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Introduction to the Unconscious Friday 28 th October 2012 10.30 - 4.30pm PC414.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Unconscious Friday 28 th October 2012 10.30 - 4.30pm PC414."— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction to the Unconscious Friday 28 th October 2012 10.30 - 4.30pm PC414

3 Administration The Building Feedback Forms

4 Adrian Scott MSc Senior MBACP Accredited 07956 292 740

5 Paper Free! pdf files on website Skills -menu Please respect the copyright – Do not share 07956 292 740

6 My Experience MBACP Senior Accredited Counsellor MBACP Senior Accredited Supervisor for Individuals and Groups Managed Counselling services in Voluntary Sector Bereaved, Homeless, Mental health, Carers

7 My Experience Diploma in Psychodynamic Counselling 1995 Highgate Counselling Centre BACP Accred Snr. Counsellor / Supervisor

8 Expert Not a guru or unconscious expert Do not know everything Ideas to be Debated / Challenged

9 Other City Literary Courses Introduction to Psychodynamic Counselling Working with Bereavement Living through Bereavement

10 Morning Session 10.40Introduction 10.55 Icebreaker Exercise 11.40Break 12.00History & Theory of the Unconscious 1pm Lunch

11 Afternoon Session 2pm Unconscious Exercise 2.45pmBreak 3pmHistory & Theory of the Unconscious 3.30 Case Examples - Video 4.15Round Up / Administration 4.30End

12 Your Experience & Ideas Examples

13 Audio Visual Short clips The Young Dr Freud – 50mins Cardiff Primary School – Tavistock Clinic Organisational Case Study- 40mins Freud Dream Case Study: The Wolfman - Radio Adaption 60mins Critical Analysis of Case of Dora – 25 mins

14 Learning Outcomes An Understanding of some of the History of the Unconscious An Understanding of some of the Theory of the Unconscious An Understanding of some of your own Unconscious

15 The Day Wide range of skills in the room Hope you all get something out of it I am not an expert on The Unconscious Encourage you to have your own view

16 Boundaries Look after yourselves the Unconscious can be a difficult and emotive subject Do not say anything you do not want to say. This is not a therapy group! Confidentiality Agreement - All information should be kept to this room and with this group of people.

17 Late Arrivals Late arrivals will introduce themselves to the group at a convenient break in the day Agree to confidentiality A Tension

18 Icebreaker Exercise Ask Your Colleague: 1. What brought you here? 2. What is your interest and experience of the subject? 3. What do you want from the day? You will be asked to briefly and concisely to report back what your colleague has told you to the group, and check with your colleague how you did!

19 What do you want from the Day? Are there any Topics, Issues, that you would like to focus or discuss today? Write on flip chart

20 10-15 minute Break

21 Theory of the Unconscious

22 Our Relationship to Theory

23 The Theory Tool Guide

24 History Overview Ancient cultures Magnetism Dynamic Psychiatry Hypnotism

25 Theory Overview Freud How the Unconscious works Nervous System Dreams Freud’s Dream Carl Jung

26 Introduction to the Unconscious How do I introduce the unconscious? Like air – feel but not see? Light and shadow? Scepticism – it doesn’t exist?

27 Use of Unconscious Can be used by anyone A reason to rationalise their own or other people’s bad behaviour To rationalise strange behaviour and events

28 Everyday Link to the Unconscious Unconscious / Freud Freudian slip Dreams Free Association Meditation Childhood Marketing / Selling / Business Self Development


30 Agreement on what it is? As we go about everyday life Another force or energy Contributes to our decisions

31 Happy If we are happy the Unconscious becomes less relevant If we are unhappy – modern distractions do not work The unconscious can be a way of understanding upset

32 Unconscious Revealed? 2 people sitting in a room Talking Cure? No answer – a journey

33 Unconscious Revealed? One person (practitioner) holds onto their Unconscious Empty Space Other person’s unconscious revealed

34 Results of revealing the Unconscious ? - No Cure? Not magically happier Able to accept ourselves Accept History we experienced Not told how we experienced history

35 Unconscious Unknown No one’s unconscious can be known Not even our own Are we able to reflect on what the unconscious is at any one time?????

36 History of the Unconscious Been around since human life began Not called Unconscious Familiar to ancient cultures

37 Recording the History of the Unconscious Oral Histories Recording scientifically relatively modern Recording started around 1770s

38 Ancient Healers Healers in Ancient Cultures worked with After life Dark Side Spirit World The Unconscious (western male construct)

39 Shaman Philosophical Teachings/ Treatments Accounts of miracle cures by Shaman Little interest from psychiatrists Interest only to historians /anthropologists

40 Medicine Man Medicine man seen as superstitious, ignorant Dangerous imposters tricking their people Modern Psychotherapy focused attention on psychological healing (evidence based) Example

41 Practices Drugs, ointments, massage, diet Searching for a lost soul Extraction of disease / foreign body Expulsion of evil spirits Oral records lost disappearance of tribal cultures due to modernisation

42 Soul Link to the unconscious Soul is lost - Healer searches for it, brings it back and puts it into the original body Soul separated itself from body when person fainted, or slept

