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Portfolios to Webfolios and Beyond: Levels of Maturation Douglas O. Love, Ph.D. Illinois State University Gerry McKean, Ph.D. Illinois.

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Presentation on theme: "Portfolios to Webfolios and Beyond: Levels of Maturation Douglas O. Love, Ph.D. Illinois State University Gerry McKean, Ph.D. Illinois."— Presentation transcript:

1 Portfolios to Webfolios and Beyond: Levels of Maturation Douglas O. Love, Ph.D. Illinois State University dolove@ilstu.edu Gerry McKean, Ph.D. Illinois State University gwmckea@ilstu.edu Paul Gathercoal, Ph.D. California Lutheran University gatherco@clunet.edu Copyright Douglas O. Love, Ph.D., Gerry McKean, Ph.D. & Paul Gathercoal, Ph.D., 2004. This work is the intellectual property of the authors. Permission is granted for this material to be shared for non-commercial, educational purposes, provided that this copyright statement appears on the reproduced materials and notice is given that the copying is by permission of the authors. To disseminate otherwise or to republish requires written permission from the authors. Full Text to appear later in 2004 – Love, D., McKean, G. & Gathercoal, P. (in press). Portfolios to webfolios and beyond: Levels of maturation. Educause Quarterly, 27(2).

2 Webfolios Promise Great Change Webfolios may have the most significant effect on education since the introduction of formal schooling When fully matured and implemented by capable professional educators, throughout every discipline within an educational institution, webfolios promise an authentic alternative to high stakes testing that currently focus’ education on test-taking rather than on teaching and learning.

3 Authors’ Experience Conducted 100’s of workshops –Higher Education –P-12 Schools –Researchers –Administrators The authors have learned that educators involved in leading efforts to implement WWW portfolios often “begin at the end,” a recipe for disaster.

4 Compulsion to “begin at the end” often fueled by visits from national or state accreditors institutions try to include authentic evidence in their assessment and evaluation reports “Beginning at the end” fails because the incremental steps for full implementation are missing. It is like trying to leap from one side of the river to the other

5 Without Incremental Steps students and colleagues within an educational program may be unwilling participants no “logical” explanation for change and the ultimate goals are not made crystal clear. Disparate and overly ambitious goals without an incremental plan of action lead to confusion, frustration, and disillusionment. (Gathercoal, 1991)

6 “Levels of Maturation” serve as metaphorical stepping stones on the course to full implementation of webfolios Generate transitional metaphors The transitional metaphors inherent in this taxonomy of Levels of Maturation will help educational leaders to “begin at the beginning” and work towards the end, a recipe for success.

7 What is your Vision? With regard to your situation: –Why do students create portfolios at your institution? –Why do students create portfolios at your institution? –What is in a student's portfolio? –Who decides what goes into a student's portfolio? –Who looks at a student's portfolio? –What use is made of the students' portfolios?

8 The proposed taxonomy will help to determine the institution’s current Level of Maturation, develop and share a common vision of the Level of Maturation educators would like to attain, and chart a course for moving from one Level of Maturation to the next. As a result, it will help to inform all who are involved in educational change and teaching and learning.

9 Defining the Levels of Maturation The authors used eight physical and theoretical qualities inherent in the portfolio/webfolio processes and applications 1)Type of portfolio/webfolio – working or showcase 2)Organization of the portfolio/webfolio 3)Type of student artifact in the portfolio/webfolio 4)Presence and capture of feedback and assessment based on standards 5)Nature of the portfolio/webfolio content – static or dynamic and evolving 6)Heuristic processes involved in developing the portfolio/webfolio 7)Context provided for each item in the portfolio/webfolio 8)Delivery mode for the portfolio/webfolio

10 Defining the Levels of Maturation Also, considered six value-oriented issues associated with the portfolio/webfolio processes and applications 1)The value to the student 2)The value to the employer 3)The value to the educator 4)The value to the educational institution 5)The potential for contributing to digital equity within the educational institution 6)The expense involved in developing the portfolio/webfolio

