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Lesson One Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Department of Languages and Literature Pu Dong-mei.

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2 Lesson One Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Department of Languages and Literature Pu Dong-mei

3 Text A _ Your College Years

4 Contents 1. Teaching Objectives 2. In-class Discussion 3. Background information: 1) about the author 2) about the text 3) Erickson’s Theory of Developmental Stages 4. Language points 5. Text analysis: 1) theme; 2) structure 6. Writing devices: developing paragraphs by examples

5 Teaching Objectives 1. To grasp some psychological terms, such as “developmental changes”, “identity crises”, “psychological independence”, and “internalizing religious faith”. 2. To guide students to think over the real meaning of college life and how to take advantage of it to serve their bright future. 3. To grasp the following important language points:  1) the use of anticipatory “it”;  2) the use of gerund;  3) frequently used words and phrases;

6 In-class Discussion  Talk about your summer holiday with your partners. Introduction 1. How old are you when you entered college? Do you think there are some changes happened to you after one year’s study? What are they? 2. Have you experienced any crucial developmental changes since you entered this university? Have you gone through any identity crisis? 3. Have you gained psychological independence from your parents? Can you properly handle relations with both sexes at this university? 4. What values and beliefs you have come to internalize in your college years? Any new insights?

7 Background information About the author  Dr. Bob Hartman is a children’s story-teller and part- time pastor. He was born in Pittsburgh, the United States, and moved to England in the summer of He's been using his dynamic and interactive style to entertain audiences on both sides of the Atlantic - from the Pittsburgh Children's Museum to schools, bookshops and major festivals throughout the UK, which in 2005 include Greenbelt, Edinburgh International Book Festival and the Northern Children's Book Festival.

8 About the text  This is a text about what students will experience in their “college years”. It is addressed to college students in the United States.  In the article, the author touches upon the “developmental changes” experienced by college students, many important adjustments and decisions concerning young people’s education, career, values and social responsibilities.  To have a meaningful and rewarding life, we must learn to handle what the author calls “the identity crises”, to find out who we are, what are our strong points and weaknesses, what we should do and where we should go. Of course, we must learn to be independent or self-reliant psychologically as well as in other matters.

9 About the text  In this article, the author also talks quite a bit about students’ need to achieve sexual identity in order to form a healthy and correct world outlook.  In addition, as English majors, students should also think about the realistic questions concerning the position of English major, be it a tool or a specialized subject, the future goal of self-development, etc.

10 Erickson’s Theory of Developmental Stages: Basic Theory  Babies are born with some basic capabilities and distinct temperaments. But they go through dramatic changes on the way to adulthood and old age. According to psychologist Erik H. Erickson, each individual passes through eight developmental stages.  Each developmental stage is characterized by a different psychological “crisis”, which must be resolved by the individual before the individual can move on to the next stage. If the person copes with a particular crisis in a maladaptive( 不适应的 ) manner, the outcome will be more struggles with that issue later in life. To Erickson, the sequence of the stages is set by nature. It is within the set limits that nurture works its ways.

11 Eight developmental stages  Stage 1: Infant Trust VS Mistrust Needs maximum comfort with minimal uncertainty to trust himself/herself, others, and the environment.  Stage 2: Toddler Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt Works to master physical environment while maintaining self-esteem.  Stage 3: Preschooler Initiative VS Guilt Begins to initiate, not imitate, activities; develops conscience and sexual identity.  Stage 4: School-age Child Industry VS Inferiority Tries to develop a sense of self-worth by refining skills.

12 Eight developmental stages cont’d  Stage 5: Adolescent Identity VS Role Confusion Tries integrating many roles (child, sibling, student, athlete, worker) into a self-image under role model and peer pressure.  Stage 6: Young Adult Intimacy VS Isolation Learns to make personal commitment to another as spouse, parent or partner.  Stage 7: Middle-Age Adult Productivity VS Stagnation Seeks satisfaction through productivity in career, family, and civic interests.  Stage 8: Older Adult Integrity VS Despair Reviews life accomplishments, deals with loss and prepares for death.

13 Passage of our life (p1)  fertilized egg with DNA code  embryo 胚胎  fetus 胎儿  newborn  infant / child  Teenager (infml)/ adolescent (p1)  adult (grown-up, infml) / youth / prime 盛年  middle-aged  pensioner  old-aged / elderly / senile  senior citizen / the state of infirmity

14 Language points 1. The use of anticipatory “it”: It occurs to sb. to that (p.1); it dawns on sb. that; it strikes sb. that / how e.g. 1) Has it ever occurred to you that your professors and other school personnel have certain goals for your growth and maturity during your college years? 2) Has it ever dawned on you that certain developmental changes will occur in your life as you move from adolescence to young adulthood. 3) It has just dawned on me that I can do it if I believe I can. 4) It never occurred to me that Brad Pitt and Jennifer Aniston could get divorced. 5) It never occurs to him to help the poor and the old.

