Presentation on theme: "Relations and Functions"— Presentation transcript:
1Relations and Functions Relation: A set of pairs of input and output values (input, output) or (x,y)How Can we Represent a Relation? Four Ways:Ordered Pairs: Ex: (x,y): (-3,4), (3,-1),(4,-1)Mapping Diagram: input -> output: -3->4, 3->-1,4->-1Table of values:Graph: The output goes on the vertical axis.xy-343-1
2Ex: Skydivers undergoing Freefall A skydiver falls freely from a plane at an initial height of 10,000 feet. His heights at various times are measured to be 9744 ft. 4 seconds later, 8976 feet 4 seconds after that, 7696 feet 4 seconds after that, and 5904 feet 4 seconds after that.Represent the relationship usingA mapping diagramA set of ordered pairsA Table of valuesA graphBased on your studies of Physics, what algebraic equation do you expect the height to follow?
3Domain and Range The set of inputs in a relation is called the domain. The set of outputs in a relation is called the range.Example: What are the domain and range of the time height relation example?
4FunctionA function is a relation in which there is one and only one output for each input.Look at page 62, Problem 3: Which of these relations are functions?Vertical Line Test: Since the output is plotted on the vertical axis of a graph, no vertical line drawn can intersect the graph more than once for the relation to be a function.Look at page 63, Problem 4. Which relations are functions?Ex: What functions have you seen in Physics? Give the inputs and outputs.
5Function Rule and Function Notation A function rule is an algebraic equation, by which we define what we do to an input (or independent variable) to obtain our output (or dependent variable).Function Notations: y=output, x = inputy= 3x+2f(x) = 3x+2 read as “f of x”f(1) = 3(1)+2 read as “f of 1”.
6Direct VariationWhen the output (y) can be expressed in terms of the input (x) in the form: y = kx where k is a constant number, we say “y varies directly” with x.k = the “constant of variation”.If y varies directly with x, does y have a linear relationship with x?What is the difference between saying “y varies directly with x” and “y is linear with x”?
7Linear Relationships Linear Function: A function whose graph is a line.Characterized by a slope and vertical intercept: y = mx+b m = slope, b = y-intercept.Forms include:Slope-Intercept form: y = mx + bPoint-Slope Form: y-y1 = m(x-x1) where (x1, y1) is any point on the line.Standard Form: Ax+By+C = 0 where A,B,C, are real numbers and A and B cannot both be zero.
8How are parallel and perpendicular lines related to each other? The slopes of parallel lines are equal. (m1=m2)The slopes of perpendicular lines are negative reciprocals of each other. (m1= -1/m2)(We proved this earlier on).What is the equation of the line parallel to y=6x-2 that runs through the point (1,-3)?What is the equation of the line perpendicular to y=-4x+(2/3) that runs through (8,5)?
9Standard Form for a Line Ax + By = C where A, B, and C are coefficients (constants). A and B cannot both be zero.Example: Express y=(3/4)x-5 in standard form. Use integer coefficients.Standard Form is useful to quickly graph a line by plotting its x and y intercepts.Example: Graph: 3x + 5y = 15Get x intercept by letting y = 0Get y intercept by letting x = 0.
10Piecewise FunctionsPiecewise functions are functions that behave differently depending on the input.Examples: Graph the following functions:f(x) = |x|f(x) = x2 if x<26 if x=210 – x if x > 2 and x ≤ 6f(x) = [x] = the greatest integer less than or equal to x. (Called the “greatest integer function”) (see pages 90-91)
11A Linear Model (see page 84) The office manager of a small office ordered 140 packs of printer paper. Based on average daily use, she knows that the paper will last about 80 days.Write a linear equation that gives the number of packs of paper left after a certain number of days. Define all variables using “Let”.Graph the equation.What is the equation in standard form?How many packs of paper will they have after 30 days?
12Use of ModelsModeling Data: We may gather data from a situation and use the data to analyze the situation and predict its future.Example: Suppose you open a gas station. It costs money to stay open each hour paying workers and utilities.Should you stay open 24 hours?When should you open the gas station and when should you close to maximize your profits?How could you predict your income over the years?
13Using Linear ModelsIn the simplest case, we try to model real world data with a linear relationship.First make a scatterplot: Plot your data as ordered pairs with the dependent variable on the vertical axis and the independent variable on the horizontal axis.The closer the data looks to forming a line, the stronger the relationship, or correlation.The correlation can form a positive pattern (slope) or negative pattern (slope).
15Types of correlation Strong negative correlation Weak negative correlationNo correlationWeak positive correlationStrong positive correlationDraw an example of each.
