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Liens, Taxes and Foreclosures

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Presentation on theme: "Liens, Taxes and Foreclosures"— Presentation transcript:

1 Liens, Taxes and Foreclosures

2 Objectives Understand the difference between general and specific liens Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Understand installment sales and how they are determined Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Understand the difference between general and specific liens Comprehend various types of foreclosures Understand how to delay a foreclosure Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure

3 Objectives Understand the difference between general and specific liens Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Understand installment sales and how they are determined Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Comprehend various types of foreclosures Understand how to delay a foreclosure Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure

4 Objectives Understand the difference between general and specific liens Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Understand installment sales and how they are determined Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Comprehend various types of foreclosures Understand how to delay a foreclosure Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure

5 Objectives Understand the difference between general and specific liens Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Understand installment sales and how they are determined Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Comprehend various types of foreclosures Understand how to delay a foreclosure Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure

6 Objectives Understand the difference between general and specific liens Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Understand installment sales and how they are determined Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Understand installment sales and how they are determined Comprehend various types of foreclosures Understand how to delay a foreclosure Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure

7 Feedback Question - 1. We will be discussing the 3 types of liens; General, Specific and Ad Valorem. A TRUE FALSE B

8 Feedback Question - 1. We will be discussing the 3 types of liens; General, Specific and Ad Valorem. A TRUE FALSE B

9 Objectives Understand the difference between general and specific liens Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Understand installment sales and how they are determined Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Comprehend various types of foreclosures Understand how to delay a foreclosure Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure

10 Objectives Understand the difference between general and specific liens Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Understand installment sales and how they are determined Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Comprehend various types of foreclosures Comprehend various types of foreclosures Understand how to delay a foreclosure Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure

11 Objectives Understand the difference between general and specific liens Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Understand installment sales and how they are determined Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Understand how to delay a foreclosure Comprehend various types of foreclosures Understand how to delay a foreclosure Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure

12 Objectives Understand the difference between general and specific liens Describe Ad Valorem taxes and the governmental bodies that impose them Describe special assessment taxes and why they are in place Identify the two components of depreciation and the basis of depreciation Understand installment sales and how they are determined Identify capital gain on home sales and the types of capital gain Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure Comprehend various types of foreclosures Understand how to delay a foreclosure Identify the obligations required of a buyer in a foreclosure

13 Section 1 LIENS

14 Liens A lien is a claim against property, made in order to secure payment of a debt. The lien makes the property collateral against monies or services owed to another person or entity. Collateral is an asset that has been pledged by the recipient of a loan as security on the value of the loan. If the recipient of the loan is unable to repay the loan, the lender will look to the collateral as a source for payment on the debt. A lien is a claim against property, made in order to secure payment of a debt. The lien makes the property collateral against monies or services owed to another person or entity. Collateral is an asset that has been pledged by the recipient of a loan as security on the value of the loan. If the recipient of the loan is unable to repay the loan, the lender will look to the collateral as a source for payment on the debt.

15 Liens Liens are of two kinds: general and specific.
In addition, there are voluntary and involuntary liens. Voluntary liens are imposed by a contract between the creditor and the debtor (e.g., when a lender holds a mortgage on a property, it has a lien against the home). Involuntary liens are imposed by law, such as when a lien is placed on a property for outstanding taxes and other unpaid debts. Liens are of two kinds: general and specific. In addition, there are voluntary and involuntary liens. Voluntary liens are imposed by a contract between the creditor and the debtor (e.g., when a lender holds a mortgage on a property, it has a lien against the home). Involuntary liens are imposed by law, such as when a lien is placed on a property for outstanding taxes and other unpaid debts.

16 Liens An encumbrance is a claim against, limitation on, or liability against real estate. Encumbrances include liens, deed restrictions, easements, encroachments, and licenses. An encumbrance can restrict the owner's ability to transfer title to the property, or it can lessen the property’s value. It represents some right or claim of another to a portion of the property or to the use of the property. Liens may be voluntary or involuntary, statutory or equitable, general or specific. An encumbrance is a claim against, limitation on, or liability against real estate. Encumbrances include liens, deed restrictions, easements, encroachments, and licenses. An encumbrance can restrict the owner's ability to transfer title to the property, or it can lessen the property’s value. It represents some right or claim of another to a portion of the property or to the use of the property. Liens may be voluntary or involuntary, statutory or equitable, general or specific.

