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PART II – SECTION THREE TECTONIC HAZARDS: HUMAN IMPACTS Haiti research 1 Contents.

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1 PART II – SECTION THREE TECTONIC HAZARDS: HUMAN IMPACTS Haiti research 1 Contents

2 Immediately after the Haiti Earthquake (2010) Action for students: Based on the videos and website below extract relevant earthquake facts and record your findings using your table of physical, economic and social impacts. Include a short description of the scene in Port au Prince immediately after the earthquake. MSF audio slideshow / eyewitness account: cfm?id=4256&cat=audio-slideshow&ref=tag-index cfm?id=4256&cat=audio-slideshow&ref=tag-index Disasters Emergency Committee: 2 Contents

3 Three days after in Haiti 3 Adapted from: 8&cof=FORID%3A10&cx= %3A7j6dhnj6yqs Contents

4 The first seven days in Haiti Action for students: Use the resources listed here to write a brief report on the impact on people and places in the first 7 days after the region’s worst earthquake in 200 years. CBS news: 9174FD776&feature=results_video 9174FD776&feature=results_video Earthquake Timeline: Haiti soon after the quake: Surgeon report: 4 Contents

5 Why did so many people die in the Haiti earthquake? Action for students: 1.Click on the link and read the news report of Lucy Rodgers of BBC News: 2.Use the news report, maps and your own research to write a Report (no more than 1000 words) to account for why the Haiti earthquake had so much greater human cost than the earthquake in Sichuan, China (2008) and in L’Aquila, Italy (2009) which were similar in magnitude. 3.When planning your Report, make sure you review the Report writing schema. Report writing schema 5 Contents

6 Haiti a ‘class quake’? Action for students: 1.Review your research on the Haiti Earthquake and also the Japan Earthquake and tsunami and extract information and data from your research to write an extended report with the following title: The Haiti Earthquake (2010) could be viewed as a ‘class quake’. Compare and contrast the Haiti earthquake with the Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011) and reach your own conclusions about whether you believe Haiti was a ‘class quake.’ 2. The websites on the humanitarian response on the previous slides can help illustrate the human impact. 6 Contents

7 PART II – SECTION THREE TECTONIC EVENTS: HUMAN IMPACTS Prediction 7

8 Earthquake prediction Action for students: 1.Research from the list below possible indicators of imminent earthquake activity and the reliability of these indicators in predicting earthquakes. 2.Divide the research amongst fellow students and share your research with a written note for each student on the reliability of these indicators in predicting earthquakes: Indicators of imminent earthquakes P and S wave ratio Foreshocks Water levels in wells Radon levels in well Levels of manganese, zinc and copper in basaltic rocks Changes in the electrical properties of rocks Ground deformation Unusual animal behaviour Monitoring how fast strain accumulates Monitoring with satellites electrical charges 3. Is it possible to predict the time, place and magnitude of future earthquakes in a precise, timely and reliable way? Is there a method that is successful beyond chance, statistically more than a lucky guess? 8 Contents

9 Earthquake prediction Action for students: 1.Watch the BBC video on predicting earthquakes on the North Anatolian Fault in Van, Turkey (2011). (04.49 mins). Watch it at least twice and make notes for your research guided by the prompts below arthquake#p00gmsgt Source: IRIS 9 2.Consider the prompts: Why is it easier for scientists to calculate where the next earthquake could have happened on this fault? What factors did the scientists use for their prediction model? What was the response of the people to the scientists prediction? When did the earthquake happen? What was the magnitude and how long did it last ? What was the impact of the earthquake-how many people were killed and how destructive was the earthquake on the city. Contents

10 L’Aquila, Italy (2009) 10 Contents

11 Jail for members of the Great Risks Commission Case Study: L'Aquila, Italy (2009) Earthquake of magnitude 6.3 hit the Abruzzi town of L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 following a series of swarms (small, but numerous tremors on a daily basis) during the preceding 2 months. In a public meeting 6 days prior to the main shock, members of Italy's Great Risks Commission downplayed the likelihood of a major quake and did not reiterate what risks people faced if one did occur. This was in response to an amateur seismologist, Giampaolo Giuliani, who was predicting a major quake based on radon readings on his home made radon monitoring devices. On 22 October 2012, 6 scientists and one ex-government official (all members of the great risks commission who attended the meeting) were found guilty of manslaughter by an Italian judge, as they played down the risks of a major shock. They were sentenced to 6 years in prison. Contents

12 Pitfalls to Prediction and Communication of Risks Reasons for authorities and people not to act on disaster warnings: Uncertainty in scientific information / difficulty in predicting earthquakes Unease with scientific jargon (communicate in less academic fashion) Lacking emergency response infrastructure,for example, national and international channels between scientists, authorities, agencies and communities and linked policies. Competing risks/priorities (need to assess likely post-earthquake behaviour to target warnings) Too many false alarms (need to use local hazard indicators, such as, animal behaviour and work with media). Sources: Contents

13 Why were the experts jailed? Action for students: 1.Using research from previous slides and taking into account the difficulty of predicting earthquakes, why have these experts been jailed? The media suggests it is because they did not accurately predict the 6 April major shock. Evidence suggests, however, that they misled the public as to the risks of such a quake occurring and that the public then acted as though the risk was small. 2.What are the implications for predicting major natural disasters in the future, not just earthquakes? 13

14 PART II – SECTION FOUR RESPONSES TO TECTONIC HAZARDS Strategies for coping Insight into humanitarian work Cholera and GIS in Haiti Social Media Disaster Risk Reduction 14 Contents

