2Technological Innovations Identify the following:Bessemer ProcessAlexander Graham BellTelephoneThomas EdisonElias HoweElisha OtisChristopher SholesOrville and Wilbur WrightTranscontinental Railroad Free Enterprise System National Market Corporation Shareholder
3American industrialization proceeded at a rapid pace in the years after the Civil War. Steam and electricity replaced human and animal strengthIron replaced wood and steel replaced iron
4Bessemer ProcessBessemer Process made the production of steel ore economical.Before 1 Day =5 tonsAfter 15 minutes = 5 tons
5Steam PowerPowered textile millsPneumatic drills were able to cut deeper into the earthCoal mining1860 – 14 million tons1884 – 100 million tons
6Oil Petroleum products were first used for lighting and lubrication. Internal combustion engine developed at the end of the nineteenth century was used gasoline to run cars and the first airplanes.
7Commercial Use of Electricity First used as means of communication.Thomas Edison developed the first light bulbElectricity would be used to power streetcars, subway trains, refrigerators and elevators
8Growth of RailroadsDuring the Civil War a northern route for the transcontinental railroad was agreed on.Two groups of laborers worked on the rail lineOne from California to the East and the other from the Missouri to the WestBuilt by Chinese immigrantsPaid $26 – 35$ a monthMet at Promontory Point, UtahOther routes soon followed.
9Development of a National Market Linking railroads, canals, telegraphs and telephones led to the creation of a national market.Shipping was much less expensiveNew methods of selling were developedDepartment storesChain storesMail-order houses.More advertising.
10Population Growth Statistics 1850 – 23 million Americans Caused by birth rate and constant stream of EuropeansDemand for goods increasedNo shortage of laborBut also placed increasing demands on resources.
11New Types of Business Organization Before the Civil War most businesses were owned by individuals.After the Civil War corporations were formedCorporations are charted by the government and recognized as an individual personCorporations issue stocks to individual investors making them share holders.
12Free Enterprise System Read the section on the Free Enterprise System on p Be prepared to discuss.
13Review DiscussionTo what extent did technology, railroads, the free enterprise system, the rise of national markets, and population each play a role in making the United States an industrial giant. Support your answer with historical evidence. Create a chart or Venn diagram listing the advantages and disadvantages of the corporate form of business organization.
14Entrepreneurship and philanthropy Terms: Entrepreneur “Gilded Age” “Captains of Industry” Robber Barons” Andrew Carnegie John D. Rockefeller Monopoly
15EntrepreneurPerson or group that forms a business in order to make a profit.Large scale production let to lower prices and improved quality.Many entrepreneurs during the period amassed a large amount of wealthBecause of their lavish lifestyles, the period became known as the “Gilded Age”.
16“Captains of Industry” vs “Robber Barons” Supporters called them “Captains of Industry”.Opponents called them “Robber Barons”.
17Andrew Carnegie Started as poor Irish immigrant Became head of the Carnegie Steel Corporation in 1892Developed a monopoly by undercutting the competition.Owned all the methods of production (Vertical Consolidation)Spent his later days in acts of philanthropy and gave away $350 million to build libraries and endow universities.
18John D. Rockefeller Monopolized the oil industry Oil Refining (turns crude oil into useful products) in Cleveland , OhioUsed to make kerosene to burn in lamps in place of whale oil.Company became a “trust” and then a monopoly that controlled the entire industry.In 1892 government forced him to break his company up into smaller units.Like Carnegie gave much of his fortune away.
19Andrew CarnegieUse your text book or your electronic devices to gather as much information as you can about Andrew Carnegie. Create bullet points of the facts that are relative to the industrialization of America.View and discuss the video: “Homestead Strike” from the History Channel series 10 DAYS THAT UNEXPECTEDLY CHANGED AMERICA.Study sheets will be provided.
20Big Business Consolidation Terms: Economic Depression Consolidate Laissez-faire Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Interstate Commerce Commission Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) Free Enterprise Trust / Monopoly Conspiracy Complete the handout on the Pros and Cons of Big Business
21Government Control of the Economy At first the government did little to regulate big business (laissez- faire)The government did:Provide laws to protect property and enforce contracts.Establish a system of patents to promote inventions.Enact tariffs to help manufacturersMost people wanted as little interference as possible . Felt it destroyed the concept of “Free Enterprise”.
22Anti-competitive practices Became so blatant that reformers called for legislation to remedy them.This increased the government control of business.For the first time business received rules.
23Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Farmers felt rates were unfair. Larger companies had better rates.States had passed laws against it but the Supreme Court had declared them unconstitutional.Only the U.S. Congress has the write to regulate interstate commerce.Interstate Commerce ActProhibits unfair practices by railroadsSets up the Interstate Commerce Commission to enforce the lawLandmark measure marks he first time that Congress stepped in to regulate business in America.
24Sherman Anti-Trust Act Purpose was to stop monopolies engaging in unfair practices thatprevented fair competition.Marks a significant change in the attitude of Congress toward the abuses of big business.Sherman Anti-Trust Act, Section 1:“Every contract, combination in the form of a trust or otherwise a conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the states is declared to be illegal. Every person who shall engage in any combination or conspiracy declared to be illegal shall be deemed guilty of a felony.”Do you think this legislation helped or hindered the American economy? Explain your answer with logical reasoning and historical evidence.
25The Conditions of Labor Terms: Child Labor Labor Unions Knights of Labor AFL Samuel Gompers Strikes Homestead Strike, 1892 Terrence Powderly Closed shop Haymarket Affair
26Working Conditions were bad Long HoursLow WagesPoor ConditionsBoring and repetitive tasksChild LaborLack of job security
27Rise of UnionsAs companies grew and the number of laborers increased, individual workers lost all bargaining power with employers.Unions were formed to speak for the group and not the individual.Strikes and other methods of protest were organized.Owners like Andrew Carnegie shut down factories of hired immigrants in order to “break “ the union. (Homestead,1892)Knights of Labor was first (Terrence Powderly) . Too loosely organized and fell apart.American Federation of Labor (AFL) founded by Samuel Gompers in United workers in similar economic interests. Skilled and unskilled workers were represented in different groups..AFL focused on changing the system to improve for workers.By less than 5% of American workers were unionized.
28Government’s attitude toward unions Most government leaders favored business and opposed unions for a number of reasons:Business leaders often contributed heavily to political campaign funds.Felt that successful businesses resulted in economic prosperity.Feared the disruptive effect of strikes on American economy.Applied the Sherman Anti-trust Act against Labor Unions.Public still believed in laissez-faire. Union activities were often associated with violence and radical ideas.