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The European Union’s Crisis Management System Conflict Research Society Annual Conference 2008 “Conflict and Complexity” University of Kent at Canterbury,

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Presentation on theme: "The European Union’s Crisis Management System Conflict Research Society Annual Conference 2008 “Conflict and Complexity” University of Kent at Canterbury,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The European Union’s Crisis Management System Conflict Research Society Annual Conference 2008 “Conflict and Complexity” University of Kent at Canterbury, UK 2-3 September 2008 Natália F. de O. Marques Leal University of Kent at Canterbury (UK)

2 Introduction EU’s security role EU’s security role Concepts Concepts CM origins and development CM origins and development CM operational record CM operational record CM structures CM structures Decision-making procedures Decision-making procedures Conc.  A lot still to be done but progressive attempts to endow the EU with the necessary means to achieve its ambitions

3 EU’s (desired) role in the global arena “This is a world of new dangers but also of new opportunities. The European Union has the potential to make a major contribution, both in dealing with the threats and in helping realise the opportunities. An active and capable European Union would make an impact on a global scale. In doing so, it would contribute to an effective multilateral system leading to a fairer, safer and more united world.” (ESS, 2003: 14) EU’s ambition to ‘export peace and security beyond its borders’ (Europa) EU’s ambition to ‘export peace and security beyond its borders’ (Europa)

4 EU’s & CM (Surveys) Worldviews 2002: Worldviews 2002: Europe should play a more active role in world affairs (even though Europeans were mainly concerned with domestic issues). Favoured economic and political tools over military instruments (in spite of the willingness to use force in certain circumstances). Transatlantic Trends 2006: Transatlantic Trends 2006: 46% of Europeans felt that “the EU should strengthen its military power to play a larger role in the world.” The External Image of the European Union (2007): The External Image of the European Union (2007): “the EU is often associated with peace-making processes and security concerns” + crisis management approach one of its elements of distinctiveness (even though EU not widely known outside its borders)

5 List of available CP instruments EU’s CP toolbox includes “development co- operation and external assistance, trade policy instruments, social and environmental policies, diplomatic instruments and political dialogue, co-operation with international partners and NGOs, as well as the new instruments in the field of crisis management [inc. civilian and/or military missions ].” + Enlargement! (http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/cfsp/cpcm/cp.htm)

6 CM & CP and the conflict cycle Conflict Prevention (CP) Conflict Prevention (CP) the EU’s actions (both short and long-term) “to address the conflict dynamics by addressing structural root-causes of conflict as well as the expressions of violence. [In this sense,] Conflict prevention activities can and should be designed before a conflict (preventing the outbreak), during a conflict (preventing its spread) and after (preventing its re-emergence).” (European Commission) versus Crisis (or conflict) Management (CM) versus Crisis (or conflict) Management (CM) activities that take place after initial prevention has failed and a conflict has already erupted in order to contain both its vertical and horizontal escalation activities that take place after initial prevention has failed and a conflict has already erupted in order to contain both its vertical and horizontal escalation short-term security concerns short-term security concerns The EU’s pillared-structure (focus on ESDP; 2nd pillar) The EU’s pillared-structure (focus on ESDP; 2nd pillar)

7 From Peace Within to Peace Beyond ‘Never again’ postulate; 1951 (Paris Summit): ECSC ‘Never again’ postulate; 1951 (Paris Summit): ECSC Conflict prevention as the driving force of the EU integration process Conflict prevention as the driving force of the EU integration process Internal concern versus external projection/‘model to export’ Internal concern versus external projection/‘model to export’  The establishment of CFSP (1993) and birth of ESDP (1999) End of Cold War + Yugoslavian conflict End of Cold War + Yugoslavian conflict UN - Agenda for Peace (1992) UN - Agenda for Peace (1992) OSCE - Charter of Paris for a New Europe & Conflict Prevention Center OSCE - Charter of Paris for a New Europe & Conflict Prevention Center NATO - new strategic concept & enlargements NATO - new strategic concept & enlargements WEU / Council of Europe WEU / Council of Europe OAU - Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, and Settlement (1993) OAU - Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, and Settlement (1993)