15 Section Four Responses to tectonic hazards This section focuses on coping with tectonic hazards. Different community capacity can define the approach - the extent to which a country can implement: Relief Rehabilitation Reconstruction, mitigation and preparedness. 15 Contents

16 Section Four Responses to tectonic hazards How do people cope with tectonic hazards and what are the issues for the future? Learning outcomes: Understand how people and governments cope with tectonic hazards.* Be familiar with specific ways of adjusting to tectonic hazards.* Be aware of the different approaches to the challenges of tectonic hazards.* 16 Contents

17 PART II – SECTION FOUR RESPONSES TO TECTONIC HAZARDS Strategies for coping 17 Contents

18 Coping with tectonic hazards Essentially there are three options: Do nothing Adjust Leave The choice of option depends on a number of factors including the nature of the hazard, its frequency, its magnitude, population pressure in the location and the level of economic development. 18 Contents

19 Strategies for coping Strategies used to adjust to hazard threat focus on: Modifying the loss Modifying the event Modifying human vulnerability Capacity for coping derives from being able to access information, authority, institutions, partnerships and plans, resources and procedures to deal with the hazard. Source: WHO/EHA 2002, Disasters & Emergency definitions 19 Contents

20 The Park Model The model sketches the phases following the tectonic hazard event: The relief phase The immediate response, focus is on saving lives and property. Teams, such as MSF, from outside the immediate area help with search, rescue and care operations. Urgent medical supplies, rescue equipment, clothing and food may be brought in. Rehabilitation phase More complex than relief, this may last for several months, efforts are made to restore physical and community structures, at least temporarily. Reconstruction, mitigation and preparedness Permanent changes are introduced to restore the quality of life and economic stability to the pre-disaster level or better. This can also include mitigation and preparedness – reducing vulnerability. 20 Contents

21 Park hazard response model 21 PRO: Useful to compare different events, curves of which can be drawn and compared on the same graph. Source: Bob Digby, “A2 examinations: Developing your skills in extended writing”, CON: Model is general, does not account for different levels of development and other issues affecting disruption and recovery.. Contents

22 Relief phase Relief defines “the set of activities implemented after the impact of a disaster in order to assess the needs reduce the suffering limit the spread and the consequences of the disaster open the way to rehabilitation” Resilience how able a community is to adapt and to recover. Emergency defines a state in which normal procedures are suspended and extra-ordinary measures are taken in order to avert or deal with a disaster Further info on immediate relief activities: Source: WHO/EHA 2002, Disasters & Emergency definitions; 22 Contents

23 Rehabilitation and reconstruction Rehabilitation and reconstruction actions include: repair and reconstruction of lifelines and building; measures to turn around post-earthquake economic downturns; and financial assistance after losses. The recovery period is also a good time to adopt new mitigation measures such as a more earthquake- resistant built environment (Mileti, 1999). Sources: Meliti, D Disasters by Design: A Reassessment of Natural Hazards in the United States. Joseph Henry Press. 23 Contents

24 Important lifelines. 24 Visual 11.2 – Graph illustrating time required for repair of lifelines following the 1995 Kobe, Japan Earthquake. Visual from Chang (2000). Earthquakes affect above- and below- ground lifelines. Buried utilities and communication systems are more likely to be damaged as a result of earthquakes than natural hazards Transportation facilities have an especially large impact on the response and recovery efforts, because it usually takes much longer to repair them than other lifelines Chang, 2000). Source: 11/Session%2011%20Response%20and%20Recovery_01.pdf 11/Session%2011%20Response%20and%20Recovery_01.pdf Chang, S “Transportation Performance, Disaster Vulnerability, and Long-Term Effects of Earthquakes.” Second Euro Conference on Global Change and Catastrophe Risk Management. Luxemburg, Austria, July 6-9, Available from: Contents

25 Haiti: ongoing crisis 25 Further info Click on the relief web bulletin on resettlement of IDPs and the guardian video: 22-september matters/2013/jan/10/hope-for-haiti-despite-critics?intcmp=122 15,000; 200,000; 369,000; 1 million; Over ______were re-housed. ______ of the _______ homes destroyed or damaged were rebuilt. Another ______ remain displaced in tent cities and in sidewalk shanties made with tarpaulins. Those most affected by the earthquake tended to be the most destitute. Data as of October 2012 Source: Brookings front/posts/2012/10/11-haiti-bradleyhttp://www.brookings.edu/blogs/up- front/posts/2012/10/11-haiti-bradley Action for students: Place the appropriate number in the blank spaces

26 PART II – SECTION FOUR RESPONSES TO TECTONIC HAZARDS Insight into humanitarian work 26 Contents

27 Relief in Japan 27 A consultation at an evacuation centre for earthquake survivors in Minami Sanriku. MSF gave treatment of chronic diseases for people who had their treatment interrupted by the devastating quake and tsunami. Source:MSF_Activity_Report_2011_lowres_ pdf MSF staff treat a patient in an evacuation centre in Minami Sanriku, Japan. March 2011 Contents © Giulio Di Sturco/ VII mentor

28 Psychosocial support in Japan Psychological assistance was an area in which MSF could offer increased support. 28 “People can have intrusive memories of the event, flashbacks, nightmares. People can withdraw and not want to communicate. Some people will not be able to sleep, to eat, and all of these things can make them very different than they used to be and can cause significant suffering,” Ha Young, MSF Korea MSF psychologists in a MSF cafe space near Bayside Arena, Minami Sanriku, Miyagi prefecture. Photo by Eddy McCall/MSF Contents