15 Language points cont’d 2. The use of gerund:  e.g. Probably one of the most stressful matters for young college students is establishing their sexual identity, which includes relating to the opposite sex and projecting their future roles as men or women. 3. During this time, students are going through an identity crisis… go through: experiencing; undergoing 4. The use of “perceive”: 1) to think of as e.g. Stress is widely perceived as contributing to coronary heart disease. 2) to notice; to discover; to observe e.g. I perceived that I could not make her change her mind. 3) to understand, to grasp: e.g. A key task is to get pupils to perceive for themselves the relationship between success and effort.

16 Word study  Affection Affection  affirm affirm  apply apply  capability capability  contribute contribute  counsel counsel  distinct distinct endeavor endowment ethical excessive handle inherit interpret inhibition involve observe occur perceive project shrink

17 Word study 1. affection: n. a gentle feeling of love and caring Examples: Every mother has/feels affection toward her children. He is held in great affection. c.f. affectionate a. e.g. He looks at her with affectionate looks. 2. affirm v. to declare (usually again) positively; strengthen beliefs, ideas, or feelings Examples: affirm one’s judgment/innocence affirm sth. to sb. affirm that it is true

18 Word study cont’d 3. apply She is applying for a scholarship. We should apply what we have learned to practice. Not all natural laws can apply to human society. Apply some of this ointment to the swollen part, and the pain will soon be gone. 4. capability: the natural ability, skill, or power that makes you able to do sth.  Examples: He has the capabilities of solving/to solve practical problems. It’s quite above his capabilities.

19 Word study 5. contribute: v. a. to join with others in giving help, money… b. to help to cause or produce Examples: contribute food and clothing for the refugees contribute to the Red Cross Exercises contribute to one’s health. Drinking contributed to his ruin. 6. counsel: v. (fml.) to advise n. advice; opinion; suggestion Examples: counsel care in the forthcoming negotiation He counseled their giving up/to give up the plan.

20 Word study 7. distinct: a. clearly different or belonging to a different type b. easily seen, understood; plain Examples: Silk is distinct from rayon. They are similar in form but distinct in kind. There is a distinct improvement in his pronunciation. He is at a distinct advantage in the competition. 8. endeavor: v. (fml.) to try very hard n. (fml.) effort; attempt Examples: He endeavored to calm himself down but in vain. His endeavors to persuade her to go with him failed.

21 Word study 9. endowment n. a. quality or ability that someone has naturally b. money, property, etc. given to provide an income  Examples: They are men of great endowments. The Oxford and Cambridge colleges have numerous endowments. endow v. a. to possess naturally, be born with b. to give a college, hospital, etc. a large sum of money that will provide it with an income She is endowed with both beauty and brains. That hospital is privately endowed.

22 Word study 10. ethical: a. connected with principles of what is right and what is wrong Examples: an ethical principle an ethical basis for education c.f. ethnic a. a. of race or the races of mankind b. (colloq.) of a particular cultural group  Examples: ethnic clothes/food/music/restaurants 11. excessive: a. much more than is reasonable or necessary  Examples: excessive rainfall excessive charges

23 Word study 12. handle: to manage, control or cope with  Examples: This box contains delicate china. Please handle with care. This computer is easy to handle. We have to handle the relationship between our two countries carefully. This shop does not handle imported goods. 13. inherit: v. to receive (genetic characters) from one’s parents  Examples: inherit money/estate/title She inherited her mother’s good looks and her father’s bad temper.

24 Word study inheritance: n. the money, property, etc. that you receive from sb. when they die; the fact of receiving sth. when sb. dies She spent all her inheritance in a year. n. sth. from the past or from your family that affects the way you behave, look, etc. our artistic/cultural inheritance heritage n. the history, traditions and qualities that a country or society has had for many years and that are considered an important part of its character national/cultural heritage

25 Word study 14. interpret: v. a. to make clear the meaning of (either in words or by artistic performance b. to consider to be the meaning of c. to give an immediate oral translation of Examples: interpret a difficult passage in a book We interpreted his silence as a refusal. Will you interpret for the foreign visitors? 15. inhibition: n. (psych.) a feeling of worry or embarrassment that stops you doing or saying what you really want to Example: Wine weakens a person’s inhibitions. inhibit v. to hinder; to restrain inhibit sb. from doing sth.

26 Word study 16. involve: v. a. to include as a necessary part or result b. to affect Examples: All reforms involve certain tasks. The building of the dam involved relocating almost one million people. You have to involve every country in the fight against global warming. He was deeply involved in the scandal. 17. observe: v. a. to see or notice; watch carefully b. to say by way of comment  Examples: The accused was observed trying to force the lock of the door. Some scientists observed that global warming is not necessarily related to human activities.

27 Word study 18. occur: v. a. to happen b. to come into one’s mind suddenly  Examples: Over the years many floods have occurred in that area. It occurred to him that there was a better way to do it. I guess it never occurred to him to put aside some money for a rainy day. 19. perceive: v. (fml.) to become aware of, esp. through the eyes or the mind  Examples: Musicians can perceive small differences in sounds. He gradually perceived that language and culture can’t be separated.

