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UNDERSTANDING THE FILIPINO Felipe M. de Leon, Jr..

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1 UNDERSTANDING THE FILIPINO Felipe M. de Leon, Jr.

2 Filipinos are not Malays  Filipinos did not descend from the Malays (Manuel, Jocano, Hornedo, et al)  Our culture and languages are not derived from Malay  “There is no such thing as a Malay race in anthropological science” - Dr.Arsenio Manuel  Rizal is not the “Pride of the Malay Race” (Ozaeta, 1949) but of the Filipino people  The belief that the Philippines was inhabited by successive waves of migration of Negritos, Indonesians and Malays has no basis in historical fact.

3 David Zorc, a world class linguist, with specialization in Austronesian languages had this to say: “while Filipinos want to claim Indonesians and Malaysians as their progenitors (hence the Maragtas, Code of Kalantiaw, etc.), in truth it was from the Philippines that the Indonesians and Malays came, and at a much greater time depth than anyone estimated."

4 MILESTONES IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY  750,000 – 500,000 B.C. - Earliest- dated flake stone tools found in Solana, Cagayan  49, 000 B.C. - Fossil remains of modern man (homo sapiens sapiens) found in the Tabon caves of Quezon, Palawan  B.C. – Manunggul burial jar  900 A.D. - Laguna copperplate document

5 Laguna Copperplate Document

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7 Mabuhay! Taóng Siyaka 822, buwán ng Waisaka, ayon sa aghámtalà. Ang ikaapat na araw ng pagliít ng buwán, Lunes. Sa pagkakátaóng itó, si Dayang Angkatán sampû ng kaniyáng kapatíd na nagngangalang Buka, na mga anák ng Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán, ay ginawaran ng isáng kasulatan ng lubós na kapatawarán mulâ sa Punong Pangkalahatan sa Tundún sa pagkatawán ng Punong Kagawad ng Pailáh na si Jayadewa.SiyakaWaisaka aghámtalà

8 Sa atas na itó, sa pamamagitan ng Tagasulat, ang Kagalang- galang na si Namwarán ay pinatawad na sa lahát at inalpasán sa kaniyáng utang at kaniyáng mga náhulíng kabayarán na 1 katî at 8 suwarna sa harapán ng Kagalang-galang na Punong Kagawad ng Puliran na si Ka Sumurán, sa kapangyarihan ng Kagalang-galang na Punong Kagawad ng Pailáh.katîsuwarna

9 Dahil sa matapát na paglilingkód ni Namwarán bilang isáng sakop ng Punò, kinilala ng Kagalang- galang at batikáng Punong Kagawad ng Binwangan ang lahát ng nabubuhay pang kamag- anak ni Namwarán na inangkín ng Punò ng Dewatà, na kinatawán ng Punò ng Medáng.

10 Samakatwíd, ang mga nabubuhay na inapó ng Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán ay pinatawad sa anumán at lahát ng utang ng Kagalang-galang na si Namwarán sa Punò ng Dewatà. Itó, kung sakalì, ay magpapahayag kaninumán na mulâ ngayón kung may taong magsasabing hindî pa alpás sa utang ang Kagalang-galang...

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12  10 th to 12 th c. A.D. - Gold ornaments, accessories and utensils reach high degree of excellence, especially in Butuan, Mindanao  1100 A.D - Formal trading is undertaken with China, India, Arabia, and with Indonesia, Malaysia and Cambodia  13 th c. A.D. - A Muslim settlement rises in Sulu

13  1417 A.D. - Treaty of Friendship and Trade between the Sultan of Sulu Paduka Batara and Emperor Yong Le of the Ming Dynasty in China  Spanish colonization begins  National Hero Jose Rizal publishes Noli Me Tangere  Revolution against Spanish rule begins  1898, June 12 - Declaration of Independence (first in Asia)

14 Symbolism of the Filipino Flag  “Sus ocho rayos simbolizando las ocho provincias de Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Tarlac, Laguna y Batangas, que fueron declaradas en estado de guerra, casi tan pronto como el primer movimiento insurreccional se inicio”