29 Haiti 2010: MSF’s response MSF emergency response in Haiti was its largest in its 40-year history. Thousands of Haitians, most of whom were directly affected by the disaster, mobilised along with 3,400 staff to help MSF provide assistance in hospitals and four mobile clinics. MSF’s humanitarian action is based purely on need, independent of any religious or political agenda. Predominately MSF is focused on medical assistance, a subset of humanitarian assistance, but it also performs non-medical activities like providing tents, safe water or latrines. Further info: September 2012 Humanitarian Snapshot 29 Contents

30 Emergency medical care in Haiti Wounded people congregate in MSF compound MSF tents provide shelter 30 Photos by July Remy / MSF By the end of June 2010, MSF had distributed more than 28,640 tents, approximately 2,800 rolls of plastic sheeting, and close to 85,000 relief supply kits (made up of items such as cooking utensils, hygiene products and blankets) to people living near the epicentre of the earthquake. Contents

31 From 12th January to 31st October, medical teams treated more than 358,000 people and performed more than 16,500 surgeries. Photos by Julie Remy 31 MSF surgeons performed more than 5,700 major surgical procedures during the first three months, 150 of which involved amputations. MSF staff operate on a patient with broken legs at a makeshift surgery outside Carrefour hospital, Port-au-Prince. Contents

32 An operating theatre in a container at Trinite Hospital, Haiti. An operating theatre in a container at Trinite Hospital, Haiti. An inflatable tent hospital also replaced the destroyed La Trinité hospital and provided emergency medical care and more specialised trauma and orthopaedic surgical care. Photo by Benoit Finck/MSF 32 Contents

33 The work of a MSF logistician in Haiti Action for students: 1.Visit the MSF UK website: Click on Working with us/working overseas/ who do we need?/ logistician to learn about the work of a MSF logistician and to view the video about the work of a logistician. (6.50 mins) 2.In pairs, read the logistician’s blog (in Appendix) about his work in Haiti prior to the earthquake, when the earthquake occurred and afterwards. 3.Read and critique the reports each of you wrote previously on the first seven days and discuss if you need to amend your reports in light of the blog of the logistician. Contents

34 Outbreaks of cholera in Haiti: Long-term social problems 34 Contents Source: Dupuis, Ludovic, “Field-friendly spatial analysis tool to aid MSF cholera response in Haiti” Cholera and GIS in Haiti

35 35. Cholera, water and sanitation A patient rests in the tent for the most severe cholera cases. Contents Cholera is a bacterial infection caused by drinking water or eating food contaminated with vibrio cholerae bacteria. Some of the symptoms, diarrhoea and Vomiting, can lead to dehydration or worse. Affects between 3 to 5 million people and causes between 100,000 and 130,000 deaths a year. Cholera is treatable in many situations. Photo by Scott Eisen Clean water and sanitation facilities are vital in any emergency situation, as without them diseases spread quickly. Further info: On cholera january-2013

36 Cholera outbreaks and riots October 2012: the first documented cholera case since From October 2010 to 31 December 2012, the total number of cholera cases reached 635,980, of which 350,679 (55%) were hospitalized and 7,912 died. Since November 2011, the global case-fatality rate was 1.2% with significant variations across regions. UN blamed for outbreak, riots erupt and Haiti demand for compensation rejected. 36 BBC on UN peacekeepers, Guardian on UN rejecting compensation: On 10-year plan Photo: Contents

37 MSF’s cholera response MSF response In 2010 alone, MSF treated more than 91,000 of the 171,300 people (25% of total) reported as having cholera in Haiti nationwide in 73 CTCs. Among those coming for treatment are some of the most vulnerable populations, including pregnant women. MSF uses preventative anti-cholera kits to prevent further spread with items such as rubber gloves, buckets, disinfectants, plastic cups, spoons, soap and water purification tablets. MSF cholera treatment kits include oral rehydration. The staff at these clinics include epidemiologists and water and sanitation experts, who make sure there is safe, clean drinking water and build latrines Cholera Kit CTC 37 Photo MSF / Lachant

38 Inside a cholera treatment centre (CTC) Action for students: What’s inside a CTC? Interact with this resource. 38 ?

39 Geographic Information Systems and cholera response Geographical information systems (GIS) are “organized collections of hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel data designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information.”(Fema) GIS support: timely and better decision-making and communication. Cost saving and higher efficiency. Better record-keeping. With seismic models they can forecast and graphically display (e.g., digitized colour maps) damages for earthquake scenarios. With early-warning systems they can provide an almost real-time graphical display of a region’s shaking effects. Source: 39 Contents

40 40Source: Dupuis, Ludovic et al, ibid CASE-FATALITY RATE. The proportion of persons with a particular condition (cases) who die from that condition. The denominator is the number of incident cases; the numerator is the number of cause-specific deaths among those cases. CASE. In epidemiology, a countable instance in the population or study group of a particular disease, health disorder, or condition under investigation. Sometimes, as here, an individual with the particular disease.

41 Source: Dupuis, Ludovic et al, ibid; sary.htmmiller EPIDEMIC CURVE. A histogram that shows the course of a disease outbreak or epidemic by plotting the number of cases by time of onset EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WEEK (epi week or a CDC week) is a standardized method of counting weeks to allow for the comparison of data year after year and across countries. The first epi week ends on the first Saturday in January provided it falls at least 4 days into the month.

