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11 Introduction into Basic Cell Biology & Biotechnology Sec 3. What is Life? What is a cell?

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Presentation on theme: "11 Introduction into Basic Cell Biology & Biotechnology Sec 3. What is Life? What is a cell?"— Presentation transcript:

1 11 Introduction into Basic Cell Biology & Biotechnology Sec 3. What is Life? What is a cell?

2 22 Intro into Cell Biology -> All living organisms are made out of cells -> Cells are the smallest living unit Human egg cell + sperm

3 33 Intro into Cell Biology Single cell organisms – Multi cell organisms -> Single cell organisms -> Microorganisms BacteriaArchea Yeast - Fungi Eeeew! VideoEeeew! Video 6:50

4 46 Intro into Cell Biology Evolutionary time line

5 54 Intro into Cell Biology Single cell organisms – Multi cell organisms -> multi cell organisms -> higher degree or organization of cells within the organism -> specialization of cells Human red blood cellsPlant cellsHuman skin cells Specialized Human Cells Specialized Human Cells Bonus Difference between Animal and Plant Cells Additional Video Difference between Animal and Plant Cells Additional VideoDifference between Animal and Plant Cells Additional Video

6 68 Intro into Cell Biology Two cell types - The Three Domain System ProkaryotesEukaryotes

7 79 Intro into Cell Biology Cell Types Bill Nye Cells Bill Nye Cells

8 Virus Video Virus Video Intro into Cell Biology NO living organisms -> parasites Viruses -> are NO living organisms -> parasites -> Consist of DNA. -> Core is surrounded by a protein coat. -> Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope -> Viruses are replicated only when they are in a living host cell -> Not cellular

9 Intro into Cell Biology Cell growth -> cell division Cell death -> apoptosis Cell growth -> cell division Cell death -> apoptosis

10 Intro into Cell Biology Cell Movement -> Mobility -> Flagellum Pseudomonas (3,300X) Salmonella (1200X)

11 Intro into Cell Biology Microorganisms are important for Food production Food Production Video Food Production Video

12 Intro into Cell Biology Microbes at Work 1. Agriculture - used to control crop insects. 2.Bioremediation - a field of environmental biotechnology where bacteria are used to clean up toxic wastes. Ex. Oil spills and Gold Mining 3. Pharmacology - developing antibiotics to destroy pathogens. (microbes) 4. Vaccines - developing weakened strains of pathogenic bacteria or viruses in order to protect (immunize) against infection.

13 Microbes at work… Gold Extraction from Mining. “Cyanide dissolves gold, just like sugar dissolves in water.” Cyanide attaches to anaerobic structures in the cells’ Mitochondria – the powerhouse of the cell. Cyanide attaches to anaerobic structures in the cells’ Mitochondria – the powerhouse of the cell. Cyanide then inhibits the oxygen transfer in cellular respiration causing damage to systems in high need of oxygen – nervous system, the heart. Cyanide then inhibits the oxygen transfer in cellular respiration causing damage to systems in high need of oxygen – nervous system, the heart. Do you want it in your water for drinking etc. Do you want it in your water for drinking etc. Bacteria and Mining 5:20 Bacteria and Mining 5:20

14 Medical Microbiologi – Infectious diseases Nearly 2,000 different microbes cause diseases. 10 Billion new infections/year worldwide 13 Million deaths from infections/year worldwide

15 1533 BACTERIAL PATHOGENS Yersinia pestis Borrellia -> Lyme disease Bacillus anthracis C. tetani -> tetanus Staphylococcus aureus Diphtheria

16 1637 VIRAL PATHOGENS Ebola HIV Smallpox Rabies virus

17 Medical Microbiologi – Infectious diseases What can be done to limit infectious diseases?

18 Louis Pasteur ( )  Showed microbes caused fermentation and spoilage.  Developed pasteurization; kills bacteria that may be present in the liquid food.  Developed a rabies vaccine Insert figure History of Pasteurization Video History of Pasteurization VideoHistory of Pasteurization Video Synergy Textbook Work: READ pgs Do Qs Pg. 431

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20 20 Biotechnology  Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop useful products, or applications, for specific use by humans.  For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine.  G.M.O.Tissue Culture Cloning Antibiotics Food Preservation Vaccines Antibiotics Food Preservation Vaccines Vaccines Intro Vaccines Intro Penn and Teller Vaccinations LANGUAGE!! Penn and Teller Vaccinations LANGUAGE!!

21 21 Vaccines Synergy: Textbook Work: READ pgs Do Qs. #s Pg. 431 Vaccines Pt. 2 Vaccines Pt. 2 Main Points for Vaccines: - T hey work by introducing an organism to the body where the Immune System manufactures specific antibodies (WBCs) to immunize against the disease. - T hey protect the health of people who receive them, and prevent them from developing diseases with sometimes dangerous consequences.

22 22 Vaccines Vaccines Pt. 2 Vaccines Pt. 2 Main Points for Vaccines Continued: - T he basic principle is the same for manufacturing vaccines: They contain antigens that are incapable of transmitting disease, but do create an immune response. T hree main manufacturing processes for vaccines: T hree main manufacturing processes for vaccines: - Attenuated Vaccines: bacteria / virus strains that have lost their power to cause disease. (measles, polio) - Attenuated Vaccines: bacteria / virus strains that have lost their power to cause disease. (measles, polio) - Inactivated Vaccines: harmful bacteria / viruses that have been killed or inactivated (chem. Products, UV rays) for the immune response. - Inactivated Vaccines: harmful bacteria / viruses that have been killed or inactivated (chem. Products, UV rays) for the immune response. - Genetic Engineering: DNA manipulation where the dangerous genes are removed from the pathogen. - Genetic Engineering: DNA manipulation where the dangerous genes are removed from the pathogen.