8 EU CM: Origins and Evolution (1) 1991/3: TEU  CFSP: “…eventual framing of a common defence policy” 1991/3: TEU  CFSP: “…eventual framing of a common defence policy” 1997/99: Amsterdam Treaty  “…progressive framing of a common defence policy” + Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (PPEWU) 1997/99: Amsterdam Treaty  “…progressive framing of a common defence policy” + Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (PPEWU) 1998: French-British Summit at St. Malo: 1998: French-British Summit at St. Malo: “the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises” 1999: June (Cologne European Council) – establishment of ESDP 1999: June (Cologne European Council) – establishment of ESDP

9 EU CM: Origins and Evolution (2) 1999 June – ESDP + Nomination of Javier Solana December – Helsinki European Council: “cooperating voluntarily in EU-led operations, Member States must be able, by 2003, to deploy within 60 days and sustain for at least 1 year military forces of up to 50,000–60,000 persons capable of the full range of Petersberg tasks.” Petersberg Tasks = “humanitarian and rescue tasks, peacekeeping tasks and tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking” (TEU) Petersberg Tasks = “humanitarian and rescue tasks, peacekeeping tasks and tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking” (TEU) (NATO) April – Berlin Plus Arrangements: NATO MS “… stand ready to define and adopt the necessary arrangements for ready access by the European Union to the collective assets and capabilities of the Alliance, for operations in which the Alliance as a whole is not engaged militarily as an Alliance. (…)”

10 EU CM: Origins and Evolution (3) 2000: June (Stª Maria da Feira) – priority areas for civilian missions = police, strengthening of the rule of law, strengthening civilian administration, and civil protection 2000: June (Stª Maria da Feira) – priority areas for civilian missions = police, strengthening of the rule of law, strengthening civilian administration, and civil protection 2001: Adoption of the EU Programme for the Prevention of Violent Conflicts (Götenborg) 2001: Adoption of the EU Programme for the Prevention of Violent Conflicts (Götenborg) 2003: December – A Secure Europe in a Better World, the European Security Strategy 2003: December – A Secure Europe in a Better World, the European Security Strategy 2004: [EU-25] May/June – (military) Headline Goal : [EU-25] May/June – (military) Headline Goal Dec. – Civilian Headline Goal : European Gendarmerie Force 2005: European Gendarmerie Force 2007: new Civilian Headline Goal Treaty of Lisbon 2007: new Civilian Headline Goal Treaty of Lisbon

11 EU Crisis Management Operations – EUPM I, II & III (EU Police Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina) C – Concordia (EU Military Operation in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) M – Artemis (EU Military Operation in Democratic Republic of Congo) M – EUPOL Proxima (EU Police Mission in the FYROMacedonia) C EUPOL Proxima (EU Police Mission in the FYROMacedonia) C – (open) EUFOR-Althea (EU Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina) M – EUJUST Themis (EU Rule of Law Mission in Georgia) C EUJUST Themis (EU Rule of Law Mission in Georgia) C – EUSEC DR Congo (EU Security Sector Reform Mission in D.R. Congo) C/M – EUJUST LEX (EU Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq) C – AMM (Aceh Monitoring Mission) C AMM (Aceh Monitoring Mission) C – * EUBAM Rafah (EU Border Assistance Mission at Rafah Crossing Point in the Palestinian Territories) C EUBAM Rafah (EU Border Assistance Mission at Rafah Crossing Point in the Palestinian Territories) C – ? EUPAT (EU Police Advisory Team in the FYROMacedonia) C EUPAT (EU Police Advisory Team in the FYROMacedonia) C – EUPOL COPPS (EU Police Mission in the Palestinian Territories) C – ? EUPT Kosovo (EU Planning Team in Kosovo) C EUPT Kosovo (EU Planning Team in Kosovo) C – EUFOR DR Congo (EU Military Operation in Support of MONUC during elections in DRCongo) M EUFOR DR Congo (EU Military Operation in Support of MONUC during elections in DRCongo) M – EUPOL Afghanistan (EU Police Mission in Afghanistan) C – EUPOL RDCongo (EU Police Mission and its interface with Justice Sector, DRC) C – ? EUFOR TCHAD/RCA (EU Military Operation in Eastern Chad and North Eastern Central African Republic) M EUFOR TCHAD/RCA (EU Military Operation in Eastern Chad and North Eastern Central African Republic) M – 2010? EULEX Kosovo (European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo) C EULEX Kosovo (European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo) C 26.02/ – ? EU SSR Guinea-Bissau (EU mission in support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau) C/M