17 Poll Question – 2. A/an ______ is a claim made against a property by someone in order to secure payment of a debt. A Lien Tax Back Payment Encumbrance B C D

18 Poll Question – 2. A/an ______ is a claim made against a property by someone in order to secure payment of a debt. A Lien Tax Back Payment Encumbrance B C D

19 Looking at Tax Liens On January 1, when the assessment roll takes effect for the next tax year, a lien is placed on all assessed real property in the amount of the tax due. Taxes on personal property also may be liens on secured real property if they are listed with or cross-referenced to real property on the secured assessment roll. The assessor determines whether the real property is sufficient security for the personal property tax. At the taxpayer’s request, real property owned by the taxpayer elsewhere in the county also may secure the personal property tax lien. Before the lien date, the assessor issues and records a certificate to that effect. On January 1, when the assessment roll takes effect for the next tax year, a lien is placed on all assessed real property in the amount of the tax due. Taxes on personal property also may be liens on secured real property if they are listed with or cross-referenced to real property on the secured assessment roll. The assessor determines whether the real property is sufficient security for the personal property tax. At the taxpayer’s request, real property owned by the taxpayer elsewhere in the county also may secure the personal property tax lien. Before the lien date, the assessor issues and records a certificate to that effect.

20 Looking at Tax Liens The real and personal property are cross-referenced in the tax rolls. The property tax lien takes priority over all others, with some exceptions. The exceptions are for the following: a judgment lien creditor who acquired a right, title, or interest, prior to the recording of the property tax lien; holders of a security interest or mechanic’s lien; a person or entity who bought the property or took title to it without knowledge of the lien The real and personal property are cross-referenced in the tax rolls. The property tax lien takes priority over all others, with some exceptions. The exceptions are for the following: a judgment lien creditor who acquired a right, title, or interest, prior to the recording of the property tax lien; holders of a security interest or mechanic’s lien; a person or entity who bought the property or took title to it without knowledge of the lien.

21 Liens Liens are of two kinds General Liens Specific Liens

22 Estate & Inheritance Tax Liens Corporation Franchise Tax Liens
General Liens A judgment lien is a court ordered lien that is placed against the home or property when the homeowner simply fails to pay a debt. Judgement Liens When the homeowner has a judgment lien against his or her home and wants to sell it, the judgment lien has to be paid in full before the home or property can be sold. Judgment liens can be placed against the property for a variety of reasons such as unpaid credit card bills, utility bills, department store bills, landscaping or home improvement bills, and just about any bill that the homeowner has failed to pay in a reasonable amount of time. Any bill that can cause an individual to end up in court can result in a judgment lien. Estate & Inheritance Tax Liens Corporation Franchise Tax Liens A lien is general when it affects all property of the debtor or all property in a certain class. There are several types of general liens. Judgment Liens A judgment lien is a court ordered lien that is placed against the home or property when the homeowner simply fails to pay a debt. This doesn’t seem like a big deal, but when the homeowner has a judgment lien against his or her home and wants to sell it, the judgment lien has to be paid in full before the home or property can be sold. Judgment liens can be placed against the property for a variety of reasons such as unpaid credit card bills, utility bills, department store bills, landscaping or home improvement bills, and just about any bill that the homeowner has failed to pay in a reasonable amount of time. Any bill that can cause an individual to end up in court can result in a judgment lien. A judgment lien is different from a trust, in that the judgment lien holder cannot foreclose on the home or property as the trust holder can. Judgment lien holders can demand payment, but ultimately they must wait for the homeowner to sell the property before they can expect to be paid the money that they are owed according to the judgment. Luckily for the judgment lien holder, the court will typically assign an interest rate to these liens so that the lien holder is compensated for waiting; the interest will continue to accrue until the debt is paid in full. Because the majority of people will live in their home for quite some time, the interest can make a judgment lien grow, and grow, and grow over the years so that it is quite large. IRS Tax Liens

23 Feedback Question – 3. Failing to pay property taxes would invoke and Voluntary Lien against the property. A TRUE FALSE B

24 Feedback Question – 3. Failing to pay property taxes would invoke and Voluntary Lien against the property. A TRUE FALSE B

