Presentation on theme: "The Book of Job. Last Week… First Cycle of Speeches Personal Experience vs. Doctrine of Retribution – Job knows he is innocent – Friends insist Job sinned."— Presentation transcript:
The Book of Job
Last Week… First Cycle of Speeches Personal Experience vs. Doctrine of Retribution – Job knows he is innocent – Friends insist Job sinned and he should repent so God will restore him
The Second Cycle With friends like these, who needs enemies? – “If you would only keep silent, that would be your wisdom!” 13:5 Job wants to argue his case to YHWH – he wants His attention now. – “Make me know my transgression and my sin.” 13:23b
Context? Job: “If mortals die, will they live again?” 14:14a Eliphaz: “What are mortals, that they can be clean?” 15:14a Job: “Even now, in fact, my witness is in heaven, and he that vouches for me is on high.” 16:19 Read Chapter 19:23-27
Goel A Hebrew term which comes from the word ga'al ("to redeem"), hence meaning "redeemer" A person who as the nearest relative of another is charged with the duty of restoring the rights of another and avenging his wrongs. In Christianity, the title goel is applied to Christ, who redeems his believers from all evil by the payment of a ransom.
Ruth in Boaz’s Field - Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld
Through the Lens of Jesus Read Isaiah 53 “Do not think that I have come to abolish the law or the prophets; I have come not to abolish but to fulfill.” Matt 5:17 Handout
The Afterlife Job is confident that after he dies he will be vindicated, but he would much rather this happen during his lifetime. For the Ancient Israelites, life after death is devoid of content Sheol: the pit where the dead “survive” but can’t do anything (i.e. Hades) 5 th century BCE Greek writings developed the soul as distinct from the body (Plato)
The Afterlife Jewish writings from the Hellenistic period adopted this idea – The Wisdom of Solomon (2:23-3:5) Immortality of the soul solves the problem of theodicy – The soul survived after death as was rewarded or punished for the life the person led – Gnostics: (some) people have a body & a divine spark
Descent into Hell - Duccio, di Buoninsegna
Other Passages 19:20 21:4, 7, 34 – Impatience, fairness, empty nothings 28:28 – Job respects the Lord, he has departed from evil, but… 29:12-20; 30:1-10 – For whose glory? Was Job blind to injustice?
Elihu A later addition? (not mentioned before or after speeches; no interaction) In the wrong place? Wise or whippersnapper? 32:8; 36:2-4 Addresses when Job has just said, not what he may or may not have done before Doctrine of Retribution: 34:11 – YHWH teaches/speaks through suffering (ch 33) to rehabilitate/warn the righteous who sinned (36:8-12)
The Wrath of Elihu – William Blake
Catch-22 “It profits one nothing to take delight in God.” (34:9) Job: the wicked say there is no profit in religion (21:15) Elihu: Job said the same thing when he asked why the wicked prosper (21:7) and when he declared that both the blameless and the wicked are destroyed by YHYH (9:22) – Therefore, Job himself is wicked and deserves punishment… (34:36)
Catch-22 But if Job says that there IS profit in delighting in God, that he is pious because it gains him something, then HaSaTaN was right in the beginning: “Does Job fear God for nothing?”
Phew. Questions? Next week: The Divine Speeches Finally. YHWH answers.