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Amitabha Chatterjee Dept. of Library & Information Science Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Amitabha Chatterjee Dept. of Library & Information Science Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Amitabha Chatterjee Dept. of Library & Information Science Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 1

2 INTRODUCTION The history of libraries, specially public libraries, indicates that these have negotiated several crossroads successfully and moved forward in the desired direction. The major crossroads that libraries have faced at different times and the path chosen in each case are shown in the next slide. 2

3 INTRODUCTION Crossroad Path chosen  Library service for chosen few or Library service for all Library service for all  Fee-based library service or Free library service Free library service (specially in public libraries)  Manual library service or Automated library service Automated library service  Fixed location and fixed time library service or Anywhere anytime library service Anywhere anytime library service 3

4 INTRODUCTION Anywhere anytime library service has become possible due to revolutionary developments in information and communication technologies (ICT) and the advent of the information highway that is known as Internet. The new genre of libraries, which are now coming up for providing such service, are the digital libraries, which mainly contain digital information resources. Developing and managing such libraries and their resources are indeed challenging tasks. 4

5 Digital library Digital library is a system providing a community of users with coherent access to a large, organized repository of information and knowledge. The digital library is not just one entity, but multiple sources seamlessly integrated. The digital libraries endow the users with a structural and planned entrance to information stuffing in a dispersed environment and assist them in searching evaluating and utilizing resources irrespective of their format 5

6 Digital library All the objects in a digital library, whether sounds, images, texts, or some other media, are treated in essentially the same way. This is called digital coherence. Thus digital coherence is the mechanism which permits a form of equality among various information resources. This equality has importance for delivery and integration of information. 6

7 Digital library It is important to note that most of the digital libraries of today are only complementary units of traditional libraries or are hybrid libraries as all the resources are not available in digital form and digitization of all the analogue materials in the possession of a library is not possible due to various reasons 7

8 Digital Information Resources Digital medium integrates the characteristics of different media and consequently digital information resources may possess the characteristics of not only one medium but that of many media together. Digital information resources may be born digital i.e. originally brought out in digital format and converted digital i.e. digitized version of a printed or otherwise recorded resource. 8

9 Management of DL Development and management of effective digital libraries pose some serious challenges. The integration of digital media into traditional collections cannot be straightforward, like previous new media (e.g., video and audio tapes), because of the unique nature of digital information – it is less fixed, easily copied, and remotely accessible by multiple users simultaneously 9

10 Management of DL The main issues and challenges involved in the development and management of a digital library relate to:  Development of a suitable digital infrastructure or technical architecture;  Development of a digital information resource base (DIRB), including digitization of existing information resources in non-digital media;  Facilitation of access by users;  Digital preservation or archiving of digital information resources and digital rights management. 10

11 Technical Architecture Libraries will need to develop or enhance and upgrade current technical architectures to accommodate digital materials. The architecture will include components such as:  High-speed local networks and fast connections to the Internet.  Relational databases that support a variety of digital formats.  Full text search engines to index and provide access to resources.  A variety of servers, such as web servers and FTP servers.  Electronic document management functions that will aid in the overall management of digital resources. 11

12 Interoperability Besides, the question of interoperability has to be properly addressed to at the time of developing the technical architecture so that accessing of information resources from other systems is smooth and hassle- free 12

13 Development of DIRB Information resource base (popularly known as ‘collection’) of a digital library may be developed by adopting one or more of the following methods: 1. Digitized or Off-line Resources Collection: This involves procurement of information resources available in off- line digital storage media, such as CD-ROMs, DVDs, etc. 2. On-line Access: This involves providing on-line access to digital information resources, subscribed to by the library or created by it or its parent body, such as institutional repository. 13

14 Development of DIRB 3. Access to External Materials: This involves providing access to the resources freely available on the Internet, including institutional repositories maintained by other organizations. Valuable resources are now so available through open access initiatives. 4. Retrospective Conversion: This involves conversion of existing resources in analogue media into digital medium. This is also called digitization. 14

15 Development of DIRB The problematic issues involved in the development of digital information resource base are: 1. Availability of the majority of digital resources on limited- term access basis and not on outright ownership basis 2. Acquiring of access against ownership of digital resources overcoming the emotional barrier 3. Differential pricing strategies and unpredictable price fluctuations of digital resources 4. Inter-version inconsistency in the contents of digital resources (i.e. existence of substantial difference in the contents of the digital version and printed version of the same resource) in some cases 15

16 Development of DIRB 5. Lack of bibliographical control of digital information resources needing search for alternative sources (such as publicity materials, exhibitions and fairs, bulletin boards and websites on the Internet and users and fellow professionals) for collection of information about new digital resources. 6. Lack of any directory of digital publishers needing consultation of alternative sources as above 7. Non-availability of digital resources for inspection and evaluation before selection, except in rare cases where trial offer is given for a limited period 16

17 Development of DIRB 8. Variations in clauses of licence agreements needed for procuring digital resources from publisher to publisher and even client to client. 9. Lack of transparency in the terms of licences in some cases, specially relating to hidden costs involved. 10. Existence of clauses in licences, which are tilted towards the publishers. 11. Archiving restrictions and non-availability of subscribed resources beyond a limited period. All these vexed issues need to be tackled carefully for building an effective digital information resource base 17