25 Estate & Inheritance Tax Liens Corporation Franchise Tax Liens
General Liens Estate tax liens help protect the government's interest in collecting federal estate tax liabilities. A general estate tax lien arises when a decedent's estate fails to pay its estate tax liability. The general estate tax lien attaches to all of the property that is included in the decedent's gross estate. The decedent's gross estate includes all property owned at death, plus certain other assets over which the decedent had sufficient control. The lien does not attach to property that is outside of the decedent's gross estate or property which (as part of the gross estate) is used to pay court-approved estate expenses. The general estate tax lien is enforceable for a period of ten years following the decedent's death. Judgement Liens Estate & Inheritance Tax Liens Corporation Franchise Tax Liens Estate and Inheritance Tax Liens Estate tax liens help protect the government's interest in collecting federal estate tax liabilities. A general estate tax lien arises when a decedent's estate fails to pay its estate tax liability. The general estate tax lien attaches to all of the property that is included in the decedent's gross estate. The decedent's gross estate includes all property owned at death, plus certain other assets over which the decedent had sufficient control. The lien does not attach to property that is outside of the decedent's gross estate or property which (as part of the gross estate) is used to pay court-approved estate expenses. The general estate tax lien is enforceable for a period of ten years following the decedent's death. If the estate tax is not paid when due, then "the spouse, transferee, trustee, surviving tenant, person in possession of the property by reason of the exercise, non-exercise, or release of a power of appointment, or beneficiary, who receives, or has on the date of the decedent's death, property included in the gross estate" is "personally liable" for the estate tax. In this event, the general estate tax lien then disappears and is replaced with a transferee tax lien. The transferee tax lien attaches "to all the property of such spouse, transferee, trustee, surviving tenant, person in possession, or beneficiary, or transferee of any such person, except any part transferred to a purchaser or a holder of a security interest." The IRS may also seek to impose a special estate tax lien in certain instances, such as where the estate consists primarily of a closely-held business and it elects to defer payment of the estate tax liability. Special estate tax liens are "not valid as against any purchaser, holder of a security interest, mechanic's lien, or judgment lien creditor" prior to their being properly secured. The special estate tax lien is in lieu of, not in addition to, the general estate tax lien and transferee liens described above. If the taxpayer does not fit into one of those categories, he or she may be able to negotiate with the IRS to reduce or abate tax penalties and interest. The IRS may be willing to reduce or abate tax penalties and interest if the taxpayer can show that he or she made an honest mistake. In some cases it is incumbent on the taxpayer to request that the government remove the interest. An experienced tax attorney can help determine what, if any, estate tax lien a property may be subject to and can help structure the client’s financial affairs in a way to minimize the imposition of estate tax liens. IRS Tax Liens

26 Estate & Inheritance Tax Liens Corporation Franchise Tax Liens
General Liens State governments generally levy a corporation franchise tax on corporations as a condition of allowing them to do business in the state. Such a tax is a general statutory involuntary lien on all real and personal property owned by the corporation. Judgement Liens Estate & Inheritance Tax Liens Corporation Franchise Tax Liens Corporation Franchise Tax Liens State governments generally levy a corporation franchise tax on corporations as a condition of allowing them to do business in the state. Such a tax is a general statutory involuntary lien on all real and personal property owned by the corporation. IRS Tax Liens

27 Estate & Inheritance Tax Liens Corporation Franchise Tax Liens
General Liens In the United States, a federal tax lien may arise in connection with any kind of federal tax, including but not limited to income tax, gift tax, or estate tax. Judgement Liens Estate & Inheritance Tax Liens Internal Revenue Code section 6322 provides: Sec Period of Lien. “Unless another date is specifically fixed by law, the lien imposed by section 6321 shall arise at the time the assessment is made and shall continue until the liability for the amount so assessed (or a judgment against the taxpayer arising out of such liability) is satisfied or becomes unenforceable by reason of lapse of time.” Corporation Franchise Tax Liens IRS Tax Liens In the United States, a federal tax lien may arise in connection with any kind of federal tax, including but not limited to income tax, gift tax, or estate tax. Internal Revenue Code section 6322 provides: Sec Period of Lien. “Unless another date is specifically fixed by law, the lien imposed by section 6321 shall arise at the time the assessment is made and shall continue until the liability for the amount so assessed (or a judgment against the taxpayer arising out of such liability) is satisfied or becomes unenforceable by reason of lapse of time.” The term "assessment" refers to the statutory assessment made by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) under 26 U.S.C. § 6201 (that is, the formal recording of the tax in the official books and records at the office of the Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Treasury). Generally, the "person liable to pay any tax" described in section 6321 must pay the tax within ten days of the written notice and demand. If the taxpayer fails to pay the tax within the ten-day period, the tax lien arises automatically (i.e., by operation of law) and is effective retroactively to (i.e., arises at) the date of the assessment, even though the ten-day period necessarily expires after the assessment date. Under the doctrine of Glass City Bank v. United States, the tax lien applies not only to property and rights to property owned by the taxpayer at the time of the assessment, but also to after-acquired property (i.e., to any property owned by the taxpayer during the life of the lien). The statute of limitations under which a federal tax lien may become "unenforceable by reason of lapse of time" is found at 26 U.S.C. § For taxes assessed on or after November 6, 1990, the lien generally becomes unenforceable ten years after the date of assessment. For taxes assessed on or before November 5, 1990, a prior version of section 6502 provides for a limitations period of six years after the date of assessment. Various exceptions may extend the time periods. IRS Tax Liens