15  “Las tres estrellas representan las tres principales islas de este Archipielago: Luzon, Mindanao y Panay, en las cuales este movimiento insurreccional estallo”

16  1899, January 23 – Inauguration of Constitutional Republic (first in Asia)  1899, February 4 – 1913, December - bloody Filipino-American War (4, 234 Americans and 600, million Filipinos killed)  effective beginning of American rule

17  1935 – Commonwealth Period  1941, December 8 - Manila is attacked by Japanese forces  1945, February 27 – End of Japanese Occupation  1946, July 4 - the United States recognizes Philippine Independence; beginning of Second Philippine Republic

18 What is Culture?  To culture is to cultivate, as in agriculture, horticulture, aquaculture, sericulture, beauty culture, voice culture, etc.  Any activity, product or expression attained through the application of human skill is CULTURE, that which is not is NATURE, such as trees, rivers, mountains, birds.

19 In its broadest sense, culture may be defined as:  Way of life, a design for living  Shared patterns of behavior and meaning, of expectations and responses  Shared system of vital ideas about the world

20 UNESCO defines culture as: “The whole complex of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group. It includes not only the arts and letters, but also modes of life, the fundamental rights of the human being, value systems, traditions and beliefs.”

21 Cultural Questions (Being Questions of Perception, Valuing, and Meaning)  What brings out the good, the best in the Filipino? How do you inspire or what inspires Filipinos towards positive, productive or constructive behavior/social action?  How do you get Filipinos to cooperate and work together harmoniously, happily, efficiently and effectively?

22  What are we most productive/creative at/in? What is the nature of the Filipino cultural genius (both local and nationally shared)?  How do you bring out honesty, sincerity, and loyalty?  How do you resolve conflicts?  How do you criticize one’s work or raise standards of excellence without arousing ill will and resentment?

23  How do you inculcate or promote discipline and dedication to one’s task?* * The feeling of being taken advantage of; being exploited, abused; being treated unfairly, unjustly, or being demeaned, insulted (pinagsasamantalahan, minamaltrato, ginugulangan, nilalamangan, iniinsulto o binabastos) is abhorrent to the Filipino, it being a serious affront to one’s dignity as an ultimately sacred being.

24 A Filipino Perspective  Build on Our Strengths - Need for Positive Self-Image: - Social Self-Images are Self-Fulfilling - Root cause of Philippine under- development: Filipino tendency towards self bashing, esp. among the Westernized elite, preventing us from tapping our greatest asset for sustainable development - our cultural strengths and resources.

25 Cult of smallness Celebration of Defeat Dona Victorina Syndrome  Work for the Good of the Nation as a Whole: ACT LOCALLY, THINK NATIONALLY, also ACT LOCALLY, THINK GLOBALLY  Pride, Commitment, Excellence

26 Promoting Filipino Cultural Identity  Cultural Identity as the Basis of Economic Competitiveness: Cultural identity has it source in originality, indigenousness, authenticity, uniqueness, historicity, magnitude, and excellence Anywhere in the world people prefer the distinctive, one with character, not anything bland and featureless

27 FILIPINOS LOVE TO CONNECT, ESPECIALLY TO PEOPLE  Among the most highly relational in the world, Filipinos are hardly alone. They are happy being together - when they eat, sleep, work, travel, pray, create or celebrate. They feel connected to the world, God and nature, but most of all to people.

28 “Nobody likes to be left out of a photo op”

29 Togetherness is happiness  Filipinos hardly eat alone  Invite a person to your party, how many will come?  Bantay(watcher) & extra bed  Picture-taking mania  Prizes for everybody  “Do not praise small items” - Juan Flavier

30  Pabalot, balato, bonus (forms of sharing)  Pasalubong( quasi-sacred ritual: gift from a journey)  Cannot keep secrets  Relational terms for calling each other  Texting capital of the world  No isolated notes (hagod, slides, “scooping”)

31 Notes are People Pitch Relations Reflect People Relations  In individualistic cultures where people preserve their private space and separateness from others, musical pitches also tend to be discrete or isolated from each other.  In communal cultures where togetherness and connectedness with others is highly valued, musical pitches tend to be bridged by slides or a microtonal continuum.

