscans (800-500 BC)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Republican and Imperial Rome

2 The Ancient Etruscans (800-500 BC)

3 Royal Rome (753-510 BC) The Myth of Romulus Etruscan Rule (6th century BC) The Power of Imperium Senate-Elected King + Elite Senate + Curial Assembly of Citizens Family is Base Unit Client-Patron Relationships Patrician (Noble) and Plebian (Commoner)

4 The Roman Republic (510 BC - ?) Ending is Gradual Overthrow of Tarquinius Superbus--510 BC

5 Roman Republican Government Twin Consuls with Military Imperium; limited Domestic Imperium –Emergencies: Dictator (6 months) Quaestors, Proconsul, Praetors, Censors Senate controls foreign and domestic affairs Centuriate Assembly divided by wealth levels

6 Struggle of the Orders (5th-3rd Centuries BC) Plebians vs. Patricians 10 Tribunes of the Plebians--Power of Veto 367 BC--One Consul seat open to Plebians 287 BC--Plebian assembly now could bind all Romans with laws without Senate Shift from Patrician to Nobiles rule

7 Conquest of Italy 493 BC--Latin League 390 BC--Gauls Sack Rome Latin War (343-338 BC) Rome Generous to Subjects Southern Italy (4th-3rd century BC) King Pyrrhus of Epirus and Pyrric Victory

8 Carthage

9 Phoenician Colony, 814 BC Dominates West by 5th century BC Oligarchic Republic: 2 Suffets, Oligarchic Council, Popular Assembly Mercenaries, not citizen soldiers

10 The Punic Wars First Punic War: 264-241 BC--Fought for Sicily Second Punic War (218-202 BC) –Hannibal –Invasion of Italy –Cannae: 216 BC, 40,000 defeat 80,000 –Publius Cornelius Scipio –Battle of Zama: 202 BC

11 Conquests of Rome The Province System –Tax-Farming Philip V--197 BC Antiochus III, Magnesia--189 BC Corinth sacked: 146 BC Carthago est Delenda!!!!: 146 BC

12 Greek Influence Hellenistic Slaves Bring Greek Culture Merger of Greek and Roman Pantheon Cybele and Dionysius/Bacchus Education--Rise of the ‘Classical Education’ –Training in Roman Virtues –Training in Greek Thought (Humanitas)

13 Imperialism and Social Unrest Rise of the Latifundia / Decline of the Small Farmers Undercuts Military / Social / Political Order Tiberius Gracchus (168-133 BC) The Populares vs. Optimates Gaius Gracchus (159-121 BC)

14 Marius vs. Sulla Gaius Marius (157-86 BC) and Luius Cornelius Sulla (137-78 BC) vs. Jugurtha –Marius opens army to all citizens to volunteer for long terms The Social War (90-88 BC) Marius vs. Sulla Sulla shows anyone with an army can now rule

15 Marcus Licinius Crassus (115-53 BC)

16 Gnaeus Pompey (106-48 BC)

17 Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 BC)

18 Caesar’s Rise Consul and Governor of Gaul (59 BC-50 BC) –Commentaries of the Gallic War Crassus dies at Carrhae vs. Parthians (53 BC) The Rubicon and War (49-45 BC) Caesar Takes Power...but what will he do with it?

19 The Murder of Caesar, Ides of March, 44 BC

20 Second Triumvirate Octavian (63 BC-14 AD) Marcus Antonius (83-30 BC) Lepidus (dies 13 BC) Actium -- 31 BC Octavian becomes Princeps Augustus (First Citizen Augustus)

21 The Augustan Principate Monarch in Republican Clothing -- The Princeps Controls 20 of 26 legions directly Reform and Public Works Vigiles -- Fire Fighters / Police Professional Military of 300,000 Restoration of Religion and Morality

22 Rome in 1 AD (Augustus)

23 Ciceronian Culture / Late Republic Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BC) –Trusted in Law, Custom, and Tradition –An Aristocracy of Virtue (his dream) Idea of Law of Peoples and Law of Nations Poetry: –Lucretius (99-55 BC) -- Scientific Poetry –Catallus (84-54 BC) -- Personal Life

24 Augustan Culture: Golden Age of Literature Virgil (70-19 BC) and the Aenid Horace (65-8 BC) and his Odes Ovid (43 BC-18 AD) and the Metamorphoses Livy (59 BC - 17 AD) and the History of Rome Architecture and Sculpture

25 Imperial Peace and Prosperity (14 AD to 180 AD) The Relatives of Augustus (14-68 AD) The Year of 4 Emperors (68 AD) The Flavian Dynasty (69-96 AD) The Five Good Emperors (96-180 AD) Commodus (180-192 AD) and Trouble to Come

26 Rome in 100 AD

27 Imperial Government Self-Governing Towns Run by Local Elites Territorial Peak: Dacia in 106 AD Hadrian’s Wall Silver Age of Roman Literature Massive Building Projects Second Century AD problems


29 The Roman Insula

30 The Roman Domus

31 Rise of Christianity: Jesus and Judaism Jesus of Nazareth (?-?, though definitely late 1st century BC to 1st century AD) The Four Schools of Judaism –The Essenes: Preparing for Apocalypse –The Revolutionaries: FREEDOM!!!!!! –The Sadducees: Old School Religion –The Pharisees: Compassion > Sacrifice

32 Jesus and Paul Jesus’ 1-3 year mission –The End is Coming –Act Righteously on Earth –Repent and Be Forgiven Paul (Saul) of Tarsis –Former Persecutor –The Apostle to the Gentiles –Faith Will Save

33 Early Christian Practice Baptism Agape / Love Feast Prophesy and Interpretation Independent Congregations / Fealty to Apostles in Jerusalem and Founders By 2nd Century AC, each city had a Bishop Bishops met in Councils

34 The Council of Jamnia 90 AD Pharisees respond to fall of Jerusalem Closing of Jewish Canon Throwing out of the Apocrypha

35 Catholicism and Orthodoxy Romans Persecuted Christians No Definitive Bible or Creed –Many Alternate Texts Rise of Catholic / Orthodox tradition Rise of the Bishop of Rome The Gnostics –The Gospel of Thomas

36 The Crisis of the Third Century AD The Severan Dynasty (193-235 AD) Increased Militarization / Army Most Loyal to Generals, Not State Economic Problems Militarization of Society Civil Disorder: 14 Emperors in 235-268 AD

37 Imperial Recovery: 4th Century AD Diocletian (284-305 AD) and the Tetrarchy Constantine (306-337) Dominus title Legalization of Christianity

38 Imperial Decline Finance Problems Huns Push West Adrianople (378 AD) Deurbanization in West Honorius (395-423 AD)

39 Rome in 400 AD

40 The Huns 410 AD -- Visigoths Sack Rome; Britain Abandoned Atilla the Hun (440s-450s AD) –Chalons-Sur-Marne 454 AD Vandals Sack Rome -- 455 AD Romulus Augustus, the Last Emperor--476 AD

41 Christian Triumph 313 AD--Edict of Milan 394 AD--Paganism is Outlawed Arius of Alexander (280-336 AD) Council of Nicea (325 AD) Council of Hippo (393 AD) and Saint Jerome and the Vulgate (400 AD)

42 Late Imperial Culture Preservation of Classical Culture Christianity vs. Paganism Saint Augustine, Bishop of Hippo (354-430 AD) Confessions (397-8) The City of God (410 AD)

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