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The European Union’s Crisis Management System

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1 The European Union’s Crisis Management System
Natália F. de O. Marques Leal University of Kent at Canterbury (UK) Conflict Research Society Annual Conference 2008 “Conflict and Complexity” University of Kent at Canterbury, UK 2-3 September 2008

2 Introduction EU’s security role Concepts CM origins and development
CM operational record CM structures Decision-making procedures Conc.  A lot still to be done but progressive attempts to endow the EU with the necessary means to achieve its ambitions

3 EU’s (desired) role in the global arena
“This is a world of new dangers but also of new opportunities. The European Union has the potential to make a major contribution, both in dealing with the threats and in helping realise the opportunities. An active and capable European Union would make an impact on a global scale. In doing so, it would contribute to an effective multilateral system leading to a fairer, safer and more united world.” (ESS, 2003: 14) EU’s ambition to ‘export peace and security beyond its borders’ (Europa)

4 EU’s & CM (Surveys) Worldviews 2002:
Europe should play a more active role in world affairs (even though Europeans were mainly concerned with domestic issues). Favoured economic and political tools over military instruments (in spite of the willingness to use force in certain circumstances). Transatlantic Trends 2006: 46% of Europeans felt that “the EU should strengthen its military power to play a larger role in the world.” The External Image of the European Union (2007): “the EU is often associated with peace-making processes and security concerns” + crisis management approach one of its elements of distinctiveness (even though EU not widely known outside its borders)

5 List of available CP instruments
EU’s CP toolbox includes “development co-operation and external assistance, trade policy instruments, social and environmental policies, diplomatic instruments and political dialogue, co-operation with international partners and NGOs, as well as the new instruments in the field of crisis management [inc. civilian and/or military missions].” Enlargement! (http://europa.eu.int/comm/external_relations/cfsp/cpcm/cp.htm)

6 CM & CP and the conflict cycle
Conflict Prevention (CP) the EU’s actions (both short and long-term) “to address the conflict dynamics by addressing structural root-causes of conflict as well as the expressions of violence. [In this sense,] Conflict prevention activities can and should be designed before a conflict (preventing the outbreak), during a conflict (preventing its spread) and after (preventing its re-emergence).” (European Commission) versus Crisis (or conflict) Management (CM) activities that take place after initial prevention has failed and a conflict has already erupted in order to contain both its vertical and horizontal escalation short-term security concerns The EU’s pillared-structure (focus on ESDP; 2nd pillar)

7 From Peace Within to Peace Beyond
‘Never again’ postulate; 1951 (Paris Summit): ECSC Conflict prevention as the driving force of the EU integration process Internal concern versus external projection/‘model to export’  The establishment of CFSP (1993) and birth of ESDP (1999) End of Cold War + Yugoslavian conflict UN - Agenda for Peace (1992) OSCE - Charter of Paris for a New Europe & Conflict Prevention Center NATO - new strategic concept & enlargements WEU / Council of Europe OAU - Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, and Settlement (1993)

8 EU CM: Origins and Evolution (1)
1991/3: TEU  CFSP: “…eventual framing of a common defence policy” 1997/99: Amsterdam Treaty  “…progressive framing of a common defence policy” + Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit (PPEWU) 1998: French-British Summit at St. Malo: “the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises” 1999: June (Cologne European Council) – establishment of ESDP

9 EU CM: Origins and Evolution (2) 1999
June – ESDP + Nomination of Javier Solana December – Helsinki European Council: “cooperating voluntarily in EU-led operations, Member States must be able, by 2003, to deploy within 60 days and sustain for at least 1 year military forces of up to 50,000–60,000 persons capable of the full range of Petersberg tasks.” Petersberg Tasks = “humanitarian and rescue tasks, peacekeeping tasks and tasks of combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking” (TEU) (NATO) April – Berlin Plus Arrangements: NATO MS “… stand ready to define and adopt the necessary arrangements for ready access by the European Union to the collective assets and capabilities of the Alliance, for operations in which the Alliance as a whole is not engaged militarily as an Alliance. (…)”

10 EU CM: Origins and Evolution (3)
2000: June (Stª Maria da Feira) – priority areas for civilian missions = police, strengthening of the rule of law, strengthening civilian administration, and civil protection 2001: Adoption of the EU Programme for the Prevention of Violent Conflicts (Götenborg) 2003: December – A Secure Europe in a Better World, the European Security Strategy 2004: [EU-25] May/June – (military) Headline Goal 2010 + Dec. – Civilian Headline Goal 2008 2005: European Gendarmerie Force 2007: new Civilian Headline Goal Treaty of Lisbon

