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European Expansion in the High Middle Ages 900 - 1300 HIS 101 Western Civilization.

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Presentation on theme: "European Expansion in the High Middle Ages 900 - 1300 HIS 101 Western Civilization."— Presentation transcript:

1 European Expansion in the High Middle Ages HIS 101 Western Civilization

2 During this period, there were more takeovers, more expansion, and new ruling powers Example: the Bayeux Tapestry showing the Norman, William, the Conqueror taking England from Harold (p. 275). The tapestry is 230 ft. long.

3 Crusades were taking place Another group of Normans took southern Italy Scandinavians took Iceland and Greenland Germans moved in on northern Italy France expanded its kingdom to the Pyrenees Mountains The English took Wales, Scotland, and Ireland

4 Population grew from 900 to 1300 in western Europe It doubled between 1000 and million in to 60 million by 1200 Larger families: 6-7 children by 1200 Males lived longer than females More land was under cultivation and they used the 3-field system

5 Marshes were drained Forests were cut No blights affecting crops More meat available There were innovations in agriculture, transportation, mining, and manufacturing Horses were used instead of oxen; faster Plows were improved Grew nitrogen-fixing crops like beans and peas

6 Used the 3-field system Surplus was taken to market There were better roads, fewer bandits, and sturdy horse- drawn wagons Mined gravel and rock There was specialization of crops and crafts Herbs from Toulouse Wine from Bordeaux and Burgundy Cattle from Germany Sheep from England Salt fish from the Baltic

7 Towns grew There were guilds Main purpose was economic Regulated standards of production Fixed prices Controlled membership Craft and trade associations Women were excluded from guilds

8 Economic Attitudes Church Attitude: rich could redeem their souls by helping the poor, by being generous, by not overcharging or taking advantage Commercial View: a fair price was whatever the market could bear 12 th century, usury was looked down upon 13 th century, usury was defended because the person who lent money incurred a risk and should be compensated for that risk

9 Changes in European Boundaries After Charlemagne’s death and that of his son, the Carolingian Empire was divided amongst Charlemagne’s grandsons

10 By 900, the Carolingian Empire was collapsing By 1300, France was stable, and Italy was divided into regions Germany began its rise to power by 911 but was in decline in the 13 th century

11 Germany Last of Carolingian rulers died in 911 They then chose a leader from amongst the dukes 3 families led from : Saxons, – pushed eastward and tried to control Church; they were the Ottos Salians, – had political problems and expansion stopped Staufers, ended problems with Church and papacy stopped making political decisions Then rule went to the Habsburgs who were influential in German politics until 20th century.

12 The Coming of Italy There are 3 regions: North: Germans and Carolingians had limited success trying to take this area Center: Papal States located here South: Outsiders lived here; from various other countries

13 What was the Communal Movement? page289 ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

14 Explain Podesta. Page 290 ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

15 What is meant by Papal Monarchy? Page 290 ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

16 France Capetian France Carolingians were replaced by the Capetians and the family of Hugh Capet They ruled for 300 years How did France become so strong? _______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

17 Hugh Capet

18 British Isles and Celts Viking and Norman Invasions Alfred, r , got the English to fight off the Vikings His descendants ruled England for 100 years The English pushed back the Danelaw, areas where Danes had lived in eastern and northern England; areas controlled by Viking settlers In the late 10 th century, King Swein Forkbeard conquered England. His son Cnut ruled Cnut’s sons succeeded him. When his sons died in 1042, the English called in Edward the Confessor to rule. He was the son of the last English king.

19 Edward the Confessor Edward had taken a vow of chastity so no heirs. Edward promised the throne to William of Normandy. Most Englishmen preferred Harold of Wessex.

20 Edward died, and Harold was elected by the English to be king. Harold fought off the Norse invasion. Then William landed in the south. Harold fought William, but lost to him at the Battle of Hastings Bayeux Tapestry recounts battle

21 The Crusades Dramatic expansionist effort directed toward the eastern Mediterranean world over a 2 century period Crusades were viewed at the time as a series of religious wars against Islam for control of the Holy Land where Christianity originated. The Abbasid Caliphate that ruled Islam was breaking up. There was great rivalry amongst Islamic factions for control. One of these groups was the Seljuk Turks. group from Asia who entered Muslim world in 10 th century. Expanded their influence through military efforts.