28 Word study 20. project: v. a. to plan b. to cause a shadow, an outline, etc. on a surface c. to present sb./sth./yourself to other people in a particular way, esp. one that gives a good impression project a dam/a new canal project a picture on a screen project the future roles as men or women 21. shrink: v. a. to make or become smaller, esp. through wetting b. to move back; show unwillingness to do sth.  Examples: Will this shirt shrink in the wash? Car sales have been shrinking recently. A shy man shrinks from meeting strangers.

29 Phrases and Expressions  be equal to be equal to  dawn on/upon dawn on/upon  drag one’s feet drag one’s feet  for certain for certain  freedom/free from freedom/free from  go through go through in turn in/with relation to in a different light independent from/of stand back

30 Phrases and Expressions 1. be equal to: v. to be just as good as; have strength, courage, ability etc. for sth.  Examples: Many of our products are equal to the best in the world. It is ridiculous to think one race is not equal to another because it has a different skin color. He is equal to doing this task. 2. dawn on/upon: v. to begin to appear; grow clear to the mind  Examples: The truth began to dawn on him. It suddenly dawned on me that there was another thing that contributed to their economic success. C.f: It occurs to sb. that…

31 Phrases and Expressions 3. drag one’s feet: v. (figurative usage) to delay deliberately  Examples: The local authorities are dragging their feet closing these coal mines. I can understand why they are dragging their feet over this reform. The reason is that it will affect their personal interests. 4. for certain: ad. certainly; definitely; no doubt  Examples: He is probably an accountant. I don’t know for certain. I can’t say for certain how much this car will cost. It must be in the neighborhood of two hundred thousand yuan.

32 Phrases and Expressions 5. freedom/free from: no longer having sth. you do not want  Examples: The most important freedom our people should have is the freedom from hunger. An ideal society is one free from exploitation and oppression. freedom from taxation freedom of press/speech  “We look forward to a world founded upon essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way— everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want… everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear… anywhere in the world.” —Franklin D. Roosevelt

33 Phrases and Expressions 6. go through: experiencing; undergoing e.g. During this time, New Orleans is going through a turmoil. 7. in turn: in succession  Example: The candidates were summoned in turn to see the examiner. Put the following sentence into English: 理论的基础是实践又反过来服务于实践。 Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. 8. in/with relation to: as regards; concerning  Examples: I have a lot to say in relation to that affair. The project was outlined with relation to available funds.

34 Phrases and Expressions 9. in a different light: in a different way  Examples: After I took that course, I began to see the world in a different light. What he did made us see him in a different light. 10. independent from/of: not dependent on or controlled by other persons or things  Examples: If you have a car, you are independent from/of trains and buses. That’s an objective law independent from/of man’s will. Cf: Promotion is dependent on/upon one’s record of success.

35 Phrases and Expressions 11. to stand back: 1) to stand to the rear The child stood back at the sight of the ferocious dog.  2) to distance oneself mentally in order to understand or judge better Sometimes an administrator must stand back from day-to-day business to grasp the wider pattern of events. 3) to withdraw or retreat from making discussions, influencing events, etc. She ran the family and her husband stood back. These were vital discussions from which he couldn’t afford to stand back.

36 Phrases and Expressions 12. be aware of (para.8): know about  He was well aware of what was undergoing secretly inside the league.  Those swimmers should have been aware of the danger near the shores of this area. 13. First and foremost…  Second…  Last but not least…

37 Education hierarchy  Nursery school  Kindergarten  Primary / elementary school  Secondary school (age 11 to 18)  Middle school (Am. age 6 to 11)  High school (Br. 11 to 18; Am. Age 14 to 18)  Undergraduate: freshman, sophomore, junior, senior, the bachelor’s degree in science or art, essay / thesis; thesis defense  Graduate / postgraduate: the graduate school; the master’s degree, the doctor’s degree; thesis, dissertation

38 Nothing + so + adj. / adv Nothing… than…(p5): to emphasize how strong or great a particular quality is  Youngsters learn nothing so fast as how to beat the system.  There’s nothing better than a good cup of hot coffee.  After all, 15 minutes of exercise is better than nothing.  Either he went through with this thing or he did not: it was all or nothing.  It did nothing but make us ridiculous.  Hollywood is nothing if not creative, especially if someone else will pick up the bills.  It’s all rubbish, and there’s nothing in/to it.  Not for nothing was the plane called “widow-maker”  Never think you can get something for nothing.

39 Paraphrase 1) … identity is determined by genetic endowment, shaped by environment, and influenced by chance event. (para. 2)  Who we are is determined by three things: First, our genes, or what our parents have given us, our legacy; second, environment, and third, luck or opportunities. 2) First, there is functional independence, which involves the capability of individuals to take care of practical and personal affairs, such as handling finances, choosing their own wardrobes, and determining their daily agenda. (para. 4)  First is the ability to solve practical problems, … such as learning how to spend money wisely, how to choose their own clothes and making a list of what they are going to do every day.