11 EU Crisis Management Operations
EUPM I, II & III (EU Police Mission in Bosnia & Herzegovina) C Concordia (EU Military Operation in former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) M Artemis (EU Military Operation in Democratic Republic of Congo) M EUPOL Proxima (EU Police Mission in the FYROMacedonia) C  – (open) EUFOR-Althea (EU Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina) M EUJUST Themis (EU Rule of Law Mission in Georgia) C  EUSEC DR Congo (EU Security Sector Reform Mission in D.R. Congo) C/M EUJUST LEX (EU Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq) C AMM (Aceh Monitoring Mission) C  – * EUBAM Rafah (EU Border Assistance Mission at Rafah Crossing Point in the Palestinian Territories) C  – ? EUPAT (EU Police Advisory Team in the FYROMacedonia) C  EUPOL COPPS (EU Police Mission in the Palestinian Territories) C – ? EUPT Kosovo (EU Planning Team in Kosovo) C  EUFOR DR Congo (EU Military Operation in Support of MONUC during elections in DRCongo) M  EUPOL Afghanistan (EU Police Mission in Afghanistan) C EUPOL RDCongo (EU Police Mission and its interface with Justice Sector, DRC) C – ? EUFOR TCHAD/RCA (EU Military Operation in Eastern Chad and North Eastern Central African Republic) M  – 2010? EULEX Kosovo (European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo) C  26.02/ – ? EU SSR Guinea-Bissau (EU mission in support of Security Sector Reform in Guinea-Bissau) C/M

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13 EU Crisis Management Operations (2)
2003: January – 1st ESDP civilian mission (EUPM to BiH) + March – 1st EU-led military operation in Europe (Concordia to FYROM) + May – 1st EU-led military operation outside of Europe (Operation Artemis to Burnia, DRCongo) = 18 missions (12 civilian + 6 military), 11 ongoing

14 Community & Other CM and CP Activities
2001: Feb.– Establishment of a Rapid Reaction Mechanism (RRM) + August – 1st deployment of the RRM (Macedonia) 2005: EUBAM Moldova/Ukraine Region and Country Strategy Papers (RSP/CSP) - development and external aid policy Peace-building initiatives SSR & DDR programmes Cross-cutting issues: SALW, landmines, drugs, conflict diamonds + management natural resources Early warning capacity + financial mechanisms Work with other organisations (UN, AU) 2007: Peace-building Partnerships (PbP)

15 EU’s complex pillared-structure
Communitarian vs. intergovernmental CM (and CP) not restricted to one single pillar but spreads across all of them ≠ institutions, ≠ decision-making and financing procedures 1st pillar EC 2nd Pillar CFSP (inc. ESDP) 3rd pillar ‘JHA’

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17 Commission CM Structures

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19 Council Structures European Council (Heads of State and Government + President EC): highest level of political and strategic decision GAERC/ERC (Foreign Affairs Ministers+EC): decisions on external relations, incl. CFSP, ESDP, trade and development cooperation + ensure coherence across EU’s external action COREPER (Ambassadors & deputies+EC): prepares Council work and decisions

20 Council ESDP Structures (2000/01)
PSC - Political and Security Committee (Ambassadors & deputies): monitors international situation in CFSP areas + contributes to the definition of policies + monitors the implementation of agreed policies + exercises political control & strategic direction of CM operations CIVCOM – Committee for the Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management (MS diplomats/officials and experts): reports to PSC and delivers opinions on civilian aspects of ESDP EUMC – Military Committee (MS Chiefs of Staff): supreme military body within the Council of the EU / forum for military consultation and cooperation between the EU MS in the field of CP and CM

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22 Council Secretariat Structures
HR/SG: assists the Council in foreign policy matters, through contributing to the formulation, preparation and implementation of European policy decisions DGE VIII – Defence Affairs DGE IX – Civilian Crisis Management SG/HR Private Office – formulates policy on CFSP matters + other tasks PPEWU – Policy Planning and Early Warning Unit EUMS – Military Staff (seconded military and civilian experts): performs early warning, situation assessment and strategic planning of Petersberg tasks […] and all EU-led operations CPCC (Council officials and seconded experts) - effective planning and conduct of civilian ESDP crisis management operations, as well as the proper implementation of all mission-related tasks

23 Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC)

24 Conclusion (1) High ambitions vs. no specific structures
Considerable evolution since 1999, at a surprising pace (structures + operations + capabilities) Intergovernmental character of ESDP shields it from internal political crises within the EU

25 Conclusion (2) Internal rivalries (inter- and intra-pillar)
Civilian versus military structures The Secretariat’s power Most decisions taken by national officials – lack of democratic legitimacy? Coherence and consistency; ‘capability-expectation gap’ vs. Growing expectations Treaty of Lisbon


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