11 Defining the Levels of Maturation By applying these criteria to the portfolio/webfolio process and application, we have been able to identify five Levels of Maturation. The levels are: –Maturation Level 1 – Scrapbook –Maturation Level 2 – Curriculum Vitae –Maturation Level 3 – Curriculum Collaboration between student and faculty –Maturation Level 4 – Mentoring Leading to Mastery –Maturation Level 5 – Authentic Evidence as the Authoritative Evidence for assessment, evaluation and reporting

12 Definitions A hardcopy portfolio usually consists of paper artifacts in a binder, it is not electronic. An e-portfolio resides on disk, CD-ROM, or similar physical transportable media, and it is not accessible from the WWW. A webfolio resides on the WWW, and “is a tightly integrated collection of web-based multimedia documents that [could include] curricular standards, course assignments, student artifacts in response to assignments, and reviewer feedback of students’ work.” (Gathercoal, Love, Bryde & McKean, 2002, p. 30) Only the webfolio is robust enough to support all five levels. Paper and e-portfolios are inherently limiting.

13 Criteria Present for Level of MaturationPositive ResponseNegative Response Maturation Level Students have no schema that guides the organization and artifact selection. A portfolio is really just a scrapbook of assignments completed in a course or awards received. “Yes” Continue to Next Criteria  “No”Level 1 Hardcopy Portfolio, e-portfolio or Webfolio Scrapbook Student work is guided and arranged by educator, department or institution determined curriculum requirements or standards and Institution-wide “Student Life” contributions “Yes” Continue to Next Criteria  “No”Level 2 Hardcopy Portfolio, e-portfolio or Webfolio Curriculum Vitae The student can also contribute to the content structure within the Department and Program curricular framework or “Student Life” Institutional showcase of achievements. The Portfolio is a Working and a Showcase Portfolio. “Yes” Continue to Next Criteria  “No”Level 3 Webfolio Curriculum Collaboration Students can redeem their work multiple times based on feedback that comes from a variety of interested parties, educators, mentors, administrators, parent/caregiver(s), employers, and recruiters. “Yes” Continue to Next Criteria  “No”Level 4 Webfolio Mentoring Leading to Mastery Work sample assessment is linked to standards, program goals, and other descriptors like higher order thinking taxonomies and this data is retrieved for analysis at the individual, class, program or institutional level.“Yes”“No”Level 5 Webfolio Authentic Evidence as the Authoritative Evidence Taxonomy for Determination of Level of Maturation The figure below provides a series of affirming statements that when answered with a “Yes, this quality is present” or a “No, this quality is not present,” can be used to ascertain an educators or an educational institutions’ level of maturation.

14 Maturation Level 1 – Scrapbook Portfolio is simply a collection of selected assignments completed in a course or awards received. Organization of the portfolio is chaotic. Feedback is usually limited to comments and grades displayed on the work samples. Decisions on what to include depends on the student and how she or he feels about a particular work sample. At best, a time-based context for each item in the scrapbook. Other than a collection device, the portfolio may be of no other value to the student. The Level 1 portfolio is of little value to the educator and the educational institution. The Level 1 portfolio or scrapbook process does not assure digital equity and scrapbooks are relatively expensive as they are difficult to maintain, organize and distribute and the student must continually develop a new one each time he or she updates it.

15 TABLE 1. Maturation Level 1 Summary. Level 1Paper PortfolioE-PortfolioWebfolio DescriptionHardcopy ScrapbookElectronic Scrapbook on Disk or CD-ROM Electronic Scrapbook mounted on the WWW TypeWorking or Showcase Portfolio Organization ChaoticChaotic or Linked to Homepage Linked to Homepage Student ArtifactWritten assignments, photographs & audio/video Multi-media capabilities Feedback & Assessment Adhoc comments and/or graded assignments Feedback and Assessment is usually nonexistent Nature of ContentStatic Heuristic ProcessIdiosyncratic ContextStudent-provided DeliveryHand-to-hand Electronic – anywhere, any time Student ValueLow to High: depends on heuristic process Employer ValueLow to High: depends on portfolio type & delivery Educator ValueLow Institutional ValueNone Digital EquityNo Assurance ExpenseHigh