22 Seljuk Turks took over Bagdad, the capital of the Abbasids, and made the Abbasids their puppets. This brought about a confrontation with the Fatimids in Byzantium Byzantium became a battleground So we have: 1. unrest in Byzantium 2. Normans taking over Southern Italy & Sicily 3. Seljuk Turks conquering most of Asia Minor 4. Alexius Comnenus (r ) of Byzantium wanted Asia Minor back and asked the popes and the Princes of the West for help

23 The West Responded Because they had enough money to undertake military exploits There was greater political order that gave them stability They had a strong military born out of feudalism Italian cities wanted to advance their commercial interests in the Mediterranean There was a longstanding animosity towards Islam Religious reform movements emphasized that Christians must serve God in some outward, collective, active way: pilgrimages to holy places, and holy wars.

24 Pope Urban II He proclaimed the “idea of organizing an armed pilgrimage of Christian warriors who would achieve a variety of ends for the good of the true faith.”

25 The army would respond to the appeal of Alexius made in 1095, to defend the Byzantine Empire against the Seljuk Turks. By doing this, Urban hoped to reunite the Church Urban called on Christian knights to join forces under papal leadership to attack the Muslims, to save Christianity in the East, and to liberate the Holy Land. By the summer of 1096, 4 major armies moved toward the East

26 There first goal was to secure Constantinople, the capital of Byzantium Then, Alexius got each crusading leader to swear allegiance to him and turn over any Byzantine lands they conquered to him. Alexius would give them supplies and military support in return. Armies split up paying little attention to Alexius; they looked for private fortunes.

27 One army took Edessa Normans took over Antioch July 1099, Jerusalem was captured by remaining armies using very brutal tactics Thus ended the first crusade as a success Ignoring promises to Alexius and to the pope, crusaders set up their own kingdoms.

28 Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem In 1100, Baldwin of Flanders was named king His royal domain was Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli plus some outlying areas These were given as fiefs to loyal men. Its major problem was defense Most knights returned to Europe after the fight The few who stayed tried to protect themselves by capturing seaports in Syria and Palestine They built a series of castles for defense

29 They established 3 crusading orders: Knights Templar Knights Hospitaler Teutonic Knights But their position there remained weak. These weaknesses caused Europeans over the next 2 centuries to help defend the Latin Kingdom.

30 The Second Crusade was prompted by the loss of Edessa to the Turks: troops had been destroyed by the time the remainder reached the Latin Kingdom; little help could then be given. Saladin was a new and effective Muslim leader. By 1187, Saladin had recaptured most Christian holdings The pope then called for a new crusade: The Third Crusade Henry II of England, Philip II of France, and Frederick Barbarossa of Germany led armies against Saladin.

31 Frederick drowned en route Henry II died before he could begin his march Henry was replaced by Richard the Lion-Hearted Richard and Philip stood together against Saladin – for awhile Philip then left early to return to France to snatch up Richard’s French possessions Richard remained and agreed to a truce that gave Jerusalem to the Muslims and visiting rights to Christians

32 Richard the Lion-Hearted

33 Fourth Crusade Prompted by Pope Innocent III Pope lost control over troops Not enough troops were raised Deal was made between Venetians & crusading leaders and Byzantium Venetians and Crusaders would back a certain claimant to the throne if Byzantium gave them trade concessions and money for troops New Byzantine king did not make good on his promises, so Venetians and crusaders took Constantinople 1204 but lost it in1261

34 There were 3 additional crusades, but the fight had lost its appeal to Europeans The Christian position in former Muslim lands and Jerusalem was never very strong In 1291, the Christians were finally ousted from Syria and Palestine

35 Crusades Effects They generated interaction between East and West Europeans learned about a new way of life, new ideas, and new products Western Europeans extended their commercial power The most significant legacy of the Crusades was the image projected by western Europeans in the East: Greed Faithlessness Europeans wanted land, wealth, power Crude ways Slyness


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