32 FILIPINO PROXEMICS OF PRIVACY  To be alone a German needs four thick walls which shut off all light and sound from the outside.  A Japanese needs only thin paper screens  A Filipino does not need a physical structure to spend time alone. All that is needed is for him to stay in a corner and keep quiet. This is proof that even in our precious moments of solitude, we are still willing to share our whole being, should the need arise

33 MY SPACE IS YOUR SPACE  OPEN HOUSE: In most Western cultures, guests are allowed to move around only within the confines of the living room.In Filipino culture, guests may roam anywhere inside or outside the house, even in the bedrooms  “FEEL AT HOME”: How long can your relative or close friend temporarily stay in your house?

34 Filipino Sociableness  Beth Day Romulo: “Of all Asian capitals, Manila is the friendliest. Manilans embrace the diplomatic community and love to entertain them. One Western diplomat marveled at being invited to dinner at a local home the next night after he arrived in Manila.”  Beijing diplomats live in an enclave and entertain one another. In Tokyo, locals sometimes take diplomats out to dinner at a restaurant but never invite them to their own homes.”

35  “Manila is not only socially hospitable. People here also like to get the diplomatic set involved in local projects”.  “No matter how bad a press the Philippines may occasionally get abroad, the foreigners who have actually lived here love it, and usually hope to return.”  Filipinos call their spouses with the highest frequency (66% are daily callers), followed by Indonesians and Malaysians-FEER

36  Filipinos most remember their spouse’s birthday. 95% always remember. 3% remember most of the time.  Among the highest-income groups of 13 countries in Asia, Filipinos most prefer to stay and relax at home as a mode of leisure  Filipinos most perceive themselves as fashionable in dressing, followed by South Koreans

37 Most Romantic in Southeast Asia  A Mobile Lifestyle Survey conducted by Asia Market Intelligence for Siemens in late 2002 among six SEA’n countries found that Filipinos send “I love you” messages the most often: Filipinos 58% Indonesians 41% Malaysians 36% Singaporeans 31% Thais 30% Indians 24%

38 WORKPLACE AS EXTENSION OF THE HOME  Filipinos are strongly family-oriented and most comfortable in a homey setting  Superiors tend be regarded as filial authority  As in the family, rituals for affirming togetherness would be very helpful, such as prayers, singing, recreational activities, sharing of concerns  Like parents, superiors are expected to provide care and support in all levels

39 FASHIONABLE ELEGANCE  The highly sociable Filipino always likes to be in style – neat, fit and smart. Whether rich or poor, reformer or rebel, manager or laborer, the Filipino dresses well and smells nice. A well- groomed person is socially attractive.

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41 Loners More Prone to Heart Disease  People with lots of friends are usually the healthiest in the world  Lack of friends and close social ties are the hidden cause of heart disease  As social ties increase, mortality rates decrease  Married people, members of religious groups and the like often live longer  Social isolation breeds depression, which may lead to lower immunity to disease and even suicide

42 MULTI-SIGNIFICANCE: Bringing People Together  An effective Filipino tool for connecting people to each other is to endow an activity, presentation or creation with as many different meanings, functions and qualities as possible.

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44 TRANSPARENCY: Openness and Trust  The Filipino is a highly accessible and accommodating person, basically trusting and open, yet quite sensitive and demanding of respect and recognition of one’s dignity.

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46 Bukas ang kalooban, not private  Windows all around ancestral houses  Aliwalas, airy spaciousness and openness of interiors  “Space surrounds space”  High value placed on being natural, informal, personal

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48 LISTEN TO THE FEELING TONE  Do not listen to what the Filipino says as much as how he says it.  Listen to the feeling tone, read between the lines  Filipinos communicate non-verbally most of the time  Be sensitive to non-verbal symbols, facial expressions, gestures, or body language to understand what the Filipino is really trying to say

