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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Advanced Network Security1 Topic 3.2: Micro Payments

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security2 Outline Micropayment systems –Make small purchase over the Internet Two simple micropayment schemes –PayWord –MicroMint

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security3 PayWord and MicroMint Main goal –Minimize the number of public key operations –Use hash operations instead whenever possible Hash functions are –100 times faster than RSA signature verification –10,000 times faster than RSA signature generation BrokerUser Vendor authorize pay redeem

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security4 PayWord Overview –Credit based scheme –Based on chains of paywords (hash values) –Broker gives a certificate to user to allow him/her to make paywords –User authenticates a complete chain to the vendor with a single public-key signature –User successively reveals each payword in the chain to make micropayment –Vendor gets money through broker.

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security5 PayWord (Cont’d) User-Broker relationship –User U establishes an account with broker B Credit card number, expiration date, etc. –Broker B gives user U a certificate Expiration date Credit limit per vendor Contact information of broker B … –The certificate: B will redeem authentic paywords produced by U turned in before the given expiration date. Essentially allows U to produce paywords.

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security6 PayWord (Cont’d) User-Vendor relationships –Randomly choose w n, and compute the paywords –User U sends Vender V her commitment M={V, C U, w 0, D, I M } SK U –Commitment is vendor-specific and user-specific w0w0 w2w2 wnwn w1w1 … h hhh h: one-way hash function

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security7 PayWord (Cont’d) Payment –A payment P from U to V –P = (w i, i) –U spends her paywords in order –Variable-size payment Example: U has just paid (w 3, 3). What should U send to V if she wants to pay 3 more cents? (_____, _____)

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security8 PayWord (Cont’d) Vendor-Broker relationship –For each User U, Vender V needs to send Broker B The commitment C U The last payment P=(w l, l) received from U –Broker verifies C U and each payment P=(w l, l) –Questions: What’s the cost of verifying P=(w l, l) ? –__________________ What property(ies) of the hash function is used in PayWord? –___________________

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security9 MicroMint Overview –No public key operations –For unrelated low-value payments –Broker produces MicroMint coins A coin is a bit string whose validity can be checked by anyone –Users purchase the coins –Users give the coins to vendors as payments –Vendors return coins to broker in turn for payments by other means.

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security10 MicroMint (Cont’d) Coins –Each coin is represented by a k-way collision that has distinct x i ’s. –The number of x-values that must be examined before one expects to see the first k-way collision is approximately 2 n(k-1)/k, where n is the number of bits in y. x1x1 x2x2 y xkxk … h h h h(x 1 )=h(x 2 )=…=h(x k )=y (x 1, x 2, …, x k ): k-way collision

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security11 MicroMint (Cont’d) Minting coins –Equivalent to throwing balls into 2 n bins Randomly select x, and compute y=h(x). –Throw approximately k*2 n balls Roughly 1/2 of the bins have at least k balls. x h y=h(x)

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security12 MicroMint (Cont’d) Minting coins –Question: If there are more than k x’s in the same bin, can we make more than one coin out of it? ________________ –Balance computational and storage requirements Good coins: a coin is good only when the high-order t bits are equal to a given value. Reduce the storage requirements Slow down the generation process –Tosses k*2 n balls, but get (1/2)*2 (n-t) coins.

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security13 MicroMint (Cont’d) Selling coins –Broker B remembers what coins User U gets Making payments –Vendor V can verify each coin Redemption –Vendor returns the coins to the broker –Broker checks coins and pays the vendor Only pay for coins that have not been previously returned.

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Computer Science Dr. Peng NingCSC 774 Adv. Net. Security14 MicroMint (Cont’d) Double spending –Broker can detect doubly-spent coin –Broker can identify from which vendors he received such coins –Broker can link the doubly-spent coins with each user

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