42 Need for GIS Mapping in Haiti Geographic Information Systems Outbreak investigation describing cases: What? Case definition Who? Person When? Time Where? Place How many? Measures of occurrence Cholera data tool produced epidemic curves and basic epidemiological analysis (person and time). However, geographical analysis (place) was lacking. Field staff needed to map the cholera outbreak to target control interventions, control measures. 42 Contents

43 Development of GIS mapping in Haiti by MSF Variable functionalities, skill set and costs Google Earth is easy to use and free Collaboration with Google.org Designed ‘Jiffymap’ to convert linelist into map Quartier boundaries Local staff, GPS on motorbike and crowd-sourcing Field teams / national staff carried out all mapping Source: Dupuis, Ludovic et al, “Field-friendly spatial analysis tool to aid MSF cholera response in Haiti” 43 Contents

44 Source: Dupuis, Ludovic et al, ibid Satellite image and number of cholera cases

45 Source: Dupuis, Ludovic, ibid

46 GIS systems GIS could support field operations through improved: Medical response Targeting of interventions Epidemiological analysis Activity planning Advocacy Source: Dupuis, Ludovic et al, “Field-friendly spatial analysis tool to aid MSF cholera response in Haiti” 46 Contents

47 GIS and cholera response GIS systems could support MSF field operations through improved: Medical responses Targeting of interventions Epidemiological analysis * Activity planning Advocacy Source: Dupuis, Ludovic et al, ibid 47 Contents * Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health- related states or events in specified populations and this studies’ application to the control of health problems. Photo by Ron Haviv/VII

48 PART II – SECTION FOUR RESPONSES TO TECTONIC HAZARDS Social media 48 Contents

49 Information and communication technologies (ICTs): social media Contents Relief organisations have traditionally used centralised control centres to gather and share information. Developments in ICT have enabled a more rapid dissemination of information and have led to the availability of real time situation updates. ICT can support risk communication to the public that clearly and quickly identifies risks to mitigate disasters and promote certain behaviors and measures. The earthquakes in both Japan and Haiti have seen interesting developments which have saved lives and alleviated suffering. Source: “Great Eastern Japan Earthquake”, assessing-disaster-response-and-lessons-for-the-us

50 Mobile phone technology: Haiti and Japan HAITI - “Mission 4636” A group of companies, including Ushahidi, FrontlineSMS, CrowdFlower and Samasource, set up a text message hotline that was supported by the U.S. Department of State and advertised by radio stations. Anyone in Port-au-Prince could send an SMS to a toll-free number, 4636, to request help. The messages were routed to relief crews at the U.S. Coast Guard and the International Red Cross on the ground. JAPAN - SMS alerts Japanese agencies disseminate SMS alerts to every registered mobile phone user in the country as soon as p-waves are detected. Source: Source: 50 Contents With telecommunications infrastructure now ubiquitous, there are 4 billion mobile phones worldwide, the majority in developing countries. Mobile phones are increasingly used as part of preparation activities and warning communication. Their use in emergency communications, especially through SMS is revolutionising the flow of information. Texts take up less bandwidth than calls and are much less affected by network delays

51 Crowdsourcing and crisis mapping "Often, it's not the experts who know something, it's someone in the crowd“* Crowdsourcing capitalises on the increasing reach of internet connectivity and ICTs. A community of connected volunteers ‘crowdsource’, that is, provide information and/or expertise to enhance relief operations. Crisis mapping draws on crowdsourcing initiatives like Ushahidi and satellite imagery, participatory maps and statistical modelling for early warning and at times of impending crisis. They are not maps by traditional mapmakers that would appear in a standard Atlas! After the 2010 Haiti earthquake, for example, crowdsourcing allowed people on the scene, mapping experts and other stakeholders to communicate what they saw in nearly real time supporting the humanitarian response. There is a lot of potential for relief organisations. Further info: National Geographic Haiti crisis mapping: Source: * Sree Sreenivasan, a social media specialist at the Columbia Graduate School of Journalism. (USAToday, 51 Contents

52 Voluntweeters in Haiti Non TtT Tweet ( :30:09) orphanage in urgent need of supplies in Laboule: Clairnise or Alberte Reformatted Tweet ( :11:11) #haiti #need supplies #name orphanage #loc Laboule #contact clairnise or alberte #rescuemehaiti Source on crowdsourcing and Tweak the Tweet: 52 Tweak the Tweet is a system of codifying tweets to be picked up automatically by relief agencies without using human sorting (secondary level crowdsourcing was seen when tweets were retweeted by volunteers who codified them to fit the system). In Haiti there were over 3000 unique TtT tweets sent and 7 million tweets. Contents

53 Crisis mapping using crowdsourcing- Japan “Within an hour of the Japanese earthquake, Google's crisis response team — launched after the disaster in Haiti — had posted a "Person Finder" website that quickly grew to include 450,000 records. If you're looking for someone, you can post, 'Hey, my cousin is a teacher in Sendai, we're looking for him. Someone else will post, "I've seen him in a shelter; he's fine." Jamie Yood of Google Source: Contents

54 PART II – SECTION FOUR RESPONSES TO TECTONIC HAZARDS Disaster Risk Reduction 54 Contents

55 Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) While the Park Hazard Model charts the response to one or more hazard events, Disaster Risk Reduction is a preventative disaster management approach. In the relief phase reactive measures deal with acute immediate needs, emergency response to life and death. Rehabilitation, reconstruction, prevention and preparedness deal with longer-term causes of disaster and chronic needs. Vulnerability and loss and disruption are minimised through technical, social and economic measures such as pre-positioned plans and community capacity building for improving development. Action for students: Play a disaster simulation game from the UN/ISDR, click: 55 Contents

56 Disaster risk management cycle A hazard or disaster can be an opportunity to reduce vulnerability and minimize disruption of future hazards. Source: FLOODsite 19/images/graphs/task_17/flood_management _practice_UE.jpg 56 Contents

