Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

[k] Key Point Jonathan Trinidad, M.A., Ph.D. Candidate Department of Sociology New York State University at Buffalo Michael Farrell, Ph.D., Department.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "[k] Key Point Jonathan Trinidad, M.A., Ph.D. Candidate Department of Sociology New York State University at Buffalo Michael Farrell, Ph.D., Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 [k] Key Point Jonathan Trinidad, M.A., Ph.D. Candidate Department of Sociology New York State University at Buffalo Michael Farrell, Ph.D., Department Chair Department of Sociology New York State University at Buffalo CDHS Social Capital and Adolescent Development Participant Guide © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

2 [k] Key Point [1] Introduction [2] Human capital [3] Social capital [4] Comparing human and social capital [5] Adolescent development [6] Research examples [7] Case scenarios [8] Cultural capital ≡ Table of Contents Keeping it organized © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

3 1 Introduction Getting started [k] Key Point Using this resource manual © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

4 ♫ Notes Using this Resource Manual More than one way [k] Key Point To maximize the utility of this presentation, what are some of the things you should keep in mind as you listen? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

5 2 Human Capital Knowledge and skills [k] Key Point Multiple forms of capital Defining human capital Alternative definitions of human capital Measuring human capital Comparing human capital Moving on © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

6 ♫ Notes Multiple Forms of Capital Distinguishing between forms [k] Key Point The word, “capital,” is used repeatedly in current research. As Schuller reports, “the list of different types of capital is growing fast: to natural, physical and financial capitals are added organizational, intellectual, environmental and many more.” Schuller (90) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

7 [k] Key Point In this handbook we distinguish between human and social capital. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

8 ♫ Notes Defining Human Capital You and the economy [d] definition Human capital is defied as, “the knowledge, skills, competences and other attributes embodied in individuals that are relevant to economic activity.” Schuller (90) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

9 ♫ Notes Alternate Definitions of Human Capital Because it helps to say it another way [d] definition There are many ways to define human capital. What follows is a collection of important citations. Some may make more sense to you than others. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

10 ♫ Notes Measuring Human Capital How much do I have? [k] Key Point The basic measure of human capital is years of schooling and qualifications achieved such as degrees and certifications. Schuller (2001:98) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

11 ☻ Discussion Comparing Human Capital Who has it? [k] Key Point Human capital varies between individuals. Some people are more educated. Some people have better skills. Whether we know it or not, we frequently make judgments about others’ human capital. Consider the following Example. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

12 ? Question You are the owner of corner store and are in need of a new cashier for the evening shift. The job involves working alone. There are three applicants. Who do you hire? What factors do you consider? Agatha is 16 and currently in high school. She is a C+ student and does not plan on attending college when she graduates. If hired, this would be her first job. Mark is 19 and sophomore in college. He is B- student majoring in business administration. Last summer he worked as a stock boy for a local hardware store. Jane is 26 and is in her final year of law school. She has an extensive résumé including several internships at prestige law firms. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

13 3 Social Capital The network [k] Key Point Defining social capital A second definition of social capital Alternative definitions of social capital Building social capital Mapping social capital Measuring social capital The importance of civic engagements Why does social capital work? Information flow Illustrating information flow Influence Illustrating Influence Social credentials Illustrating social credentials Reinforcing identity Illustrating reinforcing identity © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

14 ♫ Notes Defining Social Capital According to Coleman [d] Definition Two definitions of social capital frequently appear in the research. The first definition was popularized by Coleman. According to Coleman, social capital of the family is strength of the relationships between children and parents. Coleman (1988); Mitchell (1994:653); Qian & Blair (1999:606) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

15 [d] Definition “A child may have a talented and highly educated parent and thus be genetically endowed with great potential…, but interactions with that parent are needed to convey encouragement and expectations…” Bianchi & Robinson (1997:333) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

16 ♫ Notes A Second Definition of Human Capital According to Lin [d] Definition Social capital is also defined as, an investment in social relations with expected returns in the marketplace. Lin (2001:19) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

17 ♫ Notes Building Social Capital The marketplace [k] Key Point According to Lin, we build social capital by investing relationships for returns in the marketplace. But what exactly is the marketplace? Traditionally, we think of it as economic sector, but the marketplace also includes the political, occupational and community sectors. Lin (2001:19) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

18 ☻ Discussion Mapping Social Capital Real examples of social capital [k] Key Point In the same way material resources travel between people, so too does social capital. As such, we can build a “road map” outlining the flow of resources. The first step in mapping social capital is to know the members of your social network and the resources they provide. Lin (2001:20) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

19 ? Question Make a list or a diagram mapping out your social network. What social relations are important to you? Why? What resources are made available because of your network? What resources do you provide in your network? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