49 “Makuha Ka Sa Tingin” 88 WAYS OF LOOKING IN TAGALOG  TINGIN – to look  DILAT, PANDILATAN – stare squarely at  MASID, MASDAN – observe or look at searchingly  MALAS – observing look  MATYAG – close observation  LIYAW – to spy, watch, observe

50  ANINAG – see thru a transparent or translucent medium  ANINAW – see thru a haze  TANGHOD – to look fascinatedly  TANGA, TUMANGA – to look at something absentmindedly  SULILING – to glance sideways, affectedly or disdainfully  MATA, MATAHIN – to look at something with critical eyes, condescendingly

51  SILAY – briefly but seriously  TITIG – steadfastly and fixedly  IRAP – with annoyance  LISIK – sparkling of the eyes as when one is extremely irked or irritated  LIING – to look out of the corner of one’s eyes  MUSING – with a frown  SULI – vexedly  DAYAP – with an evil eye

52  ILAM – to look sideways  SULYAP – sidewise quickly  DUNGSOL – look again and again  LINGAP – cast a glance  LINGA – look here and there as if searching for something  LINGI, LINGIGIG – look here and there, worriedly because of some noise  LINGOS – here and there, unmindfully

53  BALILILING – with a turn of the head  LINGON – over one’s shoulders  TUNGO – downwards  TINGALA – upwards  SIPAT – looking over (a surface) to check levelness, (or a line, row) to check alignment  SUMIK – looking as if listening  BANTAY – to look at what is one’s own (to keep an eye on)

54  TANAW – looking from a distance  TANGHAL – looking from a distance contemplating the beauty or grandeur of something  NOOD – to look at something that brings delight  TINGHAD – strain one’s neck in order to see an object not on the level of one’s eyes  MULAGAT – stare  SILIP – peep

55  SIGLAP – superficial, accidental glance without much attention  SIGLAW – glimpse; involuntary passing notice  PATUMANGA or DANGA – look born of awe or dread  LISAW – disquieting look because of anger  LILAP – peculiar flushing of the eyes of drunks  TUNGANGA – open-mouthed curiosity or indifference

56  BALING – look from one side to another  SULINDING, PASULINDING – glance obliquely, superciliously  MANGANINO, MANALAMIN – to look into a mirror  SILAW – dazzled  ALIBAY – follow a moving object with one’s eyes  BANAAG – glimpse, have a glimmer of  MULAT – open eyed  At marami pang iba

57 EXPRESSIVENESS: Maximalism  The common Filipino is a maximalist, filling up every available space with forms and things. It springs from an expressive exuberance deeply rooted in emotional sensitivity and the strong urge to connect.

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59 Treat the other person as you treat yourself because the other person is also yourself - Filipino core idea

60 THE CORE VALUES  KAPWA (Shared Identity)  PAKIRAMDAM (Shared Inner Perception)  KAGANDAHANG LOOB (Shared Humanity)

61 KAPWA SHARED IDENTITY (Shared Inner Self, “The other person is also yourself”)  the core of Filipino psychology, it is humaneness at the highest level  implies unique moral obligation to treat one another as equal fellow human beings

62 PAKIRAMDAM (Knowing Through Feeling or Tacit Knowing; Participatory Sensitivity)  A unique social skill inherent in Filipino personhood  The need for openness and basic trust is a precondition for this active process of sensing subtle cues SHARED INNER PERCEPTION

63 KAGANDAHANG LOOB SHARED HUMANITY (Pagkamakatao; A Shared Inner Nobility; A Quiet Sense of Responsibility for Others; A Great Compassion for All Living Beings)  Nudges a person towards genuine acts of generosity, kindness and caring

64 Levels of Filipino Social Interaction AMONG OUTSIDERS:  PAKIKITUNGO (courtesy)  PAKIKISALAMUHA (mixing)  PAKIKILAHOK (joining)  PAKIKIBAGAY (adapting)  PAKIKISAMA (getting along with)

65 PAKIKISAMA DEEPEST LEVEL OF INVOLVEMENT WITH ANOTHER PERSON STILL CONSIDERED AN OUTSIDER (IBANG TAO)  Characteristic tendencies of this trait are giving in to another person’s wish, demands, wants or desires. The motive for this could be politeness or expectation of future concessions or immediate rewards