40 Paraphrase 3) Fourth is freedom from “excessive guilt, anxiety, mistrust, responsibility, inhibition, resentment, and anger in relation to the mother and father.” (para. 4)  Children often feel very guilty in relation to their parents because they think they have done something wrong; they are also anxious because they re eager to please their parents; they sometimes feel unhappy because they think that their parents have not been fair to them; they feel that they are responsible to their parents for everything they do; they are always afraid of not saying the right thing or not behaving properly; all these may make them angry with their parents or make them feel resentful. These feelings reflect their emotional dependence on their parents. When they grow up, they usually strive for the freedom from these.

41 Text Analysis: Theme of the text  College is designed to be a time of changes for students. Threatening the changes may be, they contribute to young adults’ growth and maturity.  College students are experiencing a lot. Not only are they being introduced to new people and new knowledge, but they are also acquiring new ways of assembling and processing information. They are also proudly growing in their understanding of themselves, others and the world.

42 Structure of the text  Part 1 (para. 1) Many key changes happen to college students during their college years.  Part 2 (para. 2-9) The key changes involve the following: identity crisis, the independence/dependence struggle, establishment of sexual identity, affection giving and receiving, internalization of religious faith, values and morals, development of new ways to organize and use knowledge, a new understanding of the world and himself/herself.  Part 3 (para. 10) Conclusion.

43 Writing Devices: developing paragraphs by examples  A statement which is very general is seldom impressive or convincing. It is usually necessary to give examples to prove, to illustrate, or to clarify a general statement. We may be too used to saying “for instance” or “for example” to realize that we are using a certain method for developing a topic.  Paragraph 6  Paragraph 7  Paragraph 8  Paragraph 9

44 Other ways of developing paragraphs  Developing by time  Developing by process  Developing by space  Developing by detail  Developing by generalization  Developing by comparison and contrast  Developing by cause and effect  Developing by classification  Developing by definition

45 Text B_ Preparing for College_ Lincoln Steffens In-class Discussion 1. You are now already in the second year of university studies. Can you still recall the days when you prepared yourself for admission to university? How did you prepare for college studies? 2. Are you opposed to examination-oriented preparation? 3. Lincoln Steffens is apparently against the standardized way of preparation. How did he prepare for his college – Berkeley?

46 Excerpt from Lincoln Steffens’ Autobiography  Steffens stated very clearly that there is no limit to knowledge and that no one seems to know the essential truth.  In preparing for college, the most fundamental & essential task is: to possess immense knowledge; to have no fear to present one’s own view or to be opposed by others; to be always ready to discuss; to make one’s own view public and to argue for one’s own stand; to be ready to be attacked or to be misunderstood.

47 About the author – Lincoln Steffens  Joseph Lincoln Steffens (Apr. 6, 1866 – Aug. 9, 1936) was an American journalist and one of the most famous and influential practitioners of the journalistic style called muckraking( 揭发丑闻、黑 幕 )-exposes of public and private corruption - aroused the American public during the early years of the twentieth century. His most famous book is his Autobiography (1931), from which the excerpt is taken. In this excerpt, Steffens makes an important revelation about learing, a fundamental discovery that every individual must make if he is to be successful in the world of ideas.muckraking  市政腐败是 19 世纪末 20 世纪初美国现代化过程中所遭遇的严重社会问题。作为一 名新闻记者,他对这一现象进行了系统而深刻的揭露,对 20 世纪初美国进步主义 改革起到了一定的推动作用。他被认为是 20 世纪初美国 “ 黑幕揭发运动 ” 中的杰出 代表。

48 About the author Cont’d – Lincoln Steffens  Steffens was born and grew up in San Francisco, California, and studied in France (Sorbonne 巴黎大学 ) and Germany (Heidelberg, Leipzig) for several years after graduating (1889) from the University of California, Berkeley, where he was first exposed to what were known then as "radical" political views.San Francisco, CaliforniaUniversity of California, Berkeley  At McClure's magazine, Steffens became part of a celebrated muckraking trio, along with Ida Tarbell and Ray Stannard Baker. He specialized in investigating government and political corruption, and two collections of his articles were published as The Shame of the Cities (1904) and The Struggle for Self-Government (1906). He also wrote The Traitor State, which criticized New Jersey for patronizing incorporation. In 1906, he left McClure's, along with Tarbell and Baker, to form American Magazine.McClure'sIda TarbellRay Stannard BakerThe Shame of the Cities New JerseyincorporationAmerican Magazine

49 On The Shame of the Cities  In The Shame of the Cities, Steffens sought to bring about political reform in urban America by appealing to the emotions of Americans.  He tried to make them feel very outraged and "shamed" by showing examples of corrupt governments throughout urban America.