20 ♫ Notes Measuring Social Capital How much do I have? [k] Key Point Unlike human capital which is relatively easy to measure (i.e. years of education, income), measuring social capital is more abstract. The most popular measurements include attitudes, values and civic engagements. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

21 ♫ Notes The Importance of Civic Engagements Why social capital works [k] Key Point Social capital works because of civic engagements. Volunteer associations such as churches, block clubs, political parties, and special interest groups increase the size and depth of one’s network which in turn increases one’s social capital. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

22 ♫ Notes Why Does Social Capital Work? Four reasons [k] Key Point Like economic capital, social capital improves the outcome of our actions. Lin names four broad benefits of social capital which include information, influence, social credentials, and reinforcement. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

23 ♫ Notes Information Flow Why social capital works: Reason 1 [k] Key Point Social capital works because it facilitates the flow of information. Being ideally located in a network makes you better informed to market needs. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

24 ? Question To demonstrate information flow, describe a situation where you were granted information or an opportunity because of your social capital. In other words, why was the opportunity available to you and not others? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

25 ☻ Discussion Illustrating Information Flow How does information travel? [k] Key Point It’s impossible for one person to know everything. Consequently, individuals often use their networks to access missing information. “If I don’t know, I may know someone who does.” © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

26 ♫ Notes Influence Why social capital works: Reason 2 [k] Key Point Social capital works when members of our network exert their influence on important actors for someone else’s benefit. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

27 ☻ Discussion Illustrating Influence Put in a good word for me [k] Key Point We all know what it’s like to have a friend exert their influence for our benefit. We all know what it’s like to exert our influence for a friend’s benefit. Let’s talk about it. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

28 ? Question Describe a situation when you used your good standing to help a friend. Or, describe a situation when a friend used their good standing to help you. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

29 ♫ Notes Social Credentials Why social capital works: Reason 3 [k] Key Point Social capital works because others are aware of your social credentials or your accessibility to resources through social networks. Others see you as a gatekeeper to specific resources. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

30 ☻ Discussion Illustrating Social Credentials I not only see you, I see what you can do for me [k] Key Point Social credentials is an abstract concept. To better understand how social capital relies on social credentials, let’s consider how financial capital relies on financial credits. Time for an analogy. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

31 ? Question What would happen if individuals failed to recognize paper money as a financial credit? How can we use this analogy to explain social credentials and social capital? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

32 ♫ Notes Reinforcing Identity Why social capital works: Reason 4 [k] Key Point Social credentials is an abstract concept. To better understand how social capital relies on social credentials, let’s consider how financial capital relies on financial credits. Time for an analogy. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

33 ☻ Discussion Illustrating Reinforcing Identity You are worthy [k] Key Point Doctors, by virtue of their profession, are entitled to a certain level of income. But what else are they entitled to? Let’s consider how identities merit not only financial capital, but also social capital. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

34 ? Question Doctors and cashiers are both entitled to financial capital. The type and degree is determined by the societal recognition of the identity. Doctors are held to higher esteem, thus they get paid more. Explain why social capital differs between a doctor and cashier?

35 4 Comparing Human and Social Capital Key Differences [k] Key Point The fundamental difference What can you do for others One versus many © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

36 ♫ Notes The Fundamental Difference In simplest terms [k] Key Point The key difference between human and social capital is that human capital focuses on individual agents versus social capital which focuses on relationships between agents and the networks they form. Schuller (2001:97) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

37 [k] Key Point The differences between human and social capital have been explained numerous ways. Some of the following references may make more sense to you than others. [q] Quote “In order to create well-being in children, financial and human capital must be accompanied by social relationships that allow resources to be transmitted to and used by children.” Teachman et al. (1997:1356) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

38 ☻ Discussion What Can You Do For Others? A simple illustration [k] Key Point Schuller sums it best when he states, “individuals and their human capital are not discrete entities that exist separately form the rest of other social units.” Schuller (98) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

39 ? Question Bob is a doctor. What is Bob’s human capital? Explain how his human capital can be social capital to his friends. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

40 ☻ Discussion One Versus Many Strength in numbers [k] Key Point Another way to illustrate the difference between human and social capital is by comparing the resources of one versus the resources of many. Often times, a group of people can complete a task better and more efficient than one person alone. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

41 ? Question Describe a time when a team of people were able to accomplish a goal no one person could do alone. What kind of resources did you provide to the team? What kind of resources did your co-workers provide? Explain in your own words how this is an example of social capital. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

42 5 Adolescent Development How does social capital enhance the young adult transition? [k] Key Point The young adult transition The rise of the young adult transition Not all transitions are equal Rates of success Social capital and the transition © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