43 Dreams / Visions In dreams and visions sees shapes different when he’s awake Illustrate theory that a man has a ghost inside them / soul duplicate person Able to leave his body and wonder about during sleep

44 Creeping towards Freud

45 Soul Soul might lost its way be injured, or separated from the body When the sleeper is awakened Treatment consists of returning the lost soul to the body

46 Extraction of Disease Object Extraction of disease actually piece of bone, pebble, small animal Europeans thought this was a fraud But part of elaborate ceremony songs magical gestures Played out in front of an audience Culminates in a dramatic ending

47 Held in the Relationship Healer’s faith in their own abilities Patients’ faith in the healers’ abilities Healer must be acknowledged by social group

48 Shaman & Drama Audience Theatrical Showman

49 Possession Common illness Expel spirit mechanically bleeding, beating, whipping the patient Transferring the spirit into another being – animal Driving spirit out with incantations

50 Exorcism Important healing procedure Still practiced Modern dynamic psychotherapy has evolved Performed in a ceremony rites, costumes, music and dance Similar to Western Ceremonial Healings Holy shrines – Lourdes etc

51 Hypnosis and Healing Hypnotic states in ancient medicine not used in healing Called Magical healing – 1. Disease cured by removed of the cause 2. Prevention by magical actions through talismans

52 The Healer Professional status with chief, priest Faith and hope in healer rather than medications, techniques Acquired status with long arduous training Partly psychological Public and collective procedure Patient attended to by family

53 Rise of Religion Catholic Confession performed with priest in secrecy Banned by Protestantism Tradition of “Curing Souls” emerged Obtain confession of disturbing secret from distressed souls

54 Science End of 16 th Century Move from observation and deduction To experimentation and measurement

55 Medicine Medicine became a branch science Psychiatry a branch of medicine Psychotherapy an application of psychiatry Becomes skill and specialism Excluded ancient medicines - unproven in medical terms

56 Emergence of Modern Dynamic Psychiatry Derived from ancient medicine – exorcism, magnetism, hypnotism Healers and Psychoanalysts both use their personality as a therapeutic tool Long personal training including own analysis

57 Turning Point

58 Age of Enlightenment Originating about 1650 to 1700 Cultural Movement of intellectuals in 18th century Reform society using reason (rather than tradition, faith and revelation) and advance knowledge through science. Promoted science and intellectual interchange and opposed superstition intolerance and some abuses by church and state.

59 Johan Gassner 1727 -1779 Austria 1775 Famous priest well know for exorcisms and healings Times against him - Before Age of Enlightenment 1700 Opposition to his work

60 Franz Mesmer 1734-1815 Doctor who invented “animal magnetism” Similar to Gassner – no Exorcism Made his practice acceptable to authorities “Curing the sick is not enough: you must cure them with methods accepted by the community”

61 Franz Mesmer 1734-1815 Rejected mystical theory Rational Explanation Physical concepts (psychology not invented) Links to ancient healers – used his personality Ideas rejected – fell into obscurity

62 Phillipe-Paul Segur 1780-1873 New Magnetism Perfect Crisis waking state and amnesia Lucidity of patients to self diagnose Called Mesmerising Magnetism not acknowledged by scientific authorities

63 Spiritism The survival of a spirit after death Automatic writing from a subconscious, external, spiritual source without conscious awareness of the content. Explore the unconscious

64 1 st Dynamic Psychiatry 1775-1900 Magnetism and Hypnosis - reveal the unconscious Disease of Hysteria New model of the mind conscious – unconscious

65 Hypnosis Concerns about power relationship Hypnotiser was male Hypontised were attractive and female Rel. between Hypnotiser was male Hypontised

66 Hypnosis Patient gained a Keen perception Patient able to self-diagnose Age regression - childhood Patient related stories as a child

67 Hypnosis & Drama Audience Theatrical Showman

68 Hypnosis Video

69 Hysteria Strange incomprehensible disease for 2500 years Originated in uterus - later found in men Easily provoked by hypnosis - Cured by hypnosis

70 Hysteria Theory - frustrated sexual desires Hallucinations & actions of patient under hypnosis re-enactment of psychic trauma Eg escaping dangerous situation Violent sexual events – rape, repressed sexual desires, secret wishes

71 Hysteria Strange incomprehensible disease for 2500 years Originated in uterus - later found in men Easily provoked by hypnosis - Cured by hypnosis

72 Creeping towards Freud

73 The Rapport / Relationship Constant throughout History Relationship between magnetiser and magnetised Word ‘Rapport’ from physics – people in a chain with electricity passing through them Hypnotiser’s Sensitivity to what was being said Patients belief in Hypnotiser

74 The Rapport / Relationship Big improvement in symptoms under hypnosis Patients feelings towards hypnotiser passionate, maternal love Phase where patient had to be detached from this state

75 Turning Point

76 New Threshold

77 A New World in 1880s

78 Europe 1880s Rise of New Nation States Increase in progress, sciences, industry, commerce Stable economy Money – do anything, go anywhere – no passports!

