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A Republican Decade Angela Brown Chapter 11 1.

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Presentation on theme: "A Republican Decade Angela Brown Chapter 11 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Republican Decade Angela Brown Chapter 11 1

2 The Red Scare □“Normalcy” appealed to American in 1920 □Events convinced people U.S. threatened by political violence. 99gg/99gg2/clothe2.htm 2

3 Russian Revolution □Czar Nicholas II forced to abdicate March 1917 □Vladimir Lenin and Bolsheviks took control □Bolshevik government put all privately owned farms, industries, land, and transportation under government ownership. 3

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5 □1918 Civil War Lenin forces “Reds”, opponents “White” □Britain, France Japan, U.S. whose investments had been seized – backed Whites (farmers/landowners) □Reds triumphed in 1920 = Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)/Soviet Union 5

6 Soviet Union Map 6

7 □Communism as practiced in Soviet Union □government owned all land-property □single political party controlled government □Individuals had no rights □government vowed to spread communism 7

8 □Redscare – intense fear of communism and other extreme ideas □Known communists jailed or driven out of country. 8

9 Schenck Vs U.S. □Government justified in silencing free speech when “clear and present danger” stated Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. □Charles Schenck – letters to draftees urged them not to report to duty □Convicted of violating espionage act 9

10 The Palmer Raids □1919 Attorney General Mitchell Palmer of Justice Department set up special force to overthrow “subversives” – targets included communists, socialists, anarchists □Thousands jailed, 500 immigrants deported most innocent – none convicted of any crime 10

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12 □At first supported – went to far □1920 NY State assembly expelled (5) socialists (had done nothing wrong – legally elected) 12

13 Sacco and Vanzetti □1920 gunman robbed /killed guard and paymaster of shoestore □Nicola Sacco, shoemaker; Bartolomeo Vanzetti, fish peddler – both carrying guns when arrested □Drew international attention/controversy 13

14 □Americans suspected/accused because they were immigrants (Italian) □Many appeals upheld conviction – electrocuted 1927 □ Labor Strikes □Americans believed communists behind strikes □Simpler cause, cost of living double prewar levels 14

15 Boston Police Strikes □Strike – no pay increases since before WWI □Rioting began – Calvin Coolidge (Governor) called out state guard 15

16 Steel and Coal Strikes □1919 U.S. Steel Corp. used force to break strike (private police force) – killed 18 – beat hundreds □United mine Workers of America – no strike agreement during war □Governor Court ordered strikers back to work □UMW cancelled strike – got raise □1920’s economy boomed – strikes/unions decreased 16

17 Republican Leadership □Republican Party dominated all (3) branches of government (President Harding, Coolidge, Hoover 1921-1933) □William H. Taft – Chief Justice of Supreme Court □Favored business, social stability = economic growth 17

18 The Harding Presidency □Herbert Hoover, Secretary of Commerce □Many appointments to friends – incompetent and dishonest – overwhelm his presidency and life 18

19 Isolationism □Foreign policy reflected Americans’ postwar desire for isolationism □Isolationism – a policy of avoiding political or economic alliances with foreign countries □No attempt to join League of Nations 19

20 □Support disarmament – program for nations to voluntarily give up weapons □1921 Washington Conference nations signed treaties limiting size of navies □1922 Fordney – McCumber Tariff – raised rates on a number of imports – discouraged imports that competed with goods made by U.S. 20

21 Limiting Immigration □Nativist movement became stronger □immigrants could never be fully loyal □mostly protestants – disliked Catholics, Orthodox Christians, or Jews □Blamed immigrants for city problems (slums, corruption) 21

22 □feared would take away U.S. jobs □came from unstable parts of Europe – might hold or adopt dangerous political ideas □1921, 1924 Congress passed laws restricting immigration at Harding’s request □350,000 total immigrants 22

23 □quotas, numerical limits form each foreign nation □low quotas for southern/eastern European countries – Asian immigration banned altogether 23

24 Teapot Dome Scandal □Harding died of heart problems Aug 2, 1923 □Possibly due to upset from corruption scandals of his administration- stolen government funds, bribes taken, two committed suicide. 24

25  Sec. of Interior, Albert Fall, secretly gave oil drilling rights on government oil fields (Elk Hills, California and Teapot Dome, Wyoming)  Fall received $300,000 disguised as loans – jailed 25

26 The Coolidge Presidency □Vice- President Calvin Coolidge’s father, a justice of the peace administered him oath of office of President of the United States by kerosene lamp □Coolidge respected as governor of Mass. – not part of Harding scandals 26

27 □1924 election won in own right “Keep Cool with Coolidge” slogan □skilled public speaker, privately man of few words (could be silent in (5) languages 27

28 Laissez Faire □“The business of the American People is Business” □Republican decade – theme – do not interfere with big business – tried to make federal government smaller □Coolidge’s efforts to have government do less drew criticism from those who saw it as failure to take action 28

29 Continued Isolationism □Sec. of State, Frank Kellogg – French Foreign minister, Aristide Briand □Kellogg-Briand Pact – 15 nations agreed not to use the threat of war in their dealings with one another – more than 60 nations joined (unrealistic, unworkable – no way to enforce) □1941 many nations that signed at war 29

30 Election of 1928 □Coolidge chose not to run again. □Herbert Hoover Republican Nominee □Won by large margin against Alfred E. Smith first Roman Catholic to run – Governor of NY. □U.S. hoped Coolidge prosperity would continue. 30

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