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1 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Administration Issues  Take home Mid-term Exam  Assign April 2, Due April 7  Individual work is required 

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Presentation on theme: "1 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Administration Issues  Take home Mid-term Exam  Assign April 2, Due April 7  Individual work is required "— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Administration Issues  Take home Mid-term Exam  Assign April 2, Due April 7  Individual work is required  Proposal and progress presentation  5-10 mins  March 31

2 2 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Chapter 6: Error Control

3 3 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Error Control PURPOSE:  Error-free  In-sequence  Duplicate-free  Loss-free

4 4 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Wireless Errors  Causes: Fading, interference, loss of bit synchronization  Results in bit errors, sometimes bursty  For low power wireless communication  sometimes quite high average bit error rates (BERs) (10 -2 … possible!)

5 5 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Error Control Approaches  Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ)  Forward Error Correction (FEC)  Hybrid ARQ (Type I and II)

6 6 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran ARQ (Quick Recap)  Basic procedure  Put header information before the payload  Compute a checksum and add it to the end of the packet  Typically: Cyclic redundancy check (CRC),  quick, low overhead, low residual error rate  Provide feedback from receiver to sender  Send positive or negative acknowledgement (ACK/NACK)

7 7 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran ARQ  Sender uses timer to detect that ACKs have not arrived  Assumes packet has not arrived  Optimal timer setting?  If sender infers that a packet has not been received correctly, sender can retransmit it  What is maximum number of retransmission attempts?

8 8 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Standard ARQ protocols  Go-back-N – send up to N packets, if a packet has not been ACKed when timer goes off, retransmit all packets after the first unacknowledged packet  Selective Repeat – when timer goes off, only send the unacknowledged packet(s)

9 9 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran How to use ACKs ?  Be careful about ACKs from different layers  A MAC ACK (e.g., S-MAC) does not necessarily imply buffer space in the link layer  Do not (necessarily) ACK every packet – use cumulative ACKs  Tradeoff against buffer space  Tradeoff against number of negative ACKs to send

10 10 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran When to Retransmit ?  Assuming sender has decided to retransmit a packet – when to do so?  For a good channel, any time is as good as any  For fading channels, try to avoid bad channel states – postpone transmissions  Instead (e.g.): send a packet to another node if in queue (exploit multi-user diversity)  REMARK: If the previous packet was corrupted then the channel was bad

11 11 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran When to Retransmit ?  How long to wait?  Example solution: Probing protocol  Idea: reflect channel state by two protocol modes, “normal” and “probing”  When error occurs, go from normal to probing mode  In probing mode, periodically send short packets (ACKed by receiver) – when successful, go to normal mode

12 12 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Forward Error Control (FEC)  Idea: Endow symbols in a packet with additional redundancy to withstand a limited amount of random permutations  Additionally: interleaving – change order of symbols to withstand burst errors Header Payload Redundant Bits  l DATA n-k k n

13 13 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Forward Error Control

14 14 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Popular Block Code FECs  Reed-Solomon Codes (RS)  Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem Codes (BCH)

15 15 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Popular Block Codes  Energy Consumption:  Encoding: Negligible overhead (linear-feedback shift register)  Decoding: depends on block length (n) and Hamming distance (t) Eng. Consumption for multiplication Eng. Consumption for addition

16 16 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Hybrid ARQ (HARQ)  ARQ  Efficient when channel is good - No redundant bits are sent  Inefficient when channel is bad – whole packet is sent again  FEC  Inefficient when channel is good – Redundant bits sent anyway  Efficient when channel is bad – No retransmissions  Hybrid ARQ  Marry ARQ and FEC  Get advantages from both techniques

17 17 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Hybrid ARQ  Send uncoded or lightly coded packet first  If in error, retransmit with a stronger code  Two types based on retransmission technique  HARQ Type I  HARQ Type II

18 18 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Hybrid ARQ Type I (HARQ-I) Header + Payload Redundant Bits e.g. BCH(128,106,3) Packet in error Send NACK Send uncoded packet NACK Send coded packet No errors No ACK sent

19 19 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Hybrid ARQ Type I (HARQ-I) Header + Payload e.g. BCH(128,78,7) Packet in error Send NACK Send lightly coded packet NACK Send more powerful coded packet No errors No ACK sent Redundant Bits e.g. BCH(128,106,3)

20 20 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Hybrid ARQ Type II (HARQ-II) Header + Payload Redundant Bits e.g. BCH(128,106,3) Packet in error Send NACK Send uncoded packet NACK Send redundant bits No errors No ACK sent

21 21 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Hybrid ARQ  Type I – Does not require previous packet to be stored  Type II – Reduces bandwidth usage

22 22 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Error Control through Transmit Power Control  Higher transmission power reduces the packet error rate by improving SNR.  Energy consumption and interference is increased  Radio should support different power levels (may not be applicable in many WSNs (low cost nodes)

23 23 Wireless Sensor Networks Akyildiz/Vuran Hybrid ARQ  HARQ-II outperforms ARQ and FEC schemes  HARQ-I is less energy efficient – whole packet is retransmitted  For HARQ-II, energy efficiency improves if error correction capability (t) increases  HARQ-II implementation cost is also lower than HARQ-I Energy Consumption (MicaZ)


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