57 Hyogo Framework for Action In 2005 the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan agreed on a Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) to prioritize DRR on a global scale. I.Make DRR a priority at the national and local level with strong institutional basis for implementation. II.Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning, take action. III.Use knowledge, innovation and education to build awareness and a culture of safety and resilience at all levels. IV.Reduce the underlying risk factors. V.Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels, be ready to act. Source: UNISDR, 57 Contents

58 Millennium Development Goals The Hyogo Framework for Action ( ) observes that disaster risk reduction (DRR) is essential to achieve internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration. DRR matters because poor countries and communities have much lower capacity to reduce risk and are disproportionately affected. Source: 58 Contents

59 Objectives of mitigation Action for students: Use the words increase and decrease in the spaces where appropriate. Save lives ________ economic disruption ________ vulnerability _______ capacity _______ risk Risk Reduction Source: 59 Contents

60 Mitigation Primary mitigation Mitigation is about preventing hazards from becoming disasters or lessening their effects primarily through reducing vulnerability, as the hazards themselves largely cannot prevented or predicted. This can be done by minimizing the effects of disaster through building codes and zoning, public education and vulnerability analyses. In primary mitigation the presence of the hazard, where possible, and of the vulnerability is reduced. Secondary mitigation is intended to decrease the impact of the hazard through preparedness and planning. Source: WHO/EHA 2002, Disasters & Emergency definitions The Disaster Management Cycle, 60 Contents

61 Primary mitigation: Vulnerability analyses Vulnerability analysis has to take account of the nature of the settlement and its infrastructure, for example: Medium height buildings are more vulnerable than tall or single storey buildings. Masonry buildings are more vulnerable than wooden or steel framed buildings (albeit the fire risk is greater). The location of services (electricity, gas, water)may have an impact on potential damage. The design and size of roads and bridges etc will have an impact on evacuation, emergency access and potential loss of life. 61 Contents

62 Preparedness Secondary mitigation Secondary mitigation seeks to reduce the effects of the hazard through preparing and planning how to respond. Measures “ensure the organized mobilization of personnel, funds, equipment and supplies within a safe environment for effective relief.”(WHO/EHA 2002) For preparedness, these efforts include preparedness plans, emergency exercises and training; warning systems. In terms of response, measures such as search and rescue and emergency relief intend to minimize the hazards created by a disaster through search and rescue, emergency relief. Source: WHO/EHA 2002, Disasters & Emergency definitions; 62 Contents

63 Planning for earthquakes Planning for an earthquake is usually based on the assumption everything will be destroyed, for example, an earthquake of magnitude 8.0 or above in San Francisco would destroy everything. Earthquakes happen without warning and it is impossible to plan response activity in advance. Earthquakes are more likely (by a ratio of 3:1) during non working hours) Communication systems may well be damaged which will hamper response management. Aftershocks will cause additional damage, interfere with response efforts and cause anxiety in the population. 63 Contents

64 Government strategies Key strategies used by governments: Land use zoning Building regulations Evacuation drills Emergency service provision Further info: Federal Emergency Management Agency Fema (www.fema.gov) gives advice on how to copewww.fema.gov and prepare for events such as earthquakes. Los Angeles Fire department LAFD (www.lafd.org) gives advice on howwww.lafd.org to prepare for earthquakes. 64 Contents

65 Individual preparation: Grab bag in Japan.. 65 Contents Source:

66 Hamlet of Aneyoshi Photo by Jay Alabaster AP Ancient warning system In Japan, hundreds of centuries-old tablets – some over 600 years old - dot the coastline and form a crude warning system. The stone slab reads: “High dwellings are the peace and harmony of our descendants. Remember the calamity of the great tsunamis. Do not build any homes below this point.“ Source: 66 Contents

67 Modern early warning system Japan: satellite communication technology Japan is the World leader in Earthquake preparedness, the earthquake set off the Pacific Ocean Tsunami Warning System DART II and warned about a tsunami across the Pacific. The warnings were more coordinated than after the Indian Ocean Tsunami in 2004, so more people could evacuate to higher ground. Satellite communication has improved which has reduced the lag between data collection and warning. A recorder on the seabed that transmits data about anomalies to a buoy on the surface. Then the data is transmitted every 15 seconds via satellite to ground stations. But Japan had only planned and prepared for a 200 to 300-year tsunami, not a 1000 year one (1 in 1000 years). 67 Source: USGS and NOAA; warning-of-disasters-facts-and-figures/

68 Early Warning Systems and Damage Assessment Without prediction, there cannot be early warning. Early warning needs to be followed by action to make any difference. Even a lead time of a few seconds can allow some mitigating measures like shutting down gas supply lines. Government agencies must have emergency infrastructure, for example, working channels of communication in place in order to communicate warnings to local communities. (see Japan and Preparedness)Japan and Preparedness Early warning systems such as TriNet and ShakeMaps and damage assessment / prediction tools such as GPS, GIS mapping systems predict and illustrate probable damages from a number of disaster scenarios. Sources: Contents

69 Early warning response in Japan 69 Source: Contents

70 Mitigation and preparedness in LEDCs Mitigation measures especially long-term management of economic and urban development in seismic areas are less likely to be efficient or in place in less developed countries. People are more likely to settle in seismic areas and these tend to be densely populated with high occupancy buildings. Earthquake-proof building codes and by-laws are more likely to be inadequate, unenforced or non-existent, so the damage to property and human life is greater. Warning systems are absent or lacking. There tend to be lower awareness of risks, less public education and fewer drills, but even where people are aware, economic survival takes precedence over safety concerns. Public capacity to deal with search and rescue and mass casualties can be lower. 70 Contents