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13 EU Crisis Management Operations (2) 2003: January – 1 st ESDP civilian mission (EUPM to BiH) + March – 1 st EU-led military operation in Europe (Concordia to FYROM) + May – 1 st EU-led military operation outside of Europe (Operation Artemis to Burnia, DRCongo) = 18 missions (12 civilian + 6 military), 11 ongoing

14 Community & Other CM and CP Activities 2001: Feb.– Establishment of a Rapid Reaction Mechanism (RRM) + August – 1 st deployment of the RRM (Macedonia) 2005: EUBAM Moldova/Ukraine Region and Country Strategy Papers (RSP/CSP) - development and external aid policy Region and Country Strategy Papers (RSP/CSP) - development and external aid policy Peace-building initiatives Peace-building initiatives SSR & DDR programmes SSR & DDR programmes Cross-cutting issues: SALW, landmines, drugs, conflict diamonds + management natural resources Cross-cutting issues: SALW, landmines, drugs, conflict diamonds + management natural resources Early warning capacity + financial mechanisms Early warning capacity + financial mechanisms Work with other organisations (UN, AU) Work with other organisations (UN, AU) 2007: Peace-building Partnerships (PbP) 2007: Peace-building Partnerships (PbP)

15 Communitarian vs. intergovernmental Communitarian vs. intergovernmental CM (and CP) not restricted to one single pillar but spreads across all of them CM (and CP) not restricted to one single pillar but spreads across all of them ≠ institutions, ≠ decision-making and financing procedures ≠ institutions, ≠ decision-making and financing procedures 1 st pillar EC 2 nd Pillar CFSP (inc. ESDP) 3 rd pillar ‘JHA’ EU’s complex pillared-structure

16 European Union European Commission (President) Commissioner for External Relations Directorate-General External Relations Directorate A Crisis Platform - Policy Co-ord. CFSP Deputy Director- General DGA-1 Deputy Director- General DGA-2 Deputy Director- General DGA-3 European Council Council of Ministers (GAERC) Permanent Representatives (COREPER) Political and Security Committee (PSC) Civilian Crisis Management Committee Military Committee EU Presidency Council Secretary- General/ HR for CFSP Private Office SG/HR Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit Military Staff Directorate-General E External and Politico- Military Affairs Directorate VIII Defence Aspects Directorate IX Civilian Crisis Management

17 Commissioner for External Relations Directorate-General External Relations (DG RELEX) Directorate A Crisis Platform - Policy Co- ordination in CFSP Deputy Director-General DGA-1 (CFSP, Multilateral Relations, North America, East Asia, NZ, EEA, EFTA) Unit A2 Crisis Management and Conflict Prevention Unit A3 CFSP and Rapid Reaction Mechanism Unit A4 Security Policy Deputy Director-General DGA-2 (ENP, Eastern Europe, Southern Caucasus and Central Asia, Middle East and South Mediterranean) Deputy Director-General DGA-3 (Asia and Latin America) Commission CM Structures

18 European Council (Heads of State and Government + President EC) Council of Ministers (GAERC) Permanent Representatives Committee (COREPER) Political and Security Committee (PSC) Civilian Crisis Management Committee (CIVCOM) Military Committee (EUMC) Politico-Military Group (PMG) Military Staff (EUMS) EU Presidency Council Secretariat (next slide)

19 Council Structures European Council (Heads of State and Government + President EC) : highest level of political and strategic decision European Council (Heads of State and Government + President EC) : highest level of political and strategic decision GAERC/ERC (Foreign Affairs Ministers+EC) : decisions on external relations, incl. CFSP, ESDP, trade and development cooperation + ensure coherence across EU’s external action GAERC/ERC (Foreign Affairs Ministers+EC) : decisions on external relations, incl. CFSP, ESDP, trade and development cooperation + ensure coherence across EU’s external action COREPER (Ambassadors & deputies+EC) : prepares Council work and decisions COREPER (Ambassadors & deputies+EC) : prepares Council work and decisions