66 Levels of Filipino Social Interaction AMONG INSIDERS:  PAKIKIPAGPALAGAYANG- LOOB (rapport)  PAKIKISANGKOT (involvement)  PAKIKIISA (oneness, unity with)

67 KAPWA: THE OTHER PERSON IS ALSO YOURSELF  The Filipino tends to do business with friends and relatives, or those with whom he has the closest personal ties.  He prefers a trust-based, long-term and deep relationship rather than one based on short-term, material gains.  An impersonal, formal, legal, purely business transaction – devoid of emotional depth - is alien to the Filipino and may only bring out the worst in him.

68 SCOLD IN PRIVATE PRAISE IN PUBLIC  NEVER SCOLD IN PUBLIC. It is tantamount to banishment from group membership, and thus entails a serious loss of a sense of being  Filipinos are very sensitive to the qualities of worth, equality and connectedness  One who is abused or treated badly arouses sympathy

69 LAWS ARE MERE SUGGESTIONS IF…  Anything purely legal, bureaucratic, formal and impersonal is shallow, manipulative and selfish. It has no real binding force and resorted to when the relationship is only for short–term material gains and not based on trust.  Anything based on a sincere, deeply- felt, sacred covenant works best in the long term and brings out the best in the Filipino. The other person and yourself become one.

70 LAYING THE GROUND RULES TOGETHER  Rules are more effective if based upon mutually agreed principles  These principles can easily be appreciated and understood if derived from core or surface Filipino values  The form of expression or pattern of communicating these principles must likewise conform to these values  It is best to achieve consensus in all levels of the organizational hierarchy

71 SOCIETAL VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH FILIPINO PERSONHOOD  KALAYAAN (Freedom)  KATARUNGAN (Justice, Equality)  KARANGALAN (Honor, Dignity)

72 FILIPINOS: ACHIEVE MATURITY THROUGH SOCIAL INTEGRATION  ARE EXCEEDINGLY ACTIVE AND CREATIVE IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, SOCIAL INTERACTIONS AND SOCIAL PROBING; ALWAYS SEEKING AND EXPLORING NEWER, DEEPER AND RICHER WAYS OF HARMONIZING AND CONNECTING WITH OTHERS Filipinos are masters of interpersonal skills Filipinos are adept in pakiramdam and non-verbal communication

73  ARE A HIGHLY NURTURING, CARING, SHARING PEOPLE, WITH A STRONG MATERNAL ORIENTATION Filipinos, because of their genius in interpersonal communication and a nurturing, caring attitude, excel in the service professions or industry  ARE DEEPLY DEVOTIONAL AND SPIRITUAL YET WITH A VIGOROUS ZEST FOR LIVING OR JOIE DE VIVRE

74 Filipino Religiosity  Filipinos, followed by Indians and Brazilians, score highest in emphasis on religion and religious beliefs (1979 Gallup Survey) and surveys confirm Filipino religiosity as highest in the world.  Large scale Filipino social movements were always God- inspired: Katipunan, EDSA Revolution, Compassion for Flor Contemplacion, etc.

75 Organize Around Sacred or Noble principles  Transcend ego, cultivate passion for excellence  Leader must be an example of selfless- ness, nurturing and caring but firm and strong  Filipinos appreciate leadership by example  A superior who can do the work he demands of his subordinate is highly respected and more effective.

76 Leaders That Filipinos Follow Top Five Clusters:  Makatao, mapagkalinga, may magandang kalooban (nurturant qualities)  Matapat, matuwid, maka-Diyos, may moralidad (upright, God-centered)  Malakas ang loob (courageous, with political will)  Makatarungan, demokratiko, pantay- pantay ang tingin sa lahat (fair, just)  Magaling, marunong (intelligent, capable)

77 FILIPINOS ARE ONE WITH THE MULTIDIMENSIONAL WHOLENESS OF LIFE  FILIPINOS DO NOT LIKE A PARTIAL, FRAGMENTED VIEW OF LIFE; AND RESPOND TO LIFE SYNERGISTICALLY (COOPERATIVE ACTION OF ALL THE FACULTIES, AGENCIES, OR LEVELS OF BEING)  WE DO NOT LIKE TO BELONG TO ONLY ONE SIDE OF A RELATIONSHIP. OUR KINSHIP SYSTEM IS BILATERAL. HAVING TWO KIDS IS ENOUGH AS LONG AS THEY ARE A BOY AND A GIRL.