43 ♫ Notes The Young Adult Transition Moving beyond adolescence [k] Key Point The period of life between adolescence and adulthood has often been referred to as the young adult transition. It is a particularly volatile time for development whereby individuals learn to balance freedom and responsibility. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

44 ♫ Notes The Rise of the Young Adult Transition The basics [k] Key Point As was described earlier, the period of life between adolescence and adulthood has often been referred to as the Young Adult Transition. Let’s consider how this transitional stage developed. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

45 [k] Key Point Cumulatively, these factors – Continued education, non-family living, and delay of marriage and childbirth – result in a prolonged period of transition from child to adult. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

46 ☻ Discussion Not All Transitions Are Equal What makes for a successful transition into adulthood? [k] Key Point The young adult transition is a difficult period of life for all adolescents, but not all adolescents experience the same degree of difficulty. What makes the transition easier or more difficult for some? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

47 ? Question From your experiences in the field, what factors make the adolescent experience more difficult? What factors make it easier? Are there any variables that are a good indicator of how difficult the transition will be? For example, how do family income and/or size affect adolescent development? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

48 ♫ Notes Rates of Success Successful transition varies by race [k] Key Point Research suggests the ease and success of the young adult transition varies by race and ethnicity. Hardships during adolescent development may account for future socio-economic status discrepancies along racial and ethnic lines as young people transition into paid work. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

49 [k] Key Point Demographic research done in the last decade and a half indicates that African Americans are more likely than whites to come through the young adult transition in ways that can negatively impact later life development. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

50 ♫ Notes Social Capital and the Transition Enhancing the transition [k] Key Point To explain the racial and ethnic differences in the young adult transition, some scholars have pointed to social capital. Social capital, it is argued, can affect the timing and preparedness of adolescents transitioning into adulthood. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

51 6 Research Examples What do the experts say? [k] Key Point Social capital varies by race Social capital is lower in single parent homes The impact of low parental social capital on children Success despite low human and financial capital Community as social capital © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

52 ♫ Notes (1) Social Capital Varies by Race Minorities are at a disadvantage [k] Key Point Social capital is not equal between races. Most research indicates blacks have lower social capital than whites. This discrepancy has profound impacts on black children undergoing the young adult transition. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

53 [q] Quote Social capital is related to socio-economic status. To the extent that blacks have lower socio- economic status than do whites, they are likely to have less social capital, resulting in fewer educational advantages.” Hallinan (2001:56) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

54 ♫ Notes (2) Social Capital is Lower in Single-Parent Homes Two parents are better than one [k] Key Point Research shows social capital is higher for children who live with both parents. Reason being, children can benefit from two social networks versus one. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

55 [k] Key Point The structure of the family has been argued as a form of social capital. As a form of social capital, family structure can influence the rate of high-risk, early home-leaving. [q] Quote “This relation between family structure and achievement has profound consequences for the racial gap, since black students are nearly twice as likely as white students to live in nontraditional households.” Roscigno (1999:158) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

56 ♫ Notes (3) The Impact of Low Parental Social Capital on Children When parents can’t provide [k] Key Point Children are the beneficiaries of their parent’s social capital. When parents have high social capital, those resources can be passed along to their children. Conversely, when parents have low social capital, children are often deprived of important resources. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

57 [k] Key Point Baker and Stevenson illustrate the importance of social capital. Although economic capital does play an important role in a child’s academic success, a parent’s ability to be informed and integrated in the school system is also important. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

58 [q] Quote “The most cruel aspect of discrimination and disadvantage lies in the ability to deprive the individual of that competence which is essential to effective functioning once the formal barriers to free competition have been breached.” Inkeles (1966:65) [k] Key Point Again, the lack of parent’s social capital has a profound impact on children’s development, especially in the school environment. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

59 [q] Quote “One of the main consequences of a lack of social capital is a tendency to drop out of high school at an early age.” Mitchell (1994:653) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

60 ♫ Notes (4) Success Despite Low Human and Financial Capital The significant impact of social capital [k] Key Point Parental human and financial capital are important factors affecting children’s educational performance. However, “when human and financial capital are insufficient, high expectations for minorities may be achieved through social capital.” Qian & Blair (1999:607) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

61 [q] Quote “It is likely that African-American and Hispanic parents who encourage their children to move ahead give enough attention to their children despite the deficiency of human and financial capital. It is one of the cultural strategies that minorities design to increase their children’s school success.” Qian & Blair (1999:622) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

62 ♫ Notes (5) Community as Social Capital Outside Support [k] Key Point Good news. “Social capital outside of the family can compensate, at least in part, for a lack of social capital within the family.” Mitchell (1994:666) © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