16Creating and Using a Linear Model Ex: “Got it” Problem on page 94 Given the data table of median home prices:Make a Scatterplot: Median Price (Y) vs. Year (X)Sketch a trend lineMeasure and calculate the slope using two points on the line. (DO NOT USE ANY ORIGINAL DATA POINTS)Create the equation of the line: y=mx+bUse the line to predict prices in desired years.Year1940195019601970198019902000Price36700579007440088700167300249800211500
18Families of FunctionsWe split up functions into “families” that share a basic dependence on the independent variable, Examples:f(x) = x (“parent function”)g(x) = 4 f(x) = 4xh(x) = f(x) + 4 = x+4f(x) = x2 (“parent function”)g(x) = 4 f(x)= 4 x2h(x) = 4f(x) + 3 = 4 xOther functions within a family are formed by performing a “transformation” on the parent function.
19Types of Transformation f(x) = original function g(x) = transformed function Translations (k and h are positive constants)Vertical Shift: g(x) = f(x) ± kHorizontal Shift: g(x) = f(x + h), left shiftg(x) = f(x – h), right shiftPlot each of the following f(x), g(x) pairs on the same graph:f(x) = x; g(x) = x-2; h(x) = x+2f(x) = x2; g(x) = f(x)+2; h(x)= f(x)-2f(x) = x2; g(x) = f(x+2); h(x) = f(x-2)
20More Transformations Reflection In the y-axis: g(x) = f(-x) In the x- axis: g(x) = -f(x)On the same graph, plot:f(x) = 3x+3, g(x) = f(-x), h(x) = -f(x)On the same graph, plotf(x) = x2 , g(x) = f(-x), h(x) = -f(x) (Was it difficult to plot g(x))?
21More Transformations3. Vertical Stretching or Compressing (Also called “Scaling”)g(x) = a f(x)If a > 1 : We’re stretchingIf 0< a < 1 : We’re compressing.(What if a < 0?)Plot on the same graphf(x) = x2, g(x) = ½ f(x), h(x) = 2f(x)
22We can combine transformations of an original function. Examples: what series of transformations would turn f(x) into g(x) for:f(x) = 4x and g(x) = -4x + 2f(x) = 4x and g(x) = 2x-3f(x) = 2x2 and g(x) = 6x2 -1
23How do we apply transformations to absolute value functions? Vertical Translation (k>0): y=|x| + k (up),y=|x| - k (down)Horizontal Translation (h>0): y =|x-h|(right),y=|x+h|(left)Vertical Stretch: y = a|x| with a>1Compression: y=a|x| with 0<a<1Reflection: In the x-axis: y=-|x|,In the y-axis: y=|-x|
24General Form of the Absolute Value Function We can combine the equations for stretches, compressions and translations to write a general form for absolute value equations:y = a|x-h|= k has vertex at (h,k) and axis of symmetry x=h. It is stretched or compressed by the factor |a|.y = a |-x-h| + k has vertex at (-h,k) because it is reflected in the y-axis with axis of symmetry: x=-h.
25y=3|x-2|+4 y = -1/3|x+1|+4 y = 2 |x+4|-3 y = |-x-3|+9 For the following, find the vertex and axis of symmetry and the transformations from |x|:y=3|x-2|+4y = -1/3|x+1|+4y = 2 |x+4|-3y = |-x-3|+9
26How can we form an absolute value equation by looking at its graph? Follow these steps:Identify the vertex: (h,k)Identify the a = slope of right branch (that is, if graph is “upside-down” then a is negative due to reflection in x-axis.)Form the equation: y = a|x-h|+kTry “Got it? Problem 5 on page 110 and problems 29 and 30 on page 111.
27Graphing Two Variable Inequalities When we say: y = mx + bWe’re talking about a set of points that make up a line.If we say: y > mx + b or y < mx + b , we’re talking about a set of points that make up a region (“half-plane”) on one side or the other of a line, but not including the line.And if we say: y≥ mx + b or y ≤ mx + b, the line is included in the region.The line forms the boundary between the > (above the line half-plane) and the < (below the line half-plane).
28Some Examples Try this: y > 3x – 1 Now try: First: Graph the line y = 3x -1; Use a dashed line if the line isn’t included, solid if it is included.Second: To be safe, test a point in one of the half-planes separated by the line. If it satisfies the inequality condition, shade it in as your solution. Otherwise shade in the other half-plane.Now try:y ≤ -2x +1
29A Clean Day at the FairAt a county fair, you can buy tickets and redeem them for rides. A small ride requires 3 tickets and a large ride requires 5 tickets.You are constrained to spend $15 at most with which you can buy 60 tickets. What are the small ride/large ride combinations you can buy?Let y = the number of large ridesLet x = the number of small rides.Form an appropriate inequalityGraph the linear equation (Hint: use standard form)Only present practical (discrete, non-negative) solutions.How would you change the set of solutions if you added the constraint that you always throw up during your sixth large ride?
30Graphing Absolute Value Inequalities Example: 1-y < |x+2|Get y alone on left hand side of inequality. This may result in a change from < to > or vice versa.Graph the corresponding equality.Shade the region above the graph if > or the region below the graph if <.As before, the graph is dashed if > or < and solid if ≥ or ≤.
31Graph : y-4 ≥ -|x-1| Page 117: problem 4 and “Got it” 4. Try TheseGraph : y-4 ≥ -|x-1|Page 117: problem 4 and “Got it” 4.