78  A FILIPINO IS NOT HAPPY JUST KNOWING ANOTHER PERSON’S NAME. HE WOULD ALSO INQUIRE ABOUT HIS WORK, HOMETOWN, RELATIVES, MARITAL STATUS, EVEN HIS SALARY.  FILIPINOS HAVE GREATER ENERGY FOR WORK OR ACTIVITY THAT INVOLVES ALL THE LEVELS OF BEING (BODY, ALL THE SENSES, FEELINGS, INTELLECT, SPIRIT)  A FILIPINO RELATES TO OTHERS NOT ONLY FUNCTIONALLY(BASED ON THE TASK ON HAND) BUT WHOLISTICALLY. OPENING ONE WINDOW OPENS ALL.

79 BIPOLARITY: The Unity of Opposites  An intuitive logic vastly superior to the either/or of mechanistic cultures is Filipino bipolarity.  In bipolaristic logic, it is axiomatic that if a thing is true or valid, then its opposite must also be true or valid.

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82 A PERSON AND HIS ACTIONS ARE ONE, NOT SEPARATE  To criticize a person’s work is also to criticize the person himself, so how does one urge him to improve his work and raise standards without hurting him?  The solution is to use a bipolar approach: Praise-Criticize or Better, PRAISE-CRITICIZE-PRAISE (KISS-KICK-KISS)

83 BRIDGING DIFFERENCES: Curves not Angles  The Filipino prefers mediation to confrontation. Pahiwatig, pakiusap, pakikibagay, biro are only a few of the orchestral wealth of techniques for bridging differences.

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85 Vitalistic, Life Energy-Seeking Filipinos love biomorphic, non-architectonic shapes informal, asymmetrical balance rich tactile values kinaesthetic interaction

86 KINESTHETIC INTERACTIVENESS: Connecting Through Touch  Filipinos love to feel, literally touching their way through life. Rich textural qualities, biomorphic shapes, tasty foods, lush sounds and social clustering make life exceedingly warm and intimate.

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88 A hundred words for touch  DAMA, HIPO, KAPA, KAPKAP, HIMAS, LAMAS, HAPLOS, HAGOD, SALAT, HAWAK, KAPIT, DIIT, LAPAT, SUNGGAB, SAMBILAT(clutch, grab, snatch violently), AKAP, SAGI, ANTIG, LAMUKOS, LAMYOS, KUYUMOS, KUSKOS, KALABIT, KAMOT, KALMOT, DAITI, KANTI, TAPIK, TIPA, KUTOS, SANGGI, KADYOT, SABUNOT, SAMPAL, BUNTAL, PALO, SUNTOK, SUNGGO (bump against lightly), SIPA, SIKO

89 SIIL (violent pushing or shoving with the elbow), SALAGOY (touch lightly), LUKOT, SIKLOT, KALIKOT, LAPIROT, BALUTBOT, DUTDOT, SUNDOT, KUTKOT, KUROT, PINGGER, KALKAL, KALIKAW, BUTINGTING, BULATLAT, DIKIT, KISKIS, KIMIS, KILITI, SINTAK, SUONG, AKAY, AKBAY  DALA, KARGA, BUHAT, BITBIT, SAPO, SALO, KIMKIM, KIPKIP, SUKBIT, BABA, PASAN, SUNONG, KANDONG, KALONG, PANGKO, SAKBIBI, etc.

90 KINESTHETIC INTERACTIVENESS: The Magical, Healing Touch  Traditional rituals are a way of connecting to the divine. Through touch people get healed. A “magical” transference of vital energy occurs in many levels, physical and metaphysical.

