5Control of the trade routes was important for ease of access to the places that mattered
6SUMMARY: Addington squats over cocked hat into which he evacuates papers including "Egypt," "Guadeloupe," and last, "Malta," Napoleon holds him by the cravat and threatens him.MEDIUM: 1 print : etching, color.CREATED/PUBLISHED: [London] : pubd. by H. Humphrey, 1803 Feb. 9th.
7Egypt of Muhammad AliUnderstanding Muhammad Ali in the Ottoman Context:: French occupation1805: An ambitious Albanian governor for a significant province.1807: Mahmud II became the Ottoman Sultan.1811: Muhammad Ali ordered the killing of hundreds of Mamluks1826: The Auspicious incident
8The Second of May, 1808: The Charge of the Mamelukes-1814-Oil on canvas, 266 x 345 cm-Museo del Prado, Madrid After the expulsion of the Napoleonic armies in 1814 Goya applied for, and was granted, official financial aid in order 'to perpetuate with the brush the most notable and heroic actions or scenes of our glorious insurrection against the tyrant of Europe'. The two scenes that he recorded are not victorious battles but acts of anonymous heroism in the face of defeat. Here the people of Madrid armed with knives and rough weapons are seen attacking a group of mounted Egyptian soldiers (Mamelukes) and a cuirassier of the Imperial army. The composition, without a focal point or emphasis on any single action, creates a vivid impression of actuality, as if Goya had not only witnessed the scene (as he is alleged to have done) but had recorded it on the spot.
9Egypt of Muhammad Ali A new modern army composed of peasants Cotton and sugar productionImpact on landholding patternsEducational reformsTax reformsInfrastructural reformsSubordination of the ‘ulama and the Sufi ordersDynastic ruleA new ruling/landed eliteAutonomy from the Ottoman Empire
13The Suez Canal1856: Ferdinand de Lesseps, a French diplomat, obtained a concession from Said Pasha of Egypt to establish the Suez Canal Company“Joint venture” between France and Egypt (22%)Egyptian forced labor + French engineers and capital = France as the major share holder.Difficult working conditions and tens of thousands of deathsBritish concerns…?
15The Suez Canal 1858-1869 1869: Canal completed 99 years of Compagnie Universelle du Canal Maritime de SuezNew face of Egypt: Port Said, Ismailiya, the Royal Opera HouseEgypt’s mounting foreign debt and bankruptcyOttoman parallels1875: Britain acquired 44% of the sharesAnglo-French Debt administrationFerdinand de Lesseps Cover of La Lune 29 September 1867
17Egypt - British Colonial Rule The Urabi revolt:From 94,000 troops in 1874, 36,000 troops in 1879July 1880: the Law of Liquidation: 50 percent of total revenues.1881: Colonel Ahmed Urabi established a parliamentary government with the backing of the new Egyptian elites1882: British takeoverNature of opposition under the British ruleAl-azharJamal al-Din al-Afghani
18Egypt - WafdWoodrow Wilson’s “Fourteen Points” and the League of NationsSa’d Zaghlul:Egypt should be able to represent itself as a self-determined nation at the Paris Conference of 1919The original intention of the article of “self-determination”Popular support for the Wafd: Three legs of the tableThe BritishThe monarchyThe partySa’d Zaghlul
19Egypt – Nasser King Faruq vs. Mustafa al-Nahhas (Wafd): Elections of 1950October 1951: Abrogation of the 1936 Anglo-Egyptian treatyJanuary 1952: Black Saturday Riots in CairoAl-Nahhas resignsJuly 1952: The Egyptian RevolutionFaruq abdicates for Fuad IIKing FaruqFuad II
20Egypt – Nasser Free Officers Revolution of 1952 and RCC: Muhammad Naguib, Jamal Abd al-Nasser1952: First land reform (1 % owned 70 %). 200-feddans rule1953: Abolition of the constitution.Ban on political partiesLiberation RallySaw al-Arab1954: Suppression of the Muslim Brotherhood, 78 leading figures arrestedNasser and Naguib
21Egypt – NasserNasser1954: Muslim Brotherhood and the decline of NaguibAnglo-Egyptian Agreement, British troops were to withdraw from the canal zone in 20 months.1955: Dismantling of the Islamic courtsBandung ConferenceCzechoslovak arms agreement1956: new constitutionNasser became the first president in June and was invested with broad powers
