4This book became central to the Surrealist movement. At the beginning of the 20th century the study of psychology – the workings of the mind – was developing. In 1919 Dr Sigmund Freud published a book called The Interpretation of Dreams, which claimed that dreams symbolically express our underlying desires.Freud identified a part of the human mind where memories and our most basic instincts are stored and, because we are mostly unaware of it, called it the unconscious.This book became central to the Surrealist movement.
5The Manifesto of Surrealism A group of artists and writers drew on ideas of Dada & Sigmund Freud and began the Surrealist movement. In 1924, Andre Breton wrote his Manifesto of Surrealism explaining their aims and beliefs.
6Definition of Surrealism according to Breton: SURREALISM, n. Pure psychic automatism, by which we propose to express, verbally, in writing, or by any other means, the real process of thought. Thought dictated in the absence of all control exerted by reason, and outside all aesthetic or moral preoccupations.
7The Definition of Surrealism In French, Surrealism means ‘above realism’ or ‘beyond reality’ – in other words, ‘more than real’.
8Techniques of the Surrealists The Surrealist artists adopted various techniques to unlock the unconscious mind, casting aside traditional methods of creating art and challenging usual ways of production.E.g. Exquisite Corpse
9Surrealism -- Two Directions Group 1: Veristic Surrealism Max Ernst, Salvador Dali & Rene Magritte painted dream-like images – technically skilful, their works are often illogical. - Dali called his pictures ‘hand-painted dream photographs’The Eye of Silence by Max Ernst
11Surrealism -- Two Directions Group 2: Automatism Automatism – the Surrealist term for Freud’s technique of free association, which he used to reveal the unconscious minds of his patients. Joan Miro and Andre Masson were amongst this group, which worked instinctively: not thinking about what was being created, but letting the unconscious take over. Any material could be used and the resulting colours and shapes should express underlying feelings and emotions.Harlequin’s Carnival by Joan Miro1924-5Card Trick by Andre Masson1923
12Belgian painter, one of the leading Surrealists RENE MAGRITTEBelgian painter, one of the leading SurrealistsPainted illogical images with startling clarity.~ Magritte’s style:- Placed everyday objects in absurd settings- Juxtaposed familiar sights in unnatural contexts- The challenging images in Magritte's works stem from revelations of the mystery of the visible world. "My painting is visible images which conceal nothing; It does not mean anything, because mystery means nothing either, it is unknowable" - said Rene Magritte. Ren� Fran腔is Ghislain Magritte was born on 21 November 1898 in Lessines, Belgium.Painting had always seemed "vaguely magical" to him. Magritte studied at the Acad士ie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels for two years until 1918.In 1922 Magritte got married with Georgette Berger, whom he had met at the age of fifteen and met again at in Magritte was inspired by Georgette and she became his model.Magritte produced his first surrealist painting, Le jockey perdu in 1926, and held his first exhibition in Brussels in 1927.Magritte's simplicity is misleading. Magritte chose ordinary things from which to construct his works - trees, chairs, tables, doors, windows, shoes, shelves, landscapes, people.Magritte's work frequently contains a juxtaposition of objects or an unusual context giving new meanings to familiar things.Magritte shared the Surrealist concept of the power of desire and eroticism and wanted to translate this idea through unconventional images.Magritte's work was shown in the United States in New York in 1936.In 1965 a large retrospectives of Magritte's work was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York and at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1992, a manifestation of his worldwide recognition.
13Magritte:* Painted things as they look to us, but in situations where neither they nor we could occur and then added titles which accompany them in the way that names correspond to objects without either illustrating or explaining them.Personal ValuesGolconde
14The Difficult Crossing 1926 Rene MagritteThe Difficult Crossing1926What do you see?What do you think about that?What does it make you wonder?
15Rene Magritte The Reckless Sleeper 1927 What do you see? What do you think about that?What does it make you wonder?
16What do you think about that? What does it make you wonder? Rene MagritteThe Red Model1934What do you see?What do you think about that?What does it make you wonder?
17Rene MagritteTime Transfixed1938What do you see?What do you think about that?What does it make you wonder?
18Rene MagritteHomesickness1940What do you see?What do you think about that?What does it make you wonder?
19Rene MagrittePersonal Values1952What do you see?What do you think about that?What does it make you wonder?
20What do you think about that? What does it make you wonder? Rene MagritteSignature in Blank1965What do you see?What do you think about that?What does it make you wonder?
22Rene MagritteTreason of images(This is not a pipe)1929
23Treason of images(This is not a pipe)1929On a oil painting, wrote in large letters “this is not a pipe”, which, of course, it isn’t. It is a picture of a pipe, but as a picture, an image, its reality is different from a pipe’s.
25* A canvas stands on an easel in front of a view through a window. - Canvas has a picture of what we assume to be the view.* Illustrates the contradiction between three-dimensional space which objects actually occupy and the two-dimensional plane of the canvas used to represent them.* Pun in the painting: Since Renaissance, pictures had been purported to be ‘windows’ opening on to reality.~ Easel and canvas are realistically painted.~ Intensifies the question: is the landscape real or painted?The Human Condition1934
26The Human Condition1934* On the aims of this painting:“I placed in front of a window a painting representing exactly that part of the landscape hidden from view by the painting. So the tree in the painting obscured the tree behind it outside. It existed for the spectator simultaneously in his mind and outside in the real landscape. This is how we see the world -- as being outside ourselves, even though it is only a mental picture of what we experience inside ourselves.”- Magritte
28Rene MagritteThe Son of Man1964Magritte said that the painting just shows us about humanity. He says that everything we see hides some other thing yet we still want to see what is hidden by what we see. There is always some sort of interest in what is hidden and what the visible does not show us. This brings about some sort of conflict between the visible that is present and the visible that is hidden.
29* Eliminated conventional expectations Some ways which Magritte used to give the ‘shocking’ quality in his works?* Eliminated conventional expectations1. Exploit astonishing discrepancies of scale.2. Deny the law of gravity.3. Endow an item with a different material /substance that in reality is not associated with the original
30~ Aim: To project the world of dreams as convincingly as possible. SALVADOR DALi- Spanish painter.~ Aim: To project the world of dreams as convincingly as possible.- From childhood, he was subjected to hallucinations & acts of sudden & uncontrollable violence.
31* Important works created between 1929 to 1939. * 1929: Joined the Surrealists.* Important works created between 1929 to 1939.- Developed his ‘paranoiac-critical’ method.~ Proposed ‘a paranoiac and active advance of mind’ which would release from the unconscious, images of force and power that they in turn would react upon it, thereby affecting the deepest sources of individual & social action.The Invisible Man
32The Persistence of Memory Salvador DaliThe Persistence of Memory193124 cm x 33 cm
33The Metamorphosis of Narcissus The Metamorphosis of Narcissus193751 cm x 76 cm
34Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition of Civil War 1936
37~ The surprise effect of Dali’s work depends on his presentation of incongruities in a meticulous, miniature-like technique.- Dali’s paintings were a direct transcription of things envisioned in a dream-like or trance-like state.Time Transfixed1938