50 国家财政性教育经费支出占 GDP 的比例 世界平均水平为 4.9% ,发达国家为 5.1% ,欠发达国家为 4.1% 中国 2002 年为 3.41%; 2003 年下降为 3.28%; 2004 年更下降到 2.79% 2005 年全国教育支出占 GDP 的比例是 2.16% ; 2009 年实际投入 2.4% 【南方周末】本文网址: 中国在基本民生方面的投入占 GDP 比例居全世界倒数第一, 甚至低于某些非洲穷国 中国工资收入水平仅占 GDP 的 11% ,而税负却是全球第二, 我们理应享受良好的民生服务,医疗、教育应该免费或者低成本,我们应该有良好的 社会保障。事实上,我国现有财力同样能够支持对医疗、教育等公共福利的更高 投入。 但是由于行政成本增加和腐败等因素,垄断企业与资本和财政税收正在形成我国社会 的三大寡头,他们三者合伙拿走了 GDP 和经济增长的绝大部分。国家无力投入民 生,而用于行政、豪华性公共建设的公共投入在 GDP 当中所占比例却是世界第一. 《中国青年报》 2006 年 7 月 5 日载:中共中央党校社会学教研室教授吴忠民

51 目前,中国人口占世界的 20% ,中国的教育经费占世界的 1% ,卫生经费占世界的 2% 。 据《南风窗》 上报道: 2004 年的调查显示,超过 50% 的农村中小学基本运行经 费难以保证,超过 40% 的小学使用危房, 40% 的小学缺少课桌板凳,接近 40% 的农村 小学交不起电费,有电不敢开电灯。 目前,中国的社会保障支出占财政支出 12% ,而且其中相当部分用于维持官僚机构的运转 ,而欧美社会保障支出占财政支出都在 45% 以上。中国的低保, 2004 年中央财政负担 105 亿元,地方财政支出 173 亿,还不及公款吃喝费用的 1/10 。 相对同等发展水平的国家来说, 1979 年之前中国的基础教育做得令人刮目相看(基本上 是免费义务教育),文化革命中不少地方曾搞过普及中、小学运动。中国的医疗卫生 当时也在发展中国家名列前茅。 然而中国在 1980 年实行严厉计划生育后却同时降低了对教育和医疗的投入,国家对教育 投入之少是世界罕见,降低到仅占 GDP 的 2-3% ,农村中小学教师的工资都发不出去。 教育成了家庭的主要负担。 2003 年 9 月,在仔细考察了中国的教育状况后,联合国人权委员会教育权报告员托马舍夫 斯基认为,中国的教育经费不仅所占全国生产总值的比例低得令人吃惊,而且政府预 算部分只占其中的 53% ,另外的 47% 是由家长或其他来源填补的。她说,中国人均教 育开支之少还不如穷国乌干达。我们这个世界上人口最多的国家,竟然以世界教育总 支出的 1.04% ,担负着全球正规教育在校学生中的 17.9% 。 与此形成鲜明对比的是,《中国青年报》 2006 年 3 月 6 日的报道: “ 仅 2005 年,我国各级行 政机关公车消费 3000 亿元,公款吃喝 2000 亿元,公款考察旅游 1000 亿元,三项合计高 达 6000 亿元,占当年国家财政收入的 20% ,相当于国防开支的 3 倍、全民教育投入的 5 倍.” 2008 年,各级政府公款消费达 9000 亿元)

52 Unit 6. Preparing for College – Lincoln Steffens - Dictionary Work 1.driving motive: the incentive/encouragement that urges them on 2. the rudiments: the basics, the fundamentals (The word rudiments is always in the plural form when used in this sense.) 3. metaphysics: the branch of philosophy that deals with abstract concepts, etc. 形而上学,宇宙哲学,纯粹哲学 4. conscious culture: the cultures (i.e., customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular people or social group or nation) that is directly perceptible or known to us 5. fanatic: one who is very enthusiastic about a particular activity 6. personify: express or represent (a quality in human form)

53 About Culture Definition: 美国人类学家 Alfred L. Kroeber & Clyde Cluckhohn 在《文化:概念与定义的评析性回 顾》 (1963: 11) 中指出: “ 文化是外显和内隐的行为模式与价值观念及其在人造器物中的体现 ,它通过象征符号来获取和传递,代表了人类群体的独特成就 ” 。 Composition: 文化因其特有的外显性和内隐性形成了不同的层次结构 ( 其核心部分,如思维模式 、行为模式、民族信仰和价值观构成文化的深层结构;而语言、艺术、宗教、哲学等则构成 它的表层结构 ) Culture comes in layers, like an onion. To understand it you have to unpeel it layer by layer. On the outer layer are the explicit, observable products of the culture such as the language, food, architecture, fashions, social institutions and art. They are, however, only symbols of deeper layers of culture.

54 Culture  Values and norms are the middle layer of culture and more difficult to identify. Norms are the mutual sense a group has of what is "right" and "wrong." Norms are reflected in laws and rules of conduct. Values determine the definition of "good" and "bad." Norms address how a person should behave, whereas values deal with how a person aspires to behave. What is taken for granted, unquestioned reality, core assumptions - is at the core of culture. These are the things, that when questioned, cannot be answered and provoke confusion and irritation.  In the US, asking someone why he or she believes all people are equal only brings frustration.  In the East, asking someone why he or she believes in arranged marriages would bring the same frustration.