23Egypt – NasserNasserJuly 1956: US and GB withdrew support for Aswan DamNasser nationalized the CanalOctober: Suez War GB, France and Israel vs. EgyptNovember: UN cease-fireNationalization of all British and French companies and confiscation of British, French and Jewish property
24Egypt – Nasser Nasser’s left turn 1958: Abolition of foreign schools 1959: A new labor code min. wage and max. working hours per day.1960: Aswan Dam project begins with Soviet assistanceNationalization of banksFirst Arab national TV1961: 100-feddan ruleModern curriculum at al-AzharSuppression of the Sufi orders1st NAM summit in Yugoslavia1962: Arab Socialist Union
25Egypt – Nasser Nasser’s international ventures 1958: UAR 1958: Federation of Arab RepublicsJordan and Iraq’s Arab FederationUSSR support1861: UAR dissolved
26Egypt – Nasser Nasser’s defeat 1861: Dissolution of UAR 1966: Execution of Qutb1967: Six-days warPromises to resign1970: dies of a heart attack
28Six Day War: Was the Six Day War A Miracle? Encounters with the Unexplained TV SeriesDVD: 60 minutesProducer: Total Living Network & Grizzly Adams ProductionsHosted by: Jerry OrbachDescription: Dr. Price contributes to this in-depth investigation of miraculous events that made an Israeli victory possible in the 1967 Six-Day War. Stories abound of the appearance of mysterious troops and sophisticated weaponry that aided the Israelis in their victory. Was the outcome of this conflict foretold by biblical writings thousands of years prior to the actual event? Was the Israeli victory a miracle? Listen to the amazing eyewitness accounts given by Six Day War veterans and decide for yourself.
29Egypt – Sadat Anwar Sadat 1970: Death of Nasser 1972: expulsion of the 18,000 Soviet advisors1973: (Yom Kippur) War with Israel1974: infitah, the “open-door” economic policy1975: Gradual abandonment of the one-party system1977: Gave a speech at the Knesset:I have chosen to come to you with an open heart and an open mind. I have chosen to give this great impetus to all international efforts exerted for peace. I have chosen to present to you, in your own home, the realities, devoid of any scheme or whim. Not to maneuver, or win a round, but for us to win together, the most dangerous of rounds embattled in modern history, the battle of permanent peace based on justice.Egypt – Sadat
30For the sake of our peoples and for the sake of the civilization made by man, we have to defend man everywhere against rule by the force of arms so that we may endow the rule of humanity with all the power of the values and principles that further the sublime position of mankind.Allow me to address my call from this rostrum to the people of Israel. I pledge myself with true and sincere words to every man, woman and child in Israel. I tell them, from the Egyptian people who bless this sacred mission of peace, I convey to you the message of peace of the Egyptian people, who do not harbor fanaticism and whose sons, Moslems, Christians and Jews, live together in a state of cordiality, love and tolerance.This is Egypt, whose people have entrusted me with their sacred message. A message of security, safety and peace to every man, woman and child in Israel. I say, encourage your leadership to struggle for peace. Let all endeavors be channeled towards building a huge stronghold for peace instead of building destructive rockets.
31Egypt – SadatAnwar Sadat delivered his speech to the Knesset on 20 November He told the Israeli parliament: "We really and truly welcome you to live among us in peace and security."Talks started in Israel in November and eventually led to the Camp David agreement in March 1979.President Sadat's overtures to Israel made him popular in the West - he and Menachim Begin were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978.But he was isolated and snubbed in the Arab world.In October 1981 he was assassinated by soldiers at a military parade in Cairo.
32Egypt – Mubarak Failing economy Suppression of the religious groups and alternate political groupsRecent Events