79 Europe 1880s Male domination World shaped by men for men – women 2 nd place Positive traits - Ambition, Aggressiveness Beards, aggressive sports - fashionable

80 The Others In every scientific discovery, political movement, there are people who are less well known but without them the subject would not have been discovered and recognised Jean Charcot Pierre Janet Josef Breuer

81 Jean Charcot 1825-1893 Studied neurological diseases in Salpetriere Asylum in Vienna. Freud studied under him 1882 Revitalised Hypnosis’s reputation – clinical demonstrations to audiences Showed medical establishment that psychiatry could include functional disorders with no biological explanation

82 Pierre Janet 1859-1947 Practiced in Paris Period of Depression at 15 years old Professor at 22 years old Studied hysterical women rediscovered the work of Segur

83 Pierre Janet 1859-1947 Three Rules 1. Always examine patient himself 2. Take exact record of what patient said 3. Study patient’s whole life and treatments

84 Pierre Janet Under Hypnosis Patient played two roles under Hypnosis:- 1. Patient wanted to please hypnotiser 2. Patient had unknown personality returning to childhood

85 Pierre Janet Psychological Automatism Natural for ideas to develop into art In Doctor/patient rapport he discovered distortion of the patient’s world Hysterical symptoms relate to split parts of personality, acting autonomously of one another

86 Pierre Janet’s Findings Subconscious fixed ideas caused by trauma, replaced by medical symptoms Different levels of subconscious ideas (substitution/association) appear at any time in patient’s life Hysterical crises can be disguised re-enactments of subconscious fixed ideas

87 Pierre Janet’s Findings 2 Emphasised the importance of rapport Recognised patient would transfer feelings onto hypnotiser Psychological dependency a good start Studied patients’ automatic writing and dreams Major Influence: these are ideas are now so widely known that true origin is unrecognised

88 Europe 1880s Authoritarian - military, law prestigious Corporal punishment – indispensable Rigid class structure Every Bourgeois family had domestic servants – unsentimental, authoritarian

89 Europe 1880s White mans domination of colonised peoples unquestioned Lot of Lesiure time Theatre, actors, hugely popular creating – A Theatrical world of public quarrels and reconciliations

90 Inventions in the 19 th Century Babbage -- invented programmable mechanical calculating machine (a computer!) - 1834 Alexander Graham Bell -- invented the telephone - 1876; metal detector - 1881 Louis Braille -- invented the braille system of reading- 1821 Eduard Buchner -- discovered enzymes - 1896 Ernst Chladni -- meteorites - early 1800s Clapeyron -- discovered entropy - 1834 Pierre and Marie Curie -- discovered radioactivity - 1896 (along with Henri Becquerel) Doppler -- discovered the Doppler effect - 1842 Darwin -- published "Origin of Species" and gave us the Theory of Evolution - 1859 Edison -- phonograph - 1877; incandescent light bulb - 1880 Faraday -- invented the first electric engine - 1821 Fizeau -- measured the speed of light - 1849 Herschel -- discovered the existence of infrared and of radiant heat - 1800 Joule -- discovered the First Law of Thermodynamics - 1843 Dmitri Mendeleev -- created the periodic table of elements - 1869 Michelson -- discovered a more accurate method for measuring the speed of light - 1879 Ritter -- discovered ultraviolet rays - 1801 Wilhelm Rintgen -- discovered X-rays - 1895 Nikola Tesla -- patented hundreds of inventions in many different countries; many of his inventions were patented ''before'' 1900 Thomas Young -- proposed the theory of light and colours - 1801 Thompson -- discovered electrons - 1896

91 Explosion of inventions in Vienna Major cottage industry for writers, scholars, cultural historians, art historians, and museum curators alike. pioneering thinkers, writers, musicians, visual artists, architects, and philosophers In literature, Arthur Schnitzler, Hermann Bahr, Peter Altenberg, and Hugo von Hofmannsthal all added their insights to Impressionistic letters. Arnold Schoenberg and Alban Berg broke the tonal patterns of Western music; the painters Oskar Kokoschka and Egon Schiele did much the same for painting, as did Adolf Loos in architecture, the polymath Karl Kraus in literature, and the young intellectual Ludwig Wittgenstein in philosophy. Artists and intellectuals of Vienna 1900 were reacting to the Habsburg façade, to the pomposity of empire and its dark underbelly of poverty. Bertha von Suttner devoted herself to the cause of peace and was the first female recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize; as Alfred Nobel’s secretary for a time, she was the one to convince the inventor of dynamite to endow the Nobel Prize.

92 Drama in Vienna Audience Theatrical Showman

93 Sexual Psychology In Vienna Sex was Taboo Homosexuality banned Inappropriate relationships with children Sexually deviant behaviour rife Idea that Psychological reasons are at the root of sexual perversions gained ground

94 Dreams If Dreams were- Light – clear thinking Darkness – unclear thinking Related to parts of the body – flying = lungs Traffic in the street = heart,circulation Recording dreams – to try and direct the dreams

95 Exploration of the Unconscious Popular with philosophers and ordinary people Backed up by clinical and experimental approaches Objects in dreams related to experiences in the past

96 Arrival of Freud!

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