71 The Park Model Action for students: 1.Research Japan’s response after the Tohoku, Japan Earthquake and Tsunami (2011)using the graph you made for the short- and long-term impacts in Japan and Haiti as a starting point. How successfully does Japan cope with its susceptibility to tectonic hazards and reduce its risk? 2.Sketch a Park Model diagram for Haiti and Japan showing the speed of the drop in quality of life, duration of the decline, and speed and nature of recovery. 3.Compare and contrast Haiti and Japan’s response referring back to the Disaster Risk Reduction Model. 71 Contents

72 What for Japan and Haiti’s future? Action for students: How can Japan and Haiti cope with their vulnerability and exposure to natural hazards? 72 Contents

73 APPENDIX Logistician’s blog from Haiti International humanitarian system and assistance 73 Contents

74 Haiti Blog: Before the earthquake (1) Logistician, Port-au-Prince, Haiti Life progresses as usual here, but this is not a usual situation compared with my experiences back home. A pregnant woman arrived in the hospital yesterday and it was all hands on deck. We already had a full maternity ward, with patients on makeshift beds in the corridors. But what do you do when yet another one arrives who needs emergency care? I arrange for another bed packed beside the others and let the medics get on with their work. One emergency Caesarean Section later and mother and child are well. It's not just the emergencies that are exciting. All aspects of my work here are interesting. MSF is running a maternity hospital in the capital. There are no other facilities like it in Haiti at all and the statistics on mother and child health are still terrible. Maternal and infant mortality are especially high which is why MSF's emergency care for complicated deliveries is so important. My job is so varied. The infrastructure in Haiti is very poor, with basic services such as electricity, clean, running water and transport very unreliable. I make sure that the hospital has all of these, backing up electricity with our generators, servicing the water systems and running the fleet of cars MSF uses for transporting staff and patients alike. I also run the medical supply system which is a huge challenge, trying to get safe, certified medicines to the patients through our supply hub in Amsterdam. The cold chain is a particular challenge in this heat – many medicines must be kept between 2 and 8 C at all times and with unreliable electricity we use a system of fridges and cold boxes. The country is so poor which means MSF has to bring in virtually all its supplies. You cannot rely on anything being available which means planning months ahead. I have found this to be pretty tricky when you can't really predict how many patients you will have from one week to another! 74

75 Before the earthquake (2) And now a little about the country itself from what I have seen. Port-Au-Prince is a thriving, but very busy city with everything you might expect of a capital city in the developing world. There are markets everywhere and a huge contrast between rich and poor. The slums are very basic and house an amazing number of people, but this is also where the gangs are based. They control so much of the city and we struggle to get anything done when they are involved. People seem to get by though, working, trading and buying in the markets, fishing etc., although most live without basic services in the shanties and neighbourhoods. In the countryside it is a little different – Haiti is very densely populated and most of the forest has been cut down to provide building materials and wood for making charcoal to cook with. One of the most amazing sights is the border with Dominican Republic where you can physically see the line of trees that signifies the Dominican side. The country is hilly and exposed to all manner of natural disaster – in the last 10 years they have seen hurricanes, deforestation, flooding and earthquakes, all of which make it a very precarious place to live. All in all, we manage to make things work OK here. MSF manages to provide emergency care to mothers and children in a place where it would otherwise not exist. It is hard work, but we still manage to have some fun and just sharing all of this with our national staff and being part of our patients' lives is very rewarding. I saw the mother and baby who I made the makeshift bed for this morning and they are both well. It makes all the hard work worthwhile. 75 Contents

76 Immediately after the earthquake (1) I simply don't have time to write, and I don't know where to start, but I must update you briefly about what has happened. Also to say that I am OK, but so many are not. Two days ago the earth shook and changed the face of this already struggling country. It is not an overestimation to say that virtually everything has been destroyed. We do not have much information about what has really happened because all the communication except satellite phones are down. I can send this via the sat link, but we only download once a day. The reports we have had are only from our staff, many of whom are still missing. Some of my international colleagues were missing for a time, but are now all accounted for. We know that most homes have collapsed, the hospital is almost totally destroyed and many of our patients and staff are under the rubble. We hear that rescue operations will begin tomorrow, but little is known. There is total chaos here. We have been without water and electricity since the earthquake, but I have managed to get some basics sorted out. We are still using our emergency water supplies and I simply don't know when they will be replenished. I have rigged up some basic electricity using our small back up generators, but we only have a limited amount of fuel for them. 76 Contents

77 Immediately after the earthquake (2) Everyone is in shock: roads are blocked, essential services are destroyed and we now have to make sense of the situation and work out how we can help in the best way possible. There are so many things to do. We must work out how to treat the wounded, how to get clean water (not just for ourselves, but also the entire population in the city), how to get supplies in as the port and airport are both closed. And what about our existing patients in the maternity hospital? Babies will no doubt still be born and who will look after the complicated deliveries? To be honest, we are completely overwhelmed here, but we must work out at least where to start. I have just heard a report that there maybe thousands of people buried under the rubble. That means that sadly many will be dead and many more injured. Right now we are not set up to provide medical or humanitarian care to these people so I must focus on rebuilding our facilities and getting more emergency supplies into the country. I have very little idea how the Haitian people are coping with the tragedy and the mess. Some of our staff have made it in today and have told us about how their shanties have been flattened, but people are busy rebuilding them already. The trouble is that with rubble everywhere and no supplies coming into the country, nothing can get to the neighbourhoods. Food is already short and water can only be obtained from old wrecked piping. People are still pulling friends and neighbours out of the rubble. No news has come in yet about the situation in the countryside, but we do know that the epicentre of the quake was right in Port-au-Prince. We have to hope that some of the outlying areas were spared, but I just don't know. There is so much to be done and I have to work with colleagues to prioritise the most essential things first. Which means I have to go....! 77 Contents