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92 Hug If You Want To Live  Hugging is a key to happiness – Leo Buscaglia  Hugs make you feel psychologically more secure and together  Touching releases endorphins (the “happy hormones”), which kill pain and increase immunity to disease  Positive feelings strengthen the blood’s immune system

93 PAKIKIRAMDAM AND LAMBING : Soft, Flowing Movements  Pakikiramdam, knowing through feeling or participatory sensitivity makes the Filipino especially compassionate, affective, malambing, gentle, and kind.

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95 Sharing of Moods and Feelings  Pakikiramdam is the ability to participate in the inner life process or monitor the flow of feelings in others, especially if deeper feelings are involved.  This is the source of the much vaunted Filipino affinity with the underdog, melodrama, and sentimental and compassionate nature.

96  Pakikiramdam is more than sympathy or empathy: it is dynamic, profound and immeasurable. For ex, whereas in the U.S., funeral parlors have fixed opening and closing hours, in the Philippines they are open 24 hours. It is simply unthinkable for Filipinos to subject lamay to fixed, limited schedules just because of commercial considerations. When Filipinos bury their dead, it is not only close relatives who attend the ritual but even distant relatives, friends of relatives, relatives of friends, all those who have become neighbors of the deceased, peers, officemates, classmates and friends.

97 FILIPINOS ARE HIGHLY PARTICIPATORY  DEMAND COLLECTIVE, EQUAL PARTICIPATION IN THE CREATIVE PROCESS, DECISION-MAKING AND SELF-DETERMINATION Participation in the creative process is primary Everybody must have an active role, no matter how small (salimpusa)

98 Decision-making is a collective activity. No one must have a monopoly of the decision-making process In Filipino society, everybody is a participant/performer. Nobody is a mere spectator. There is no separation of performer/creator and audience/spectator. Filipinos prefer consensus as a mode of reaching decisions or settling conflicts.

99 The Participatory Filipino : Pantay-pantay, walang lamangan Pagbibigayan, sharing, interdependence; equitable distribution of resources  micro interweaving of colors, visual elements  interlocking/ interconnected wide spaces (non-compartmentalized)  salitan, interlocking rhythms in music

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103 Verbs expressing mutual, reciprocal action and equal possession of similar qualities  magsi- magsilabas, magsigising, magsitayo  magsipag- magsipaghanda, magsipagkalat  magka- magkaisa, magkasundo  magka- magkasama, magkapatid, magkatulad, magkakulay  magkasing- magkasingganda, magkasimpangit

104  ka - karamay, katuwang, katulong, katabi, kaklase, kalahi, kauri, kalaro, kasapi  kasing - kasintigas, kasinlapit, kasintanda, kasindali, kasing-asim, kasinggaling  mag-an- magsagutan, magsabunutan, magtakbuhan,magtawanan  magka-an magkalinawan, magkainisan, magkarinigan, magkasintahan  magsing- magsing-irog

105  maki- makisangkot, makialam, makiisa,makibahagi, makibaka, makisama, makigawa, makibili, makihalo, makitulog  makipag- makipag-away, makipag- kamay, makipag-usap  makipag - an makipag-agawan, makipagsagutan  makipagka - an makipagkaibigan, makipagkasunduan

106  ka - an kasunduan, kaibigan, kasintahan  pakiki- pakikiramay, pakikiramdam, pakikiisa, pakikiapid  pakikipag- pakikipagtalo, pakikipag- sayaw, pakikipag-usap  pakikipag - an pakikipagtulungan, pakikipagtawanan, pakikipag-ugnayan, pakikipag-unawaan, pakikipagsulatan, pakikipagsapalaran

107  pakikipagka - an pakikipagkasunduan, pakikipagkaibigan  paki- pakialam, pakisuyo, pakibasa  paki – an pakibagayan, pakisamahan, pakilapitan, pakibihisan  ta- kain ta

108 PROVIDING CHOICES Development as the Proliferation of Options  The deepest social aspirations of the Filipino are freedom, justice, and dignity. Monopoly, dictatorship and the curtailment of choices are anathema. Decision-making is participatory.