55 Dictionary Work Cont’d 7. sedentary: inactive; done while sitting down 8. underline: indicate the importance of 9. balked: (here) baffled; frustrated 10. a maddening lot: a wild, uncontrollable group 11. righteous sects: morally justifiable groups of people whose religious beliefs are considered different from those of a larger group 12. relish: something such as a pickle or a sauce eaten with a meal or a drink; great enjoyment

56 Unit 6. Preparing for College - Library Work Homer was A Greek poet, to whom are attributed the great epics, the Iliad, the story of the siege of Troy (an ancient city in Asia Minor), and the Odyssey, the tale of wanderings of Ulysses, a Greek leader in the Trojan War. The place of Homer’s birth is doubtful, probably a Greek colony on the coast of Asia Minor. Arguments have long raged over whether his works are in fact by the same hand, or have their origins in the lays of Homer and his followers (Homeridae), and there seems little doubt that the works were originally based on current ballads which were much modified and extended. Of the true Homer, nothing is positively known. The so-called Homeric hymns are certainly of a later age.

57 Library Work Cont’d - Iliad & Odyssey Both epics deal with legendary events that were believed to have occurred many centuries before their composition. The Iliad is set in the final year of the Trojan War, fought between the Greeks and the inhabitants of the city of Troy. The legendary conflict forms the background for the central plot of the story: the wrath of the Greek hero Achilles. Insulted by his commander in chief, Agamemnon, the young warrior Achilles withdraws from the war, leaving his fellow Greeks to suffer terrible defeats at the hands of the Trojans. Achilles rejects the Greeks' attempts at reconciliation but finally relents to some extent, allowing his companion Patroclus to lead his troops in his place. Patroclus is slain, and Achilles, filled with fury and remorse, turns his wrath against the Trojans, whose leader, Hector (son of King Priam), he kills in single combat. The poem closes as Achilles surrenders the corpse of Hector to Priam for burial, recognizing a certain kinship with the Trojan king as they both face the tragedies of mortality and bereavement.

58 Odyssey The Odyssey describes the return of the Greek hero Odysseus from the Trojan War. The opening scenes depict the disorder that has arisen in Odysseus's household during his long absence: A band of suitors is living off of his wealth as they woo his wife, Penelope. The epic then tells of Odysseus's ten years of traveling, during which he has to face such dangers as the man-eating giant Polyphemus and such subtler threats as the goddess Calypso, who offers him immortality if he will abandon his quest for home. The second half of the poem begins with Odysseus's arrival at his home island of Ithaca. Here, exercising infinite patience and self-control, Odysseus tests the loyalty of his servants; plots and carries out a bloody revenge on Penelope's suitors; and is reunited with his son, his wife, and his aged father.

59 Library Work Cont’d Dante( 但丁 ) Alighieri ( ) The greatest Italian poet and one of the most important writers of European literature. Dante is best known for the epic poem COMMEDIA, c , later named LA DIVINA COMMEDIA. It has profoundly affected not only the religious imagination but all subsequent allegorical 寓意的 creation of imaginary worlds in literature. Dante spent much of his life traveling from one city to another. This had perhaps more to do with the restless times than his wandering character or fixation on the Odyssey. However, his Commedia can also be called a spiritual travel book.

60 Library Work Cont’d Julius Caesar (100BC - 44BC)  Caesar was a politician and general of the late Roman republic, who greatly extended the Roman empire before seizing power and making himself dictator of Rome, paving the way for the imperial system.  Julius Caesar was born in Rome on 12 July 100 BC into the prestigious Julian clan. His family were closely connected with the Marian faction in Roman politics. Caesar himself progressed within the Roman political system, becoming in succession quaestor 财政官 (69), aedile 行政官 (65) and praetor 执政官 (62). In he served as governor of the Roman province of Spain. Back in Rome in 60, Caesar made a pact 公约 with Pompey and Crassus, who helped him to get elected as consul 领事 for 59 BC. The following year he was appointed governor of Roman Gaul 高卢 where he stayed for eight years, adding the whole of modern France and Belgium to the Roman empire, and making Rome safe from the possibility of Gallic invasions. He made two expeditions to Britain, in 55 BC and 54 BC.

61 Caesar Cont’d  Caesar then returned to Italy, disregarding the authority of the senate and famously crossing the Rubicon river without disbanding his army. In the ensuing civil war Caesar defeated the republican forces. Pompey, their leader, fled to Egypt where he was assassinated. Caesar followed him and became involved with the Egyptian queen, Cleopatra.  Caesar was now master of Rome and made himself consul and dictator. He used his power to carry out much-needed reform, relieving debt, enlarging the senate, building the Forum Iulium and revising the calendar. Dictatorship was always regarded a temporary position but in 44 BC, Caesar took it for life. His success and ambition alienated the strongly republican senators. A group of these, led by Cassius and Brutus, assassinated Caesar on the Ides (15) of March 44 BC. This sparked the final round of civil wars that ended the Republic and brought about the elevation of Caesar‘s great nephew and designated heir, Octavian 屋大维, as Augustus, the first emperor.