78 Six months after (1) Haiti is still such a mess. The immediate emergency of the earthquake has passed, but there is still so much to do. Essential services remain in very poor repair and the challenges I faced pre-earthquake are still there. They just feel multiplied a hundred times because now we have a whole catalogue of new problems. As you all know, the death toll was horrific, but the mess that remains challenges us to the limit. The emergency wounded have been tended to, but we still have awful orthopaedic cases that we see and there will continue to be lots of rehabilitation necessary. Basic services have broken down and supplies have been so limited we have also become aware of a problem with people living with HIV/AIDS as their essential medication is very short supply. The maternity hospital is, mercifully, up and running to the best of our abilities. I have worked round the clock to help a huge team construct a new hospital out of container like units and we have managed to get the essential medical equipment and supplies from Amsterdam. In some ways things have stabilised and I now feel that we have a bit of time to reflect on the last few months. It has been very traumatic, not least of which has been coming to terms with the death of some of our staff and their families. 78 Contents

79 Six months after (2) If cholera comes to Haiti it could be horrific. The population is still in shock from the earthquake and the destruction it caused, but this would be too much for them. MSF has lots of experience around the world at dealing with cholera, but in this place it would be so hard to deal with, given the lack of infrastructure. The other problem is security. The earthquake created a situation where people had to fend for themselves and we have seen a return to the gang culture that plagued the country pre- earthquake. The gangs control everything and even we, as MSF, have to negotiate this situation. The gangs do not think twice about using violence if they do not get their own way and this has complicated our work immeasurably. There are times when it simply is not safe enough to go out and do your job. Just yesterday I had planned to go and check the water supply for one of our community clinics, but we received word from the local gang that they controlled the water supply and threatened me if I went to check it. How do we know they are doing it well? What are they charging people who have nothing for clean water? What are the health implications if people are forced to use water from the stream? I have no answers to these questions, but I still have the responsibility of ensuring that people have clean water. Now that things have settled down a bit life has slowly resumed in Port-au-Prince. The markets are running again and I see people picking through the rubble to get about. Some of the roads have been cleared so people can move about more freely and the air and seaports are running as before the quake. Many of the shanty buildings have been put together again, but the bigger houses are still as they were, in ruins. 79 Contents

80 Six months after (3) Some construction has begun again, but not a lot. The good news is that produce can get into the city from the countryside so food is a little more available, but as it is so expensive, many people cannot afford the basics. So many people are still living in tents, given by the aid agencies, and surviving on handout food, water and cooking facilities. There is not a patch of green in the city any more, as all the parks, even the golf course, have been used as camps for people who lost everything. Before I go, I just want to tell you about one amazing thing that has come out of the disaster, which we have used quite a lot to help us work. It seems that a bunch of computer users from around the world have been analysing satellite mapping data from various sources, and mapping the movements of people. For example, they can tell us where isolated groups of tents have been set up so that the aid community can reach them. They can also tell us when people are taking long diversions to reach certain destinations due to road blockages, which helps to clear the important routes. It's been amazing to know that people from their own homes, all over the world, have been helping with the mapping efforts that have been so useful to us on the ground. I have to say I am looking forward to the end of my assignment next month as I am now completely exhausted. It is just so hard to work so many hours for so long, but what alternative is there when the needs around you are so great. I have learned so much in my time here, but there is so much still to do. How will this place ever recover? 80 Contents

81 International humanitarian system UN System UNHCR, OCHA, WFP, Unicef, WHO and others ICRC / Red Cross Movement Non-governmental organisations Donor Community 81 Contents

82 UN System OCHA = Office of the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs UNHCR = Organisations for refugees*, not IDPs** WFP = World Food Programme Unicef = Children, often health WHO = primarily support Ministry of Health (MoH) * Refugee: a person who has crossed a national border to another country to escape conflict or persecution. About 15.2 million worldwide according to UN Refugee Agency. ** IDP: an internally displaced person seeks refuge from violence or disaster within the borders of the own country. IDPs outnumber refugees by more than two to one, but no single UN or other international agency has responsibility for responding to internal displacement. About 26.4 million worldwide according to Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre. 82 Contents

83 Red Cross Movement ICRC = International Committee of the Red Cross IFRC = International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies National Red Crescent and Red Cross Societies 83 Contents

84 NGOs Non-profit, voluntary citizens’ group performing a variety of services and humanitarian functions International NGOs Varying degrees of independence Multi-mandate agencies Church-related agencies Specialised like medical niche players or organisations targeting vulnerable people Local NGOs 84 Contents

85 Humanitarian Principles: International humanitarian Law There is a set of humanitarian principles. International humanitarian Law designed to minimise the negative impact of war (while paradoxically accepting it) Geneva Convention, other treaties, customary law that deals with methods or means of warfare and the protection of civilian populations Speaking out ( témoignage) against violations of humanitarian law forms part of MSF’s mission. Not the same as ≠Principles of humanitarian action ≠Human Rights Law, which is embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights applies to all people at all times, whether or not there is war, or whether or not they are civilians. 85 Contents