20 Council ESDP Structures (2000/01) PSC - Political and Security Committee (Ambassadors & deputies) : monitors international situation in CFSP areas + contributes to the definition of policies + monitors the implementation of agreed policies + exercises political control & strategic direction of CM operations PSC - Political and Security Committee (Ambassadors & deputies) : monitors international situation in CFSP areas + contributes to the definition of policies + monitors the implementation of agreed policies + exercises political control & strategic direction of CM operations CIVCOM – Committee for the Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (MS diplomats/officials and experts) : reports to PSC and delivers opinions on civilian aspects of ESDP CIVCOM – Committee for the Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (MS diplomats/officials and experts) : reports to PSC and delivers opinions on civilian aspects of ESDP EUMC – Military Committee (MS Chiefs of Staff) : supreme military body within the Council of the EU / forum for military consultation and cooperation between the EU MS in the field of CP and CM EUMC – Military Committee (MS Chiefs of Staff) : supreme military body within the Council of the EU / forum for military consultation and cooperation between the EU MS in the field of CP and CM

21 Council Secretary General/ HR for CFSP Private Office SG/HR Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (PPEWU) Military Staff (inc. Civil-Military Cell) Joint Situation Centre (SITCEN) EU Satellite Centre (SATCEN) European Institute for Security Studies (ISS) Deputy Secretary-General Directorate-General E External and Politico- Military Affairs Directorate VIII Defence Aspects Directorate IX Civilian C.M. Police Unit Civil Aspects of Crisis Management Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC)

22 HR/SG: assists the Council in foreign policy matters, through contributing to the formulation, preparation and implementation of European policy decisions HR/SG: assists the Council in foreign policy matters, through contributing to the formulation, preparation and implementation of European policy decisions DGE VIII – Defence Affairs DGE VIII – Defence Affairs DGE IX – Civilian Crisis Management DGE IX – Civilian Crisis Management SG/HR Private Office – formulates policy on CFSP matters + other tasks SG/HR Private Office – formulates policy on CFSP matters + other tasks PPEWU – Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit PPEWU – Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit EUMS – Military Staff (seconded military and civilian experts) : performs early warning, situation assessment and strategic planning of Petersberg tasks […] and all EU-led operations EUMS – Military Staff (seconded military and civilian experts) : performs early warning, situation assessment and strategic planning of Petersberg tasks […] and all EU-led operations CPCC (Council officials and seconded experts) - effective planning and conduct of civilian ESDP crisis management operations, as well as the proper implementation of all mission-related tasks CPCC (Council officials and seconded experts) - effective planning and conduct of civilian ESDP crisis management operations, as well as the proper implementation of all mission-related tasks Council Secretariat Structures

23 Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC) Civilian Operations Commander Chief of Staff Mission Support Concepts Finance Procurement Logistics, Security / CIS Human Resources Conduct of Operations Europe / Balkans EUPM EULEX Kosovo Africa EU AMIS EUPOL RD Congo Guinea Bissau Asia/ Middle East EUBAM Rafah EUPOL COPPS EUJST LEX EUPOL Afghanistan

24 Conclusion (1) High ambitions vs. no specific structures High ambitions vs. no specific structures Considerable evolution since 1999, at a surprising pace (structures + operations + capabilities) Considerable evolution since 1999, at a surprising pace (structures + operations + capabilities) Intergovernmental character of ESDP shields it from internal political crises within the EU Intergovernmental character of ESDP shields it from internal political crises within the EU

25 Conclusion (2) Internal rivalries (inter- and intra-pillar) Internal rivalries (inter- and intra-pillar) Civilian versus military structures Civilian versus military structures The Secretariat’s power The Secretariat’s power Most decisions taken by national officials – lack of democratic legitimacy? Most decisions taken by national officials – lack of democratic legitimacy? Coherence and consistency; ‘capability- expectation gap’ vs. Growing expectations Coherence and consistency; ‘capability- expectation gap’ vs. Growing expectations Treaty of Lisbon Treaty of Lisbon


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