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17 Maturation Level 2 – Curriculum Vitae A cadre of educators or the institution has identified a curricular framework or template that will help students to organize and construct their portfolios. The educational authority determines the organization and students merely conform to this organization. The items range from the scrapbook type entries to multi-media presentations in the e-portfolio and webfolio versions. The heuristic process is limited to the confines of the template provided by the institution or program. The student provides most of the context as she or he describes each item and how it meets some standard or program requirement. The paper and e-portfolio must be hand delivered to interested others. The webfolio version enjoys the ability to be electronically transmitted anytime and anywhere. The value to employers and students is high. The value to educators is moderate as they will instantly be able to see if students can generate work samples that address institutional standards or program requirements.

18 Maturation Level 2 – Curriculum Vitae The Level 2 portfolios are of low value to the educational institution. The Level 2 portfolio or curriculum vitae does not assure digital equity when displayed in the paper or e-portfolio versions. The Level 2 webfolio version allows the educational institution to ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities that are provided within the webfolio system. The paper and e- portfolio versions of the Level 2 portfolio are relatively expensive as they are difficult to maintain and organize and the student must continually develop a new one each time he or she updates it. The Level 2 webfolio’s expense is low as the student can assign and reassign access to a variety of constituencies, she or he can modify items within the webfolio system and they are instantly updated for all to see, and there is no delivery cost to the student.

19 Level 2Paper PortfolioE-PortfolioWebfolio DescriptionStudent work samples organized around a set of standards or curriculum framework TypeShowcase Working and Showcase Portfolio OrganizationStudent work is arranged by Department and Program curriculum initiatives and Institution-wide “Student Life” contributions Student ArtifactWritten assignments, photographs & audio/videoMulti-media capabilities Feedback & Assessment Adhoc comments and/or graded assignments Although the potential exists, feedback and assessment as part of a formal process is not provided Nature of ContentStatic Heuristic ProcessStudents respond to course and program assignments Students respond to course and program assignments while maintaining full control over who (what categories of people, e.g., all teachers, students, recruiters) can “view” each work sample. In this way, the student maintains a working and showcase portfolio, utilizing the same works, but limiting access of the “showcase audience” to the best and most relevant works. ContextProvided by students. DeliveryHand-to-hand Electronic – anywhere, any time Student ValueHigh – There is enhanced communication, involving papers, photographs and videotapes, between the student, the teacher, mentors, and recruiters/employers. High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, and recruiters/employers. High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi- media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, and recruiters/employers. The potential for feedback, reflection and self-critical appraisal within a heuristic process are great. Employer ValueHigh – The employer can view the student’s showcase portfolio with the benefit of contextual clues from the student. Educator ValueModerate – There is enhanced communication, involving papers, photographs and videotapes, between the student, the teacher and mentors. Moderate – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher and mentors. Institutional ValueLow Digital EquityNo Assurance Likely, as the educational institution will ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities provided within the system. ExpenseHigh Low

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21 Maturation Level 3 - Curriculum Collaboration between student and faculty At Level 3, paper and e-portfolios do not exist. The items in the Level 3 webfolio can either be part of a working or a showcase webfolio and the student makes this determination. The context for Level 3 webfolios is rich with input from educators, students and the educational institution itself. The delivery of the student’s webfolio to educators, mentors or employers is instantaneous with the permission to access their work. The value of the Level 3 webfolio is high for students, educators and employers. The Level 3 webfolio’s probability of digital equity is highly likely, as the educational institution will ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities provided within the system. The expense of the Level 3 webfolio is low as the student can assign and reassign access to a variety of constituencies, she or he can modify items within the webfolio system and they are instantly updated for all to see, and there is no delivery cost to the student. The expense of the Level 3 webfolio is low as the student can assign and reassign access to a variety of constituencies, she or he can modify items within the webfolio system and they are instantly updated for all to see, and there is no delivery cost to the student.