63 7 Case Scenarios Applying what you have learned [k] Key Point Agatha Noah Ursula © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

64 ☻ Discussion Agatha At 16 she wants move out and have her own child [k] Key Point Agatha is 16 years old and wants to begin working in the “real world.” Although she is intelligent and has the potential to excel in school, her grades are mediocre, mostly due to poor attendance and lack of motivation. Agatha can’t understand the point of an education and would rather drop out and begin working full time. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

65 [k] Key Point Agatha is the oldest of four children and lives with her mom in a low income community. Her mother is on welfare and rarely leaves the house. She has never met her father or any other members of her extended family. [k] Key Point Ultimately, Agatha is eager to be independent and knows she wants to become a mother but not a wife. She believes finding a part-time job will be the first step towards becoming an adult. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

66 ? Question What resources are unavailable to Agatha because of her poor social network? How is her mom’s withdrawal from the world hurting Agatha? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

67 ☻ Discussion Noah His parents are upstanding citizens who are never home [k] Key Point Noah is 13 years old and not doing well in school despite having a personal tutor and being enrolled in several after-school booster classes. He understands the material but does not care about it. “What good is it to me? I don’t need anyone’s help.” © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

68 [k] Key Point His school counselors believe Noah might have a learning disability. He’s been tested several times, but the results always come back negative. Noah is fine. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

69 [k] Key Point Noah’s parents are both college educated and are well respected in the community. The father is a county lawyer and the mother is a surgeon at the local hospital. Both work full time so money is not an issue, hence the personal tutor and after-school classes. “We can’t always be there for Noah, so we provide him with the best alternatives He has everything he could ever need or want available to him.” [k] Key Point Noah is an only child and is anti-social at school. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

70 ? Question What resources are available to Noah? What resources are unavailable? What factors are detrimental to Noah’s development? Why? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

71 ☻ Discussion Ursula She has no money but could care less [k] Key Point Ursula is 17 years old and is the fourth child of six in her family. Because her family is so big, money is always tight. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

72 [k] Key Point Her mother died before Ursula became a teenager and her father works two full-time jobs to make ends meet. He’s a plumber and cab driver. As a result, Ursula was raised by her brothers and sisters, and aunts and uncles. “We live paycheck to paycheck so my family has learned to be there for each other. I have a big extended family and we always manage to make things work… somehow.” © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

73 [k] Key Point Academically, Ursula is a B- student. She studies when she has to, but is more interested in learning from her family. “My family teaches me things I don’t learn in school like how cook or how to speak to a boss. Those kinds of things.” © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

74 [k] Key Point Ursula’s school counselors like her very much because she’s very polite and can carry an entertaining conversation forever. However, they’re worried Ursula isn’t serious enough about going to college. “They don’t think I have enough money or book smarts to get accepted. But I’m not worried. I’m friends with all my teachers and they’re willing to write me excellent references letters. Plus, one of my aunts has already been talking to her boss about hiring me. If I don’t get into college, I’ll work with my aunt.” © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

75 ? Question Identify the human, financial, and social capital at work in Ursula’s life. What are her weakest resources? Strongest? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

76 8 Cultural Capital Further Considerations [k] Key Point Cultural capital Who would you hire Low cultural capital © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

77 ♫ Notes Cultural Capital On a side note [k] Key Point Cultural capital is a separate but important form of capital. It refers to, “ the credentials and cultural assets embodied in individuals and their families. It is used to explain the reproduction of social hierarchy, as elite families endow their children with the cultural capital which enables them to succeed in maintaining their elite position.” Schuller (2001:91). © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

78 ☻ Discussion Who Would You Hire? Cultural Capital in Action [k] Key Point Cultural capital is more of an academic notion, but it is easily understood in the following scenario. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

79 ? Question Two applicants with the comparable experience and qualifications are interested in the same job. The first applicant, however, correctly identified the wall hanging in the office. “It’s by Monet.” He also complimented the boss’s, “British cut,” suit and talked about a theater show they had both recently seen. The second applicant, though equally qualified, could not find a common point for discussion. Although there is no real difference in their abilities, why is the first candidate at an advantage? © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

80 ♫ Notes Low Cultural Capital Keep it within the circle [k] Key Point As the argument goes, minorities and females are at a disadvantage because they lack cultural capital. Although they may be equally qualified as their white, male counterparts, they are often overlooked because they don’t know the code. © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group

81 [end] Finished © 2006-2007 CDHS/Research Foundation of SUNY/BSC College Relations Group


Download ppt "[k] Key Point Jonathan Trinidad, M.A., Ph.D. Candidate Department of Sociology New York State University at Buffalo Michael Farrell, Ph.D., Department."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google