Presentation on theme: "Chapter 33 Teddy Roosevelt's Americans The Middle Class Comes of Age 1890–1917."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 33 Teddy Roosevelt's Americans The Middle Class Comes of Age 1890–1917
New Kind of President Human whirlwind Fast rise to top Theodore Roosevelt personifies period Enjoys presidency and life Dominates center stage Extremely active life Strenuous Life Roosevelt sickly as a child Uses body building to grow stronger Prolific writer, family man Brings showmanship to presidency Patrician From old money Does not need to work American personified Middle class embraces Roosevelt Critics unsuccessful in attacking him Wins support of African Americans Suffragists appeal to him for help
The Middle Class America at the turn of the century Middle class shapes America Large and conspicuous influence Gay Nineties, “good old days” The middle class Values dominate U.S. culture Prudish Protestant Urban, professional, skilled workers Creates distinctive lifestyle Confidently emphasize self-improvement
An Educated People Foundation of middle class wealth Use wealth to gain more education More schools in U.S. at every level especially secondary schools Schools focus more on job skills Normal Schools to train teachers Colleges and Universities Stressed liberal arts still Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 Morrill schools focus on industrial classes Millionaires endow universities
An Educated People An Educated People (cont.’d) Studying for careers Colleges adopt elective system Colleges establish professional schools Women and the new education Coeducation becomes more common Also seven major women’s colleges Women begin entering professions Religious colleges shape education Minorities Also Blacks admitted to northern and western colleges Jews attended in high numbers Catholic institutions begun
An Educated People A hunger for words More newspapers published Magazines popular among middle class Ladies Home Journal General interest magazines Depend on advertising to make profit
Leisure Americans at play Lake Chautauqua, New York resort Education, religious programs Vacations as educational opportunities Vacations to health resorts Hydropathy: medical fad Constant bathing, water drinking Dr. Kellogg
Leisure Leisure (cont.’d) Health and fitness William Kellogg invented Post Toasties as health food Urban population gets less exercise YMCA for health New sports craze Croquet, archery, tennis, roller skating James Naismith invents basketball, 1891
Leisure Leisure (cont.’d) Bicycles Most widespread sports craze Moralists condemn activity Safety bicycles popular with both sexes Gibson Girl Vision of American Womanhood Not a feminist, was object of adoration Self-sufficient, independent Women marry later
Spectator Sports Professional and collegiate Developed from middle class money Football a collegiate sport Professional baseball Professional boxing Baseball Develops out of children’s game Towns organize “pick-up” teams Cincinnati Red Stockings first professional team Baseball integrated until 1890s National past time
Spectator Sport (cont’d) Football Developed from rugby Princeton v. Rutgers in 1869 first game Walter Camp in 1880 established rules Professors loved it Made money for universities Used to raise money and attract students Some athletes paid on the sly Game was rough and no pads
Spectator Sports Spectator Sports (cont.’d) Boxing and society 1860s code of rules adopted for boxing John L. Sullivan first boxer with national reputation Crowds come to see boxing matches Boxers source of ethnic pride Jack Johnson White heavyweight champions refuse to fight black Johnson Southern states forbid Johnson to fight there Racists charge Johnson under Mann Act Goes into exile, then serves eight-month prison term
Spectator Sports (cont’d) Most sports not integrated Sports and morality Horse racing declined as seen as gambling Casinos disappeared rapidly as well Trying to impose middle class morality
Discussion Questions How did the lively culture of the gay nineties change the role of women in the United States? What was Roosevelt’s part in the shaping of American society in the early 20th century? What was the “strenuous life”? Discuss middle class morality and ideas. How was it imposed? Examine the rise of sports in the late 1800s. To what changes in society did this rise correspond? How similar were sports then to sports now?
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