28 A B C D Feedback Question – 4.
Which of the following is a general lien? A Property tax lien Real estate tax lien Judgment lien Mortgage lien B C D

29 A B C D Feedback Question – 4.
Which of the following is a general lien? A Property tax lien Real estate tax lien Judgment lien Mortgage lien B C D

30 Specific Liens Some states are “tax deed only” states, which gives their governments access to immediate funds to function properly and perform their normal operations. If an owner does not pay property taxes, the property becomes tax defaulted and the owner has five years to redeem it. The owner of the property has two choices: redeem the property and pay a fortune in taxes and interest, or not redeem the property and let the government sell it. Unlike tax deeds, tax lien certificates let the investor earn a high rate of interest on the delinquent property taxes in addition to collecting the property if the owner fails to redeem. Tax lien certificates are a low-risk, high-return alternative to the constantly changing economy. Buying tax lien certificates is probably the best-kept secret in investing. It is safe and simple to do. Property Tax Lien Real Estate Tax Liens Mortgage Liens Mechanic’s Liens Utility Liens A lien is special when it affects only specific property. If a judgment were recovered against a person, that judgment would be a claim against all the property he or she owns or acquires, and is a general lien. But if person A employs person B to build a house for him and does not pay for it, B has a claim on the house he has built, not on all A's property; and his claim is a specific lien. There are several types of specific liens. Property Tax Lien Some states are “tax deed only” states, which gives their governments access to immediate funds to function properly and perform their normal operations. If an owner does not pay property taxes, the property becomes tax defaulted and the owner has five years to redeem it. The owner of the property has two choices: redeem the property and pay a fortune in taxes and interest, or not redeem the property and let the government sell it. Unlike tax deeds, tax lien certificates let the investor earn a high rate of interest on the delinquent property taxes in addition to collecting the property if the owner fails to redeem. Tax lien certificates are a low-risk, high-return alternative to the constantly changing economy. Buying tax lien certificates is probably the best-kept secret in investing. It is safe and simple to do. Bail Bond Liens

31 Specific Liens Unlike personal debts, tax liens on real estate occur when property owners become responsible for payment even if the tax obligation was incurred by a prior owner. Depending on the law of the state or jurisdiction, the owner of the property may also be personally liable for payment of the taxes. Payment of a tax lien may occur through various methods: Payment may be made directly by the property owner or, in many cases, indirectly by the mortgage holder using an escrow account. If a property is sold by the owner prior to tax foreclosure by the government body, the tax lien (which is generally discovered as part of a title search) is usually paid from the sale proceeds as part of closing costs. Property Tax Lien Real Estate Tax Liens Mortgage Liens Mechanic’s Liens Utility Liens Real Estate Tax Liens Unlike personal debts, tax liens on real estate occur when property owners become responsible for payment even if the tax obligation was incurred by a prior owner. Depending on the law of the state or jurisdiction, the owner of the property may also be personally liable for payment of the taxes. Payment of a tax lien may occur through various methods: Payment may be made directly by the property owner or, in many cases, indirectly by the mortgage holder using an escrow account. Notice is given both to the property owner and mortgage holder when a property tax is delinquent; thus, even if the property owner does not have an escrow account on the mortgage, the mortgage company will receive notice of the delinquency and may pay the tax. The mortgage company will then demand repayment from the owner/borrower and/or create an escrow account to recoup the proceeds, since the mortgage company might lose some of the value of its mortgage lien if the property were sold by the taxing agency to satisfy unpaid-taxes foreclosure. If a property is sold by the owner prior to tax foreclosure by the government body, the tax lien (which is generally discovered as part of a title search) is usually paid from the sale proceeds as part of closing costs. Procedures vary from state to state. Generally, in the event a tax lien on personal property is not paid within a specified time (and after several notices are given), the property may be seized and sold at a foreclosure sale. On real property, one of two methods may be used: either the property may be seized and sold (a tax deed sale), or in some States the tax lien may be offered to investors (in the form of a tax lien certificate) with an accompanying right for the investor, after a specified period of time, to institute foreclosure proceedings (a tax lien sale). Bail Bond Liens