22 Level 3 Webfolio DescriptionSystem containing assignments, learning resources, student work, formative & summative feedback. TypeWorking or Showcase Portfolio Organization Student work is arranged by Educator determined Department and Program curriculum initiatives and Institution-wide “Student Life” contributions Student Artifact Multi-media capabilities Feedback & Assessment Feedback is both formative and summative and is provided from teachers and mentors. Nature of Content Content may be revised based on feedback Heuristic Process Students respond to course and program assignments while maintaining full control over who (what categories of people, e.g., all teachers, students, recruiters) can “view” each work sample. In this way, the student maintains a working and showcase portfolio, utilizing the same works, but limiting access of the “showcase audience” to the best and most relevant works. ContextProvided by educational institution, program, educators, and students. Includes information about the educational institution, the faculty, the program, specific syllabi, specific assignments, additional help, resources, assessment criteria and the student work sample. DeliveryElectronic – anywhere, any time Student Value High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, and recruiters/employers. The potential for feedback, reflection and self-critical appraisal within a heuristic process are great. Employer Value High – The employer can view the student’s showcase portfolio with the benefit of contextual clues from the institution, the syllabi, the assignments, help, resources and assessment criteria. Educator Value High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher and mentors. The educator benefits from the ability to repeat instructional implementation by copying course content from one semester to the next, each time enriching the content through additional resources and new curricular initiatives. Institutional Value Moderate – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher and mentors. The institution benefits from the ability to repeat instructional implementation by copying course content from one instructor to the next, each time enriching the content through additional resources and new curricular initiatives. Digital Equity Highly likely, as the educational institution will ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities provided within the system. The institutional culture ensures that all participate as designers and producers of web-based multi-media messages that are linked to communication and information resources; and that all have equal educational opportunities and experiences that prepare life-long learners to be engaged citizens. ExpenseLow

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24 Maturation Level 4 – Mentoring Leading to Mastery Level 4 webfolios are organized by curricular requirements and electives or standards that are established by a cadre of educators or the institution; but they also allow students to generate their own portals for displaying work samples and achievements within the same curricular structure or institutional standard. Work samples and achievements can either be part of a working or a showcase webfolio. The Level 4 webfolio context is even richer than preceding levels as there are descriptions from educators, students, and the educational institution and from student generated webfolio items. The delivery of a student’s webfolio is instantaneous when he or she gives permission to various groups of registered users to access work samples and achievements. The Level 4 webfolio is of high value for students, educators and employers. The educator benefits greatly from the ability to repeat and enhance instructional implementation by copying course syllabi and assignments from one semester to the next, each time enriching the content through additional resources and new curricular initiatives. The probability of digital equity is highly likely at Level 4 as the educational institution will ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities provided within the webfolio system. The probability of digital equity is highly likely at Level 4 as the educational institution will ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities provided within the webfolio system. The expense of the Level 4 webfolio is low as the student can assign and reassign access to a variety of constituencies, she or he will modify items within the webfolio system and have them instantly updated for all to see, and there is no delivery cost to the student. The expense of the Level 4 webfolio is low as the student can assign and reassign access to a variety of constituencies, she or he will modify items within the webfolio system and have them instantly updated for all to see, and there is no delivery cost to the student.

