Presentation on theme: "I. The transformation of progressivism A. Wilson's progressive coalition had dissolved by 1920 B. Progressivist impulse transformed to move for good government."— Presentation transcript:
I. The transformation of progressivism A. Wilson's progressive coalition had dissolved by 1920 B. Progressivist impulse transformed to move for good government and public services
II. Harding's administration A. The election of 1920 –1. Warren Harding won the Republican nomination, –2. James Cox won the Democratic nomination –3. Victory for Harding B. Harding as president –1. Appointments included good and bad choices –2. Policies of Andrew Mellon a. Tax reductions for the rich b. A higher tariff –3. Harding named conservative advocates of big business to head major regulatory agencies
C. Corruption in Harding's administration –1. Scandals of the Ohio Gang –2. The Teapot Dome scandal a. Albert Fall of the Interior Department allowed private companies to exploit government-owned oil deposits b. Harding troubled by the scandals –3. Harding's death spared him from public disgrace
Ill. The rise of Calvin Coolidge A. Became president at Harding's death B. Coolidge's quiet character C. Election of 1924 –1. Coolidge, who controlled the party machinery, won the Republican nomination –2. John W. Davis named candidate of divided Democratic party 3. Progressive and Socialist parties named Robert La Follette 4. Landslide victory for Coolidge
IV. Republican prosperity in the 1920s A. Much of prosperity fueled by growth of consumer- goods industries –1. Growing consumer culture –2. Motion pictures –3. Radio broadcasting B. Advances in transportation –1. Airplanes a. Acts providing government subsidies for manufacturers b. Charles Lindbergh's flight c. Amelia Earhart –2. Automobiles a. Provided market for steel, glass, rubber, textiles, oil, and so forth b. tourism, road construction, and real estate boom
V. Coolidge's administration A. Economic stabilization –1. Herbert Hoover (secretary of commerce) and the trade-association movement a. Standardization in industry and business b. Promoted trade associations –2. Supreme Court upheld practice of sharing information B. Agricultural policies –l. Agriculture still weak in the 1920s –2. Commodity-marketing associations –3. The farm bloc a. A coalition of western Republican and southern Democratic congressmen b. Legislation to aid farmers
–4. The McNary-Haugen bill a. Plan to dump surplus crops on world market to raise prices on home market b. Vetoed by Coolidge C. Labor unions –l. Employers used various devices to keep out unions a. Open shop allowed employers not to hire unionists b. "Yellow-dog" contracts forced workers to agree not to join union c. "Industrial democracy" and "welfare capitalism" offered workers alternatives to unions –2. Union membership declined in 1920s
VI. Hoover's administration A. Election of 1928 –1. Republicans nominated Herbert Hoover 2. Democrats nominated Alfred L Smith –3. The images of the candidates –4. Victory for Hoover B. Hoover as progressive and humanitarian C. The Hawley-Smoot Tariff raised duties from 32 to 40% D. The economy out of control –1. The Florida real-estate boom –2. Increased speculation in the stock market –3. The stock market peaked on September 3, 1929
VII Hoover & the Great Depression A. The stock market had its worst day on October 29, 1929 B. Hoover's first action was to express hope, though wages fell and unemployment rose C. Reasons for the crash –1. Economic factors –2. Governmental policies –3. Gold D. Human toll of depression –1. 13M Unemployed in –2. Hobos ride the rails in search of work.
E. Hoover's attempts at recovery –1. Asked businessmen to let profits suffer before purchasing power –2. Increased opportunities for employment and credit F. In elections of 1930 Republicans lost control of both houses of Congress G. More attempts at recovery –1. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation set up for loans to institutions –2. Glass-Steagall Act increased availability of commercial loans –3. Federal Home Loan Act created discount banks for home mortgages –4. The Emergency Relief and Construction Act provided funds to state and local governments for public works programs.
VIII. Protests against Hoover's policies. A. Farmers protested with strikes and violence B. Veterans 1. The Bonus Expeditionary Force 2. Congress rejected their demands 3. Army was used to evict veterans