Outer membrane: Contains channel-forming protein, called Porin. Permeable to all molecules of 5000 daltons or less. Inner membrane (Impermeability): Contains proteins with three types of functions: (1) Electron-transport chain: Carry out oxidation reactions; (2) ATP synthase: Makes ATP in the matrix; (3) Transport proteins: Allow the passage of metabolites Intermembrane space: Contains several enzymes use ATP to phosphorylate other nucleotides. Matrix: Enzymes; Mit DNA, Ribosomes, etc.
Molecular basis of oxidative phosphorylation 线粒体的结构 Mitochondrial function
F 1 particle is the catalytic subunit; The F 0 particle attaches to F 1 and is embedded in the inner membrane. F 1 : 5 subunits in the ratio 3 :3 :1 :1 :1 F 0: 1a ： 2b ： 12c ATP 合成酶的结构 (The structure of the ATP synthase)
F1 颗粒具有 ATP 合成酶的活性 F1 particles have ATP synthase activity
Proton translocation through F0 drives ATP synthesis by F1
ATP 合成酶是可逆的偶联装置 The ATP synthase is a reversible coupling device
化学渗透假说 Mithchell’s Chemiosmotic theory (1961) The pH and electrical gradient resulting from transport of protons links oxidation to phosphorylation; Electrons pass from NADH or FADH2 to O2, the terminal electron acceptor, through a chain of carriers in the inner membrane; As electrons move through the electron-transport chain, H+ are pumped out across the inner membrane, and form Proton motive force.
核糖体 Ribosome Ribosomes are about 20nm in diameter and are composed of 65% ribosomal RNA and 35% ribosomal proteins. Prokaryotes have 70S ribosomes, each consisting of a small (30S) and a large (50S) subunit Eukaryotes have 80S ribosomes, each consisting of a small (40S) and a large (60S) subunit
微管的功能 The functions of microtubules 1 、纺锤体和染色体运动 Mitotic spindle and Chromosome movement 2 、维持细胞形态 Maintain the cell shape 3 、 细胞内物质的运输 Transport of intracellular substance 4 、特化细胞结构（纤毛、鞭毛）的运动 The movement of cilia and flagella
纺锤体和染色体运动 Mitotic spindle and Chromosome movement
A general model for kinesin- and dynein-mediated transport in a typical cell
特化细胞结构（纤毛、鞭毛）的运动 The movement of cilia and flagella Movement format of flagella and cilia
微丝 (microfilament, MF) MF also called actin filaments, which are thin and flexible filaments, approximately 7nm in diameter. MF also called actin filaments, which are thin and flexible filaments, approximately 7nm in diameter.
中间纤维（ intermediate filament,IF) 10 nm filaments, called intermediates ◆ 10 nm filaments, called intermediates their diameter : between the thin actin- containing filaments and the thicker myosin filaments of smooth muscle cells their diameter : between the thin actin- ◆ containing filaments and the thicker myosin filaments of smooth muscle cells
中间纤维的功能 Function of intermediate filament ◆ Increase mechanical strength ◆ Forming and maintain of desmosome ◆ Structural support for contractile machinery in muscle cell ◆ Signaling for intracellar mechanical and molecular signals ◆ Transport of mRNA