25 Level 4 Webfolio Description Integrated system containing assignments, learning resources, student work, formative & summative feedback with multiple opportunities to master curricular content. Type Working or Showcase Portfolio Organization Student work is arranged by Educator determined Department and Program curriculum initiatives and Institution-wide “Student Life” contributions – The student can also contribute to the content structure within the Department and Program curricular framework or “Student Life” Institutional showcase. Student Artifact Multi-media capabilities Feedback & Assessment Feedback is both formative and summative and is provided from a variety of interested parties, teachers, mentors, administrators, parent/caregiver(s), employers, recruiters. Nature of Content Content may be continually revised based on one or more occurrence of instructor and/or mentor feedback until the content is “locked” by the instructor Heuristic Process Student controlled process of reflection and critical thinking is mediated by choices made in program, educator, and/or student life. Students will respond to course and program assignments, or construct their own work samples within a particular curriculum, while maintaining full control over who (what categories of people, e.g., all teachers, students, recruiters) can “view” each work sample. In this way, the student maintains a working and showcase portfolio, utilizing the same works, but limiting access of the “showcase audience” to the best and most relevant works. Context Provided by educational institution, program, educators, and students. Includes information about the educational institution, the faculty, the program, specific syllabi, specific assignments, additional help, resources, assessment criteria and the student work sample. Students can provide their own product description and insert work samples. Delivery Electronic – anywhere, any time Student Value High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, significant others, recruiters, employers. The potential for feedback, reflection and self-critical appraisal within a heuristic process are maximized. Employer Value High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, the institution and employers. The employer can view the student’s showcase portfolio with the benefit of contextual clues from the institution, the syllabi, the assignments, help, resources and assessment criteria. Educator Value High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, significant others, recruiters, employers. The educator benefits from the ability to repeat instructional implementation by copying course content from one semester to the next, each time enriching the content through additional resources and new curricular initiatives. Institutional Value Moderate – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, significant others, recruiters, employers. The institution benefits from the ability to repeat instructional implementation by copying course content from one instructor to the next, each time enriching the content through additional resources and new curricular initiatives. Digital Equity Highly likely, as the educational institution will ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities provided within the system. The institutional culture ensures that all participate as designers and producers of web-based multi-media messages that are linked to communication and information resources; and that all have equal educational opportunities and experiences that prepare life- long learners to be engaged citizens. Expense Low

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27 Maturation Level 5 – Authentic Evidence as the Authoritative Evidence for assessment, evaluation and reporting At Level 5 webfolios are organized by curricular requirements and electives or standards established by a cadre of educators or the institution; and students can generate their own portals for displaying work samples and achievements within the same curricular structure or institutional standard. At Level 5 webfolios are organized by curricular requirements and electives or standards established by a cadre of educators or the institution; and students can generate their own portals for displaying work samples and achievements within the same curricular structure or institutional standard. Work samples and achievements can either be part of a working or a showcase webfolio. The delivery of a student’s webfolio is instantaneous when he or she gives permission to various groups of registered users who access the student’s work samples and achievements. The delivery of a student’s webfolio is instantaneous when he or she gives permission to various groups of registered users who access the student’s work samples and achievements. The Level 5 webfolio is of high value for students, educators and employers. The value to the educator is high as he or she benefits greatly from the ability to repeat and enhance instructional implementation by copying course syllabi and assignments complete with links to standards and departmental goals and other taxonomies, like higher order thinking, from one semester to the next, each time enriching the content through additional resources and new curricular initiatives. The value to the educator is high as he or she benefits greatly from the ability to repeat and enhance instructional implementation by copying course syllabi and assignments complete with links to standards and departmental goals and other taxonomies, like higher order thinking, from one semester to the next, each time enriching the content through additional resources and new curricular initiatives. The value to employers is high as they are able to view the students’ showcase portfolios with the benefit of contextual clues from the institution, the syllabi, the assignments, help, resources, assessment criteria, and student generated descriptions of their achievements. The value to employers is high as they are able to view the students’ showcase portfolios with the benefit of contextual clues from the institution, the syllabi, the assignments, help, resources, assessment criteria, and student generated descriptions of their achievements. The value to the educational institution is high as there is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, and significant others such as recruiters and employers. The probability of digital equity is highly likely at Level 5 as the educational institution will ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities provided within the webfolio system. The probability of digital equity is highly likely at Level 5 as the educational institution will ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities provided within the webfolio system. The expense of the Level 5 webfolio is low as the student can assign and reassign access to a variety of constituencies, she or he will modify items within the webfolio system and have them instantly updated for all to see, and there is no delivery cost to the student.

