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Key Issue 2: Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions?

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Presentation on theme: "Key Issue 2: Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Key Issue 2: Why Do Religions Have Different Distributions?

2 Origin of Universalizing Religions Each can be traced to a man who lived since the start of recorded history ◦Buddhism -Christianity -Islam

3 Origin of Christianity Jesus The four Gospels of the Christian Bible ◦Matthew ◦Mark ◦Luke ◦John

4 Roman Catholics Accept the teachings of the Bible as well as the authority of the Church hierarchy (the Pope) 7 sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Anointing the Sick, Matrimony, Holy Orders, and the Eucharist) transubstantiation

5 Eastern Orthodoxy Split from the Roman Catholic Church Patriarch of Constantinople Accept the 7 Sacraments, but reject doctrines added by the Roman Catholics after the 8 th Century St. Basil’s Cathedral, Moscow Capernaum

6 Protestantism The Reformation Martin Luther’s 95 Theses Individuals directly communicate with God…don’t have to go through a priest/Pope

7 Origin of Islam Origin: similar narrative to Judaism and Christianity; Adam – Abraham Hagar and Ishmael ◦Second wife and son ◦Banished ◦Makkah/Mecca

8 Muhammad Born about A.D. 570 The visions Arabic and the Quran The Hijra Sunni and Shiite Muslims

9 Origin of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama ◦Born a prince in 563 B.C. in present day Nepal ◦The Buddha, “the Enlightened One” ◦Spread the message in India

10 Origin of Hinduism No specific founder Existed prior to recorded history Invasion of the Aryan tribes from Central Asia into India (1400 B.C.) ◦Religion mixed with the Dravidians (who already lived there) ◦This became Hinduism

11 Diffusion of Religions

12 Diffusion of Christianity Christianity diffused through all forms of diffusion: 1.Relocation Diffusion 2.Contagious Diffusion 3.Hierarchical in the 4 th Century 4.Since the year 1500, missionary activity by Europeans extended Christianity to other regions of the world

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14 Diffusion of Islam Hierarchical diffusion: Muslim armies Relocation: missionaries to sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia

15 Lack of Diffusion of Ethnic Religions Most have limited diffusion They lack missionaries to go out and try to convert Mingling of Ethnic and Universalizing Religions: ◦Africa: in some places Christianity is mixed with the traditional religion ◦Japan: Buddhism is mixed with Shintoism

16 Judaism: An Exception Judaism is practiced in many countries Diaspora Ghettos Following the Holocaust

17 Holy Places Ethnic Religion’s holy places derive from the distinctive physical environment of their hearths Universalizing Religions endow with holiness cities and places associated with their founders’ lives.

18 Buddhist Shrines Eight locations of important events in Buddha’s life ◦Example: Bodh Gaya, where he reached enlightenment

19 Holy Places in Islam Holiest places: cities associated with Muhammad 1.Makkah: - the Ka’ba - The Hajj 2.Medina

20 Holy Places in Sikhism The Darbar Sahib, or Golden Temple

21 Holy Places in Hinduism Closely tied to the physical geography in India Natural features rank as holy: river banks or coastlines A tirtha The Ganges

22 Cosmogony in Ethnic Religions Cosmogony: a set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe Yin (earth, darkness, female, etc.) Yang (heaven, light, male, etc.)

23 The Calendar in Ethnic Religions A prominent feature is the celebration of the seasons The Jewish Calendar ◦agricultural ◦Lunar calendar The Solstice ◦Pagan religions ◦Stonehenge

24 The Calendar in Universalizing Religions Holidays: commemorate events in the founder’s life Climate and agricultural cycle are not central to the liturgy and rituals

25 So……… Why do different religions have different distributions?


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