MAI-LAB Seminar 4/25 What? And Why? Software Agents Jeffry M. Bradshaw (1997)
MAI-LAB Seminar 5/25 What? A software entity which functions continuously and autonomously in a particular environment, often inhabited by other agents and processes (Shoham 1997) Software agent 가 가지는 특성 Reactivity Autonomy Knowledge-level communication ability Inferential capability Temporal continuity Personality Adaptivity Mobility Etzioni and Weld (1995) Flanklin and Graesser (1996)
MAI-LAB Seminar 7/25 Why? Simplifying distributed computing Overcoming user interface problem Scalability Scheduled or event-driven actions Abstraction and delegation Flexibility and opportunism Task orientation Adaptivity Task planning Resource allocation execution monitoring intervention between the systems AAAAA Brodie (1989)
MAI-LAB Seminar 8/25 Why? Agents assist users They hide the complexity of difficult tasks. They perform task on the user’s behalf. They can train or teach the user. They help different users collaborate. They monitor events and procedures.
MAI-LAB Seminar 9/25 Who? Donald A. Norman Communications of the ACM 37 (7) (1994) How might people interact with agents?
MAI-LAB Seminar 10/25 Who? User 의 특성 Confidence comes slowly Ensuring that people feel in control of computational systems To make all this technology acceptable Provide reassurance to the user that all is working according to plan Developing an appropriate conceptual model of the action Overblown Expectation advertisement
MAI-LAB Seminar 11/25 When? Supporting Internet-scale multi-agent systems N.J.E. Wijngaards*, B.J. Overeinder, M. van Steen, F. M. T. Brazier. *Department of Computer Sciences, Vrije universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands Data & Knowledge Engineering 41 (2002)
MAI-LAB Seminar 12/25 When? Current agent system Process control Manufacturing Air traffic control Information management Business process management Patient monitoring Health care Games Interactive theater and cinema e-commerce
MAI-LAB Seminar 13/25 When? Agents from an AI perspective From The AI perspective agents are Autonomous and pro-active may be mobile are capable of communication with other agents are capable of interaction with the outside “world” are most often intelligent Human being Usually only for demonstration purpose Implementation, efficiency, performance is not consider to be important
MAI-LAB Seminar 14/25 When? Agents from a CS(Computer Systems) perspective Agents are often related to objects Agents usually interact by exchanging messages Agents in CS are often mobile Security is of great importance in agent system
MAI-LAB Seminar 15/25 Where? Association of user with software agents in e-commerce Zakaria Maamar Software Agents Research Group, College of Information Systems, Zqyed University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Electronic Commerce Research and Application 1 (2002)
MAI-LAB Seminar 16/25 Where? E-commerce 의 장애물 Three phases of operations in an e-commerce scenario Investigation Negotiation Settlement Slow response time Lack of user friendliness Poor web site design
MAI-LAB Seminar 17/25 Where? Investigation Negotiation The purpose is to launch an offer and counter-offer process, if needed The purpose is to look for the providers that have the products/services that satisfy user’s needs Settlement phase The purpose is to implement the clauses of the contact.
MAI-LAB Seminar 18/25 Where?
MAI-LAB Seminar 19/25 How? Agent-based e-commerce in case of mass customization Klaus Turowski Int.J. Production Economics 75 (2002) Agents that Reduce Work and Information Overload Pattie Maes Communications of the ACM 37 (7) (1994) 31-40
MAI-LAB Seminar 20/25 How? Agent 를 어떻게 만들고 훈련하는가 ? E-commerce 에 있어서 agent technology 를 어떻게 이용하는가 ? Pairing e-commerce techniques with agent technology Implementation Approaches to building agents Training a personal digital assistant
MAI-LAB Seminar 21/25 How? Approaches to building agents Problem Competence trust approach Make the end-user program the interface agent Endow an interface agent with extensive domain-specific background knowledge about the application and the user (knowledge based approach)
MAI-LAB Seminar 22/25 How? Training a personal digital assistant Machine learning approach 어플리케이션을 사용하는 동안 상당히 많은 양의 반복작업이 있어야 한다. 반복 작업은 유저마다 달라야 한다. The interface agent learns in four different ways 1) it observe and imitates the user’s behavior 2) it adapts based on user feedback 3) it can be trained by the user on the basis of examples 4) it can ask for advice from other agent assisting other users
MAI-LAB Seminar 24/25 How? Pairing e-commerce techniques with agent technology ERP system 에서 demand report 생성 ERP 의 output 을 XML 로 바 꾸는 agent 로 보냄 XML output 을 supplier 에게 보냄 ERP 로 해석 ERP system 에 적용 Price, due date 같은 협상 정보 보냄 협상 정보 보냄 협상