86 Humanitarian Principles: Principles of humanitarian action Humanitarian principles illustrated by Médecins Sans Frontières Humanity: MSF is “committed to bringing quality medical care to people in crisis regardless of their race, religion, or political affiliation.” Impartiality: its “work is based on the humanitarian principles of medical ethics and impartiality.” Independence: “MSF operates independently of any political, military, or religious agendas. Medical teams conduct evaluations on the ground to determine a population's medical needs before opening programs, aiming to fill gaps that exist (rather than replicating services that are already offered) or reach communities that are not being assisted. The key to MSF’s ability to act independently in response to a crisis is its independent funding. Ninety percent of MSF's overall funding (and 100 percent of MSF-USA's funding) comes from private, non-governmental sources. In 2009, MSF had 3.8 million individual donors and private funders worldwide.” Neutrality: “As an organization, MSF is neutral. It does not take sides in armed conflicts, provides care on the basis of need alone, and pushes for increased independent access to victims of conflict as required under international humanitarian law.” Source: Doctors Without Borders, 86 Contents

87 Humanitarian assistance Complex relationship between humanitarian assistance and political action Constantly need to define and question the purpose of humanitarian action, its operational principles and relationship with other actors like military, governments and aid agencies. Contextual differences, time pressure and fast-changing situations on the ground are challenging. The multiplicity of agencies and actors, often independent, can make coordinated and effective action harder. Emergencies can polarise objectives and it can be difficult to be objective. Further issues can arise because of refugees and internally displaced people and public health emergencies. 87 Contents

88 Priorities of natural disaster response Areas that are recognized as priorities in humanitarian interventions and that evaluations often flag as shortcomings in operations: Linking relief, recovery and development; Mapping and monitoring needs and target groups; Synergy between local, national and international capacities; Coordination of humanitarian actors and projects; Disaster Preparedness and vulnerability reduction. Evaluation is “systematic and impartial examination of humanitarian action intended to draw lessons to improve policy and practice and enhance accountability.” Source: Assessing the Quality of Humanitarian Evaluations, The Alnap Quality Proforma, Humanitarian response To Natural Disasters: A Synthesis of Evaluation Findings, 88 Contents

89 APPENDIX Further info on Haiti 89 Contents

90 Haiti before 2010 Haiti pre-earthquake: First independent republic in Caribbean, it rebels against slavery and overthrows colonial rule in 1804, but remains affected by it. After 1804, history of two-caste society continues with mixed-race descendants taking place of French elites. Mulattos dominate the black population and Haiti’s politics and economy. Dictatorships and coup d’etats, violence and instability entrench a notoriously inefficient and corrupt government and economy as well as a culture of social unrest. Armed rebellion forces President Jean-Bertrand Aristide out of office in In 2006 democratically elected president and parliament finally elected. Add to this environmental degradation and the potential of the mountainous tropical island as a tourist destination is ruined. Source: 90 Contents

91 Haiti: Republic of NGOs Why has Haiti been called the Republic of NGOs? In mid 2000s international community establishes its cooperation to help the fragile state. The over 3,000 NGOs in a population of 10 million exploded to an estimated 10,000 after the 2010 earthquake; it’s an estimate, as most are not registered. They provide most of the services like healthcare and education and development efforts, expertise and funding not provided by the government. They can be perceived as more stable and accountable than the Haitian government. Most like government are concentrated in Port-au-Prince and urban areas, meaning that there is little support from NGOs and government for sustainable livelihoods in rural communities. Most NGOs are in relief during acute emergencies (like MSF) or reconstruction and development (like Oxfam). To use a metaphor, the former tends to give out fish to keep people alive, while the latter later teaches to them fish. The scope of the problems is beyond the mandate and capacity international assistance. International assistance can include other nations, armies, international agencies, non-governmental organisations, foreign philanthropists and volunteers. Developed and wealthy nations are less likely to require or request foreign aid in the wake of a disaster than less developed ones. Source: Great Eastern Japan Earthquake, “http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/05/the-great-eastern-japan-earthquake-assessing-disaster-response-and-lessons-for-the-us” 91 Contents

92 Chronic housing issues in Haiti Suitability or availability of land; sprawling informal suburbs and slums; failing or non-existent infrastructure. Sites not cleared of rubble. ‘Build Back Better Requirements’, which cost more, demand technological know how and take time. Land tenure issues mean that international and local non- governmental organisations (NGOs) are struggling to identify and get permission to build homes in alternative residential areas. Government is stalling on land reform, tenure and ownership legislation; there is lack of clarity about ownership of land and Haitian elites are not cooperating as landowners. Translating an urban development strategy into practice. People are unwilling to leave Port-au-Prince because of inability to make a living outside of the capital in spite of incentivized government rural relocation programs. Source: 92 Contents

93 Examples of Crowdsourcing - Haiti Ushahidi (www.ushahidi.com) is an open source platform for mapping in emergencies that was set up during election violence in Kenya in 2007 and was used extensively in Haiti.www.ushahidi.com Through Open source mapping like a Wikipedia-like site, amateur map makers could update maps faster following the earthquake than the US Department of Defense. Armchair disaster relief agents around the world edited maps and information about Haiti to assist aid workers.www.openstreetmap.org Action for students: 1.Watch the “What is Ushahidi” video 2.Discuss: the future – an opensource system that does not rely on an existing interface and can truly develop in an impromptu way when emergency needs occur? Source: Contents

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95 MSF: Contact us or find out more Visit our website: About MSF: us: Find us on facebook: Follow us on Twitter: Follow us on You tube: The MSF movement was awarded the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize. 95 Contents


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