28 Level 5 Webfolio Description Integrated system containing assignments, learning resources, student work, formative & summative feedback linked to national, state and program standards with multiple opportunities to master curricular content. Type Working or Showcase Portfolio Organization Student work is arranged by Educator determined Department and Program curriculum initiatives and Institution-wide “Student Life” contributions – The student can also contribute to the content structure within the Department and Program curricular framework or “Student Life” Institutional showcase. Student Artifact Multi-media capabilities Feedback & Assessment Feedback is both formative and summative and is provided from a variety of interested parties, teachers, mentors, administrators, parent/caregiver(s), employers, recruiters. Work sample assessment is linked to national, state and program standards and retrieved for analysis at the individual, class, program or institutional level. Nature of Content Content is dynamic and may be continually revised based on one or more occurrence of instructor and/or mentor feedback until the content is “locked” by the instructor Heuristic Process Student controlled process of reflection and critical thinking is mediated by choices made in program, educator, and/or student life. Students will respond to course and program assignments, or construct their own work samples within a particular curriculum, while maintaining full control over who (what categories of people, e.g., all teachers, students, recruiters) can “view” each work sample. In this way, the student maintains a working and showcase portfolio, utilizing the same works, but limiting access of the “showcase audience” to the best and most relevant works. Context Provided by educational institution, program, educators, and students. Includes information about the educational institution, the faculty, the program, specific syllabi, specific assignments, additional help, resources, assessment criteria and the student work sample. Students can provide their own product description and insert work samples. Delivery Electronic – anywhere, anytime Student Value High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, significant others, recruiters, employers. The potential for feedback, reflection and self-critical appraisal within a heuristic process are maximized. Employer Value High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, the institution and employers. The employer can view the student’s showcase portfolio with the benefit of contextual clues from the institution, the syllabi, the assignments, help, resources and assessment criteria. Educator Value High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, significant others, recruiters, employers. The educator benefits from the ability to repeat instructional implementation by copying course content from one semester to the next, each time enriching the content through additional resources and new curricular initiatives. The educator will also be able to ascertain how many and which students did not meet, met or exceeded standards that were linked to specific assignments. Thus, using the assessment data from the system to assist course revision. Institutional Value High – There is enhanced communication, involving multi-media messages, between the student, the teacher, mentors, significant others, recruiters, employers. The institution benefits from the ability to repeat instructional implementation by copying course content from one instructor to the next, each time enriching the content through additional resources and new curricular initiatives. The institution can also ascertain how many and which students did not meet, met or exceeded standards linked to specific assignments. Thus, using the assessment data from the system to assist program revision. Digital Equity Highly likely, as the educational institution will ensure every student has equitable access to communication and information resources, and the learning opportunities provided within the system. The institutional culture ensures that all participate as designers and producers of web-based multi-media messages that are linked to communication and information resources; and that all have equal educational opportunities and experiences that prepare life-long learners to be engaged citizens. Expense Low

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30 References Cole, D., Ryan, C., Kick, F. & Mathies, B. (2000). Portfolios Across the Curriculum and Beyond. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press Gathercoal, P. (1991). A technology for policy implementation: Minimizing incongruity between ostensible policy and the policy at work. Educational Technology, 31(3), 47-50. Gathercoal, P., Love, D., Bryde, B. & McKean, G. (2002). On implementing web-base electronic portfolios. Educause Quarterly. 25(2) 29-37. Kilbane, C. & Milman, N. (2003). The digital teaching portfolio handbook: A how-to guide for educators. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Solomon, G., Allen, N. & Resta, P. (Eds.) (2003) Toward digital equity: Bridging the divide in education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon Strickland, K. & Strickland, J. (2000) Reflections on Assessment: Its Purposes, Methods & Effects on Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook. Wyatt, R. & Looper, S. (1999). So you have to have a portfolio: A teacher's guide to preparation and presentation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Yancey, K. & Weiser, I. (Eds.) (1997) Situating Portfolios: Four Perspectives. Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press.


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