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110 ARROGANCE IS A NO-NO  The Filipino concept of kapwa (shared identity/goodness) and non-duality of life make people absolutely equal in principle and nobody has a right to regard himself as above or more important than others  Humility is highly-prized, at least outwardly  The privilege of one must be the privilege of all. Equal application of the law is a must

111 PROVIDING CHOICES: Variability of Form, Medium and Technique  A greater range of materials, forms, techniques, ideas and possibilities for engaging in productive or creative work allows for wider and democratic social participation

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113 FILIPINO DIGNITY IS THE CREATIVE HUMAN ESSENCE  There is nothing more dehumanizing to a human being than to feel he is merely being treated as a machine The consequences for an organization are a rapid turnover rate, absenteeism, safety violations, high accident rate, high rates of illness, and low productivity.

114 FILIPINO DIGNITY IS THE CREATIVE HUMAN ESSENCE  In the work place and in other relationships which fail to recognize the individual as more than a robot, we see negative behavior such as lack of cooperation and absenteeism – John W. Burton

115 CREATIVE IMPROVISATION  Extemporaneous or on-the-spot creativity comes very naturally to the Filipino who has the finest artistic yet improvisatory traditions such as the duplo, balagtasan, balitaw, tultul, kulintang, kuntao and okir. Creative spontaneity is highly valued.

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117 ROUTINE KILLS CREATIVE SPONTANEITY  Filipinos tend to fall into a stupor if work becomes routine. The solution is job rotation, multi-tasking, change of activity, breaks, leisure and play or better, to make work INTRINSICALLY REWARDING and CULTIVATE A PASSION FOR EXCELLENCE so that every moment of the work situation becomes A CREATIVE CHALLENGE.

118 Personal Identity Within The Community  Within a shared matrix of communal values, every person’s inherent uniqueness must be socially recognized. His/ her personal identity must find creative expression in a particular social role.

119 FILIPINO CULTURAL GENIUS HIGHLY RELATIONAL  Most active in the exploration of meaning in relationships as seen in our prolific affixation system, one of the richest in the world  Promotion of togetherness through activities, practices, and creations characterized by multiple functions, values and qualities

120  A highly caring, nurturing orientation  Strong family values  Genius in interpersonal skills  Excellence in service industries  Highest in religiosity  Superior in mental health  The phenomenon of EDSA and other manifestations of our genius in designing social institutions

121  Preference for human scale in social organization, including size of political constituency (governance with a face)  Giving everybody an active role. Decision-making is a collective activity  There is no separation of participant/performer/creator and observer/audience/spectator  The individual is recognized within a shared social matrix HIGHLY PARTICIPATORY, CONSENSUS-BUILDERS

122 THE ASSUMPTION THAT ALL OF HUMANITY ARE ROOTED IN A COMMON CORE OF BEING(UBOD), A CREATIVE, LIVING AND DIVINE GOODNESS  A contagious joie de vivre and optimistic attitude, a great capacity for happiness  A highly adaptable, versatile, flexible, creative and expressive people  Amazing babaylans, psychic healers and practitioners  Passion for freedom, justice and dignity

123 THE NOTION OF LIFE AS AN INTEGRATED WHOLE  The principle of absolute equality of man and woman  Non-sexist languages  Strong educational, knowledge orientation

124 Happiest People  Filipinos are happiest in Southeast Asia, 43%, Malay, 42%, Thai, 39% (SRG Happiness Index, 9,000 surveyed in 1987)  Young Filipinos are the happiest in Asia, 78%, Thai, 77%, Malay 76%, Indian, 73%…Taiwanese, 7%, Hongkong youths are the saddest, 5%. (Channel V Network Survey,Nov. 2000)  Filipinos are the happiest in East Asia (2003 survey)

125 Happiness Protects Against Colds  People who are energetic, happy and relaxed are less likely to catch colds, research has found.  Conversely, those who are depressed, nervous or angry are more likely to complain about cold symptoms – whether or not they get bitten by the cold bug.  A team from Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh found that people who had a positive emotional attitude were not infected as often as people with a negative emotional style – BBC News July 26, 2003

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127 WAKAS Salamat Po!


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