18 Digitization Digitization refers to the process of transforming analogue information resources, such as printed materials, pictures, maps, photographs, video tapes, etc. into computer readable digital form through various steps. Though digitization of analogue materials available in the library facilitates their preservation and easy and quick access, there are several problematic issues relating to such work 18

19 Digitization  Digitization of all the materials in the library may not be cost effective and/or possible.  It is not prudent to destroy the original resources after digitization.  Brittle and fragile materials are difficult to digitize.  Written permission from the copyright owner of a resource is needed for digitization, if digitization is done before the expiry of copyright period.  Refreshing and migration of digitized materials may be needed from time to time with the obsolescence of technology. 19

20 Facilitation of Access For facilitating access, a DIR needs to be put on the network as soon as possible after it is procured for enabling the users to access them and compiling some surrogates for easy and speedy access The technical architectures for digital libraries will not be monolithic systems like the turn-key, single box OPAC’s with which librarians are most familiar. Instead, they will be a collection of disparate systems and resources connected through a network, and integrated within one interface, most likely a web interface or one of its descendants 20

21 Mounting on Server Since prior evaluation of a digital resource is often not possible, the librarian may have to deal with some problematic issues:  The product may simply not run across the standard network;  The product does run on the network, but will require additional work at client end (e.g. downloading a piece of software);  The product does run on the network but at very slow rate, or requires a high specification machine at the client end to be usable. Such problems have to be tackled effectively with the help of technically competent personnel. 21

22 Metadata Creation Metadata is important in digital libraries because it is the key to resource discovery and use of any resource Human cataloguing, though superior, is just too labour extensive for the already large and rapidly expanding information environment Hence, simpler schemes for metadata are being proposed as solutions. A number of schemes have emerged, the most prominent of which is the Dublin Core, which determines the “core” elements needed to describe materials. 22

23 Metadata Creation The lack of common metadata standards— ideally, defined for use in some specified context— is yet another barrier to information access and use in a digital library, or in a coordinated digital library scheme Besides, another important issue relating to metadata is naming of digital objects Names are strings that uniquely identify digital objects and are part of any document’s metadata. They are needed to uniquely identify digital objects for the purposes of citation, information retrieval, making links among objects, managing copyright and so on 23

24 User Interface Creation Digital libraries are inherently interactive systems with a constant growth in the number of end-users. They must not only rely on effective and sophisticated retrieval mechanism, but also provide efficient interaction with the end-users The user interface, perhaps the most important digital library component, must incorporate a wide variety of techniques to afford rich interaction between the users and the information they seek A digital library software normally has provision for user interface, but it may have to be customized keeping in view the need of the users of a particular library and their information seeking behavior. 24

25 Digital Preservation Digital preservation or archiving refers to a series of managed activities designed to ensure continuing access to all kinds of records in digital formats as long as necessary and to protect them from media failure, physical loss and obsolescence This is a challenging task as digital technology, along with other associated Internet and web technologies, are in a continuous flux of change 25

26 Digital Preservation The main challenges involved in digital preservation are:  Dynamic nature of digital content, which is evident from disappearance of previously accessed websites from the Internet, changes in links provided in websites, link failures and so on.  Machine dependency of digital contents i.e. requirement of specific hardware and software, that were used for creating them, to gain access to those contents. 26

27 Digital Preservation  Proneness of magnetic and optical media for rapid deterioration often resulting in corruption of digital files and sudden access failure because of exposure to heat, humidity, air borne contaminants or faulty reading and writing devices.  Rapid technological obsolescence affecting hardware (including storage media and devices to read them), software and file formats needing frequent migration.  Shorter life-span of digital media making them unsuitable for long-term archival retention. 27

28 Digital Preservation  Variety of formats, such as hypertext, multimedia, dynamic pages, interactive video, etc., each one of which poses distinct challenges relating to its encoding and compression for digital preservation.  Impact of copyright and intellectual property rights due to easy copying and distribution facilities provided by digital media. 28

29 Digital Rights Management Possibility of infringement of copyright and intellectual property rights of digital materials is very high due to easy copying facility provided by the digital medium. It is indeed a great challenge for a digital library to ensure fair use of the resources held by it and protect those from misuse and violation of the concerned law. Digital rights management relates to protection of copyrighted digital content by means of technologies or systems that restrict its use and distribution. A number of copy protection technologies has been developed for this purpose. A digital library needs to identify and employ such a technology. 29

30 CONCLUSION Anywhere anytime library service, through digital libraries, has come as a great boon to the users. But it is evident that provision of such service is fraught with many challenges. Many issues are also involved in arranging such service. Framing of a well thought-out policy and its cautious implementation may only lead to effective management of digital libraries and digital information resources. 30

31 CONCLUSION Librarians of today should take up this challenge seriously as otherwise they may gradually lose their ground to computer professionals. LIS schools should also ensure that necessary competency is acquired by their trainees for running the new generation digital libraries efficiently. 31

32 Thank You 32

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