62 Robert Owen, A "doer" more than a "talker", utopian socialist Robert Owen founded the famous New Lanark Mills in Scotland as an example of the viability of co-operative factory communities. Many industrialists actually visited these "model factories" and some even adopted parts of Owen's system. Owen attempted to extend these into agriculture - advocating collective farming, as in New Harmony, Indiana. Although most of these efforts failed, he continued on his social work - becoming the head of one of the largest trade union federations in Britain in 1843.utopian socialist

63 Tories ( 英 ) 保守党 ToryTory n. pl. {Tories} : (Eng. Politics) A member of the conservative party, as opposed to the progressive party which was formerly called the Whig 辉格党, and is now called the Liberal, party; an earnest supporter of existing royal and ecclesiastical 教会的 authority.nplToriesEngPolitics Note: The word Tory first occurs in English history in 1679, during the struggle in Parliament occasioned by the introduction of the bill for the exclusion of the duke of York from the line of succession, and was applied by the advocates of the bill to its opponents as a title of obloquy 毁谤 or contempt. The Tories subsequently took a broader ground, and their leading principle became the maintenance of things as they were. The political successors of the Tories are now commonly known as Conservatives.

64 Roman Catholic 罗马天主教 A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English- speaking countries by those unwilling to recognize the claims of the One True Church. Out of condescension 屈尊 for these dissidents, the members of that Church are wont 常常 in official documents to be styled “Roman Catholics” as if the term Catholic represented a genus 种类 of which those who owned allegiance to the pope 罗马教皇 formed a particular species. It is in fact a prevalent conception among Anglicans 英国国教徒 to regard the whole Catholic Church as made up of three principal branches, the Roman Catholic, the Anglo- Catholic and the Greek Catholic. One True ChurchChurchCatholicsCatholicpopespecies AnglicansCatholicChurchCatholic

65 Protestant 新教  基督教有三大支派:天主教 ( 在西方称为 Roman Catholic) 、东正教 ( 在西方称为正教 Orthodox) 、新教 ( 在西方称为抗议宗 Protestant) 。  基督教产生之后,在罗马帝国境内,由于地理、历史、文化和政治等方面的原因,产生了 东部教会和西部教会之间的分歧。东部教会承袭希腊文化传统,包括君士坦丁堡、安提阿 、亚历山大里亚和耶路撒冷四大 “ 牧首 ” 区;西部教会承袭拉丁文化传统,包括以罗马为中心 的帝国西部地区。 1054 年,东西部教会正式分裂。  东部教会强调自己的正统性,称为 “ 正教 ” ,也称 “ 东正教 ” ;因最初盛行于希腊语地区,举行 宗教仪式时使用希腊语,故也称 “ 希腊正教 ” 。  西部教会强调自己的普世性,称为 “ 公教 ” ;因为中心在罗马,也称 “ 罗马公教 ” ;传入中国后 ,被译为 “ 天主教 ” 。  16 世纪在天主教教会内部爆发宗教改革运动,一批脱离天主教而形成的新派别因为不承认 罗马教皇的权威而被称为 “ 抗议宗 ” ,统称 “ 新教 ” ,与被视为 “ 旧教 ” 的天主教相对。汉语中常 以基督教称呼特指新教,为了加以区别,有人将包括天主教、东正教和新教在内的各派统 称 “ 基督宗教 " 。  大多数新教徒居住在北欧和北美。新教在丹麦、挪威、瑞典和英国等国是国教。 ( 马丁 · 路德的信义宗、加尔文创立的归正宗以及英国国教派的圣公宗 )

66 Teaching Points for Reference 1. to be put off for a year – to be delayed for a year put something off – delay doing something e.g. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. 2. I was not of them – I was not like them; I was not of their kind 3. so far as I could make out – so far as I could understand make out – understand, see, or hear e.g. That problem is just beyond me; I can’t make it out. He muttered a complaint that nobody could make out. 4. they looked dazed or indifferent – they looked confused / bewildered or uninterested / unconcerned Daze is often used in the passive. To be dazed is to be made unable to think or feel clearly. e.g. His answer to the question left us all dazed.

67 Teaching Points Cont’d indifferent – not interested in, not caring about e.g. We should not be indifferent to the low achievers in school. 5. foreign to me – unfamiliar and strange to me; unknown to me; not within my experience. This is the formal use of the word foreign. e.g. His concept of education is entirely foreign to us. 6. bear on – have some connection with; relate to. e.g. Did what he said bear on your problem? 7. for keeps – this phrase is used informally, meaning “forever, permanently”. e.g. “Can I have one of those cute mementos?” “ Sure. This one is yours, for keeps.”