23 23 Assisted Reproduction Assisted Reproduction Video Assisted Reproduction Video Synergy: Textbook Work: READ pgs Do Qs. #s Pg. 431  Assisted Reproduction is a medical procedure that facilitates the union of Ovum and Spermatozoon for the purposes of achieving fertilization.  These processes generally serve to help infertile and sterile couples conceive a child.  Several procedures are possible: hormonal treatments, artificial insemination, in vetro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

24 Assisted Reproduction Key Points Medical reproduction is all medical procedures that help engage the union of an ovum and a sperm cell for achieving fertilization; they generally serve to help infertile or sterile couples. Medical reproduction is all medical procedures that help engage the union of an ovum and a sperm cell for achieving fertilization; they generally serve to help infertile or sterile couples. Several procedures are possible, know them: Several procedures are possible, know them: - hormonal treatments - artificial insemination - in vetro fertilization - intracytoplasmic sperm injections

25 25 Assisted Reproduction Debate Topics: Topics:  Who should be allowed to have A.R.? Age limit of patients? Too young and too old… Too young and too old…Too young and too old… Number of attempts? How many is too Few and Many? Income Level? Can they afford to have a child? Life Style of Parents? Smokers, drug habits, mental illness…  Who pays for the procedure? Cost Chart McGill Cost Chart McGill Cost Chart McGill Only the “parents”. Government Government Subsidy How Much? Limitations? Discriminations?  Should A.R. be Public (government) or Private? Standards for safety? Regulations? Who watches? Heated Debate Heated Debate

26 Cell Culture  is a process where cells are reproduced outside of their natural environment; outside the organism they came from. Meat

27 Which Cells Can Be Cultured?  Unicellular micro-organisms Prokaryotic Cells (ie. Bacteria & Yeast) Prokaryotic Cells (ie. Bacteria & Yeast) Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells  Multicellular Eukaryotic Cells (Whole Plants and Animals) (Whole Plants and Animals) Skin Cell Cultures Intro Skin Cell Cultures Intro

28 Conditions Needed for Cell Culture In order for cells to grow, the conditions must be just right for each cell type. Growth MediumGrowth Medium - (environment for which the cell can optimally grow) - (environment for which the cell can optimally grow) Type of growth container or fermenterType of growth container or fermenter - (petri dish, incubator, etc.) TemperatureTemperature - (proper temperature to maximize growth) - (proper temperature to maximize growth) pH - (Proper acidity, basicity or neutral environment)pH - (Proper acidity, basicity or neutral environment)

29 Gas exchange Gas exchange - (Oxygen for Energy, elimination of wastes) - (Oxygen for Energy, elimination of wastes) Method for monitoring cell growth Method for monitoring cell growth - (ensuring culture is free of malformations) - (ensuring culture is free of malformations)  Sterilization and personal organization Synergy Text Questions and further knowledge: Pg432; Qs 11 – 14. Conditions Needed for Cell Culture con`t extra video cell culture techniques extra video extra video heLa Cells heLa Cells Video

30 Cell Culture Main Points  To make cell cultures, specialists must first obtain cells (either isolated cells or cells obtained through separation). These cells must then be provided with an appropriate support and an adequate culture medium (source of nutrients for growth).  Conditions normally present in the organism the cells come form are recreated (temp, pressure, acidity). This encourages growth and reproduction of cells.

31 Transgenesis Transgenesis Intro

32 Genetic Transformation  Genetic modification of a cell`s DNA; changing its specific “Blue Print”. Involves the uptake of foreign DNA and placing it into the chain of another organism’s DNA. Involves the uptake of foreign DNA and placing it into the chain of another organism’s DNA. Therefore, it is a replication of a trait within another organism that didn’t have it before. altering the cells production of specific Proteins. Therefore, it is a replication of a trait within another organism that didn’t have it before. altering the cells production of specific Proteins. Rule: GMOs manipulate a cell’s DNA code. Rule: GMOs manipulate a cell’s DNA code. - change the code, you change the proteins. DNA Protein DNA Protein

33 - Production of biodegradable plastic materials. Production of Biofuels Use of animals for research purposes. Drug Production Slowing of a foods ripening process. Increase in a food`s nutritional qualities. Plants resistant to stress (frost, drought, heat) insects and parasites. Plants tolerant to herbicides. Agronomy(Agriculture) Food Industry Medicine 33 APPLICATIONS OF GMOs KG

34 Transgenesis

35 Transgenesis  is a procedure that consists in inserting a foreign gene into an organism.  Different techniques are used, but the steps involved are similar: 1. gene of interest*. 1. Identification of a characteristic in a donor organism, and location of the gene responsible for this characteristic, known as the gene of interest* Extract the gene of interest from the donor organism Insertion of the gene of interest into the cells of the organism to be modified Selection of the organisms in which the genetic modification has worked.

36 Simplified Transgenic Process

37 Some Examples

38 Debate: Are GMOs Good or Bad? For Video For Video Against Video Against Video

39 Genetic Transformation, Transgenesis and Ethics Synergy Questions: Pg. 432, Qs Important Points: - An organism’s genes are modified to endow it with new and improved characteristics that might profit humans. - An organism’s genes are modified to endow it with new and improved characteristics that might profit humans. - Transgenesis is a procedure that consists of inserting into an organism a gene that is foreign to it. - Know the 4 stages of Transgenesis.


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