68 Teaching Points Cont’d 8. Appeal to – attract, interest. e.g. His plan of spending our winter vacation in an orphanage to coach the children there in English appealed to all of us. Appeal has different meanings in different contexts. e.g. The municipal Government appealed to ( 请求 ) the residents to save water last summer. The defendant( 被告 )defied the verdict and appeal to ( 上诉 ) the higher court. 9. I was not in the least curious about Greek… - I wasn’t eager to learn Greek…at all not in the least – not at all e.g. Lots of people love to read science fiction, but I’m not in the least interested.

69 Teaching Points Cont’d 10. to be crammed for Berkeley – to be stuffed with as much book knowledge as possible for me to pass the entrance examination of the University of California at Berkeley cram – learn as much as possible in a short time just before the examination e.g. Learning is a long-range process. Cramming for an examination in the last minute does one no good. 11. all the poets of all the ages – all the poets of all periods in history. Call the students’ attention to the meaning of all the ages ( 不同历史时代 ) here in comparison with of all ages, which means “of different ages”( 不同的年龄 ) 12. Romance and language sang songs to me – I enjoyed romance and language so much that they were like songs sung to me

70 Teaching Points Cont’d 13. inspire – encourage in somebody the desire and ability to take effective action by filling with eagerness, confidence, etc. e.g. The Party secretary’s words inspired us to work still harder. 14. It was too great and too various for me to personify with my boyish imitations and heroism – Life was so good and so different in kind that I was not able to express what it was like with my youthful mind and boldness. 15. when I looked … balked – when I looked … thwarted / frustrated 16. With a sureness which withstood reference to the books – with such a certainty that they did not have to refer to the source of the quotation 他们在引用权威人士所述时是如此的肯定,以致不必提及引 文的出处

71 Teaching Points Cont’d withstand – hold out against, stand up to, not be changed by e.g. Buildings in this area should be able to withstand earthquakes. 顶 得住地震 Great works of art/literary works can always withstand the test of time. 经得起时间的考验 17. studied minds as polished as fine tools – great intellectual faculties great mental capacities as flawless as first-class tools 18. Those picked Englishmen – those excellent/superior Englishmen Picked is an adjective meaning “chosen as very suitable for a special purpose”. e.g. Prizes are awarded to a picked few.

72 Comprehension – Blank filling 1. According to the author, the secret of successful education lies in__.  Getting the students interested in what they are learning. 2. With regard to Steffen’s education when he was a teenager, his parents’ can be regarded as___.  Liberal-minded 3. In the author’s opinion, ___ is the right motivation for students to learn?  Inquisitiveness for knowledge 4. The author thought Mr. Nixon a good tutor because he ___.  Encouraged him to find answers to his own questions 5. The author found his best preparation for college in ___.  Hearing the conversations of Mr. Nixon and his scholar friends

73 Comprehension Questions 1. From Steffen’s description of “the elect” in para. 2, what has been revealed about himself?  He must be very different from those boys. To him study didn’t mean performing all the tasks assigned by the teacher without thinking and reasoning.  He must be unhappy to be told to memorize what he was supposed to learn without a thorough understanding.  He was motivated by a strong quest for knowledge, not by the desire to distinguish himself in terms of marks. 2. Where can you find Steffen’s critical comments on the school education he received? Was it at least in part responsible for his failure to get into university?  He was uninterested in those subjects which seemed to him irrelevant to his life, and the teachers failed to interest him in those subjects. As a result, he did not do well in them. This partly account for his failure. (paras. 3-4)

74 Comprehension Questions Cont’d 3. What is the antecedent of the pronoun “it” in the first sentence of para. 6? Apart from referring to its antecedent, what cohesive function does it perform?  “It” refers to the change that had come over him. “It” links the paragraph with the preceding one. 4. How does Evelyn Nixon impress you? Support your answer with information from the text.  A well-informed Oxford scholar, a good teacher, who knew how to interest his student in what he had to learn, a creative and original man, who was not satisfied with what was known, but was more interested in the exploration and discovery of the unknown. Paras. 6 to 13.

75 Comprehension Questions Cont’d 5. Despite their similar background, the Englishmen who met at the Saturday night gatherings had “no common opinion on anything apparently” (para. 13). By which sentence in the same paragraph is this fact restated? Why does the author seem to emphasize this point?  “They could not among them agree on anything but a fact.”  To emphasize the originality of these searching minds and the infinite nature of the pursuit of knowledge. 6. Why does Steffens say that those wonderful Saturday nights in San Francisco were his preparations for college?  The conversations he heard were brilliant, scholarly, and stimulating, thus greatly broadening his scope of knowledge. And the way in which the conversations were carried on was inspiring, too. Paras They were much more beneficial to him than the kind of school education he had received.

76 Comprehension Questions Cont’d 7. Steffens represents one type of student, one attitude toward learning, and one opinion of education. What are your biases on these issues? Do you find yourself belonging to the same type as Steffens or to the type of the elect as described in para. 2? Is there any classmate of yours who you think is a Steffens-type student? What is your evaluation of such a student? What comments can you make on teaching and learning in most schools in present-day China?


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