32 Specific Liens Property Tax Lien Real Estate Tax Liens
A mortgage lien is a legal claim against a mortgaged property that must be paid or assumed when the property is sold. The person who holds the lien against the property can claim the property if the loan defaults. The mortgage lien typically belongs to the lender in order to secure the mortgage loan. Mortgage Liens Mechanic’s Liens Utility Liens Mortgage Liens A mortgage lien is a legal claim against a mortgaged property that must be paid or assumed when the property is sold. The person who holds the lien against the property can claim the property if the loan defaults. The mortgage lien typically belongs to the lender in order to secure the mortgage loan. Bail Bond Liens

33 Specific Liens Property Tax Lien
A mechanic's lien is a security interest in the title to property for the benefit of those who have supplied labor or materials that improve the property. The lien exists for both real property and personal property. In the realm of real property, it is called by various names including, generically, construction lien. It is also called a materialman's lien or supplier's lien when referring to those supplying materials, a laborer's lien when referring to those supplying labor, and a design professional's lien when referring to architects or designers who contribute to a work of improvement. In the realm of personal property, it is also called an artisan's lien. Mechanic’s liens on property in the United States date from the 1700s. Real Estate Tax Liens Mortgage Liens Mechanic’s Liens Utility Liens Mechanic’s Liens A mechanic's lien is a security interest in the title to property for the benefit of those who have supplied labor or materials that improve the property. The lien exists for both real property and personal property. In the realm of real property, it is called by various names including, generically, construction lien. It is also called a materialman's lien or supplier's lien when referring to those supplying materials, a laborer's lien when referring to those supplying labor, and a design professional's lien when referring to architects or designers who contribute to a work of improvement. In the realm of personal property, it is also called an artisan's lien. Mechanic’s liens on property in the United States date from the 1700s. With respect to real property, mechanic's liens are purely statutory devices that exist in every state as legislative public policy to protect contractors. More specifically, the state legislatures have determined that, due to the economics of the construction business, contractors and subcontractors need a greater remedy for non-payment for their work than merely the right to sue on their contracts. In particular, without the mechanic’s lien, subcontractors providing either labor or materials may have no effective remedy if their general contractor isn't sufficiently financially responsible, because their only contractual right is with that general contractor. Without the mechanic's lien, the contractor would have a limited number of options to enforce payment of the amounts owed. Further, there is usually a long list of claimants on any failed project. To avoid the specter of various trades, materialmen and suppliers attempting to remove the improvements they have made, and to maintain a degree of equality between the various lienors on a project, the statutory lien scheme was created. Without it, Tradesperson A may try to "race" Supplier B to the courthouse, the project site, or the construction lender to obtain payment. Most lien statutes instead mandate strict compliance with the formalized process they create in return for the timely resolution and balancing of claims between all parties involved – both owners and lien claimants. Bail Bond Liens

34 Specific Liens Property Tax Lien Real Estate Tax Liens Mortgage Liens
Mechanic’s Liens Municipalities often have the right to impose a specific, equitable, involuntary lien on the property of an owner who refuses to pay bills for municipal utility services. Utility Liens Utility Liens Municipalities often have the right to impose a specific, equitable, involuntary lien on the property of an owner who refuses to pay bills for municipal utility services. Bail Bond Liens

35 Specific Liens Property Tax Lien Real Estate Tax Liens
A bail bond lien happens when a family member needs to be bailed out of jail and a relative puts up his or her home for collateral. The bail company will place a bail bond against the relative’s property, which works as an insurance policy for the court. If the individual does not show up for the court date, the bail is paid to the court through the bail bond company. In most cases, bail bond liens are secured with a deed of trust, allowing the bail bond company to foreclose the property if the bond is not repaid. Mortgage Liens Mechanic’s Liens Utility Liens Bail Bond Liens A bail bond lien happens when a family member needs to be bailed out of jail and a relative puts up his or her home for collateral. The bail company will place a bail bond against the relative’s property, which works as an insurance policy for the court. If the individual does not show up for the court date, the bail is paid to the court through the bail bond company. In most cases, bail bond liens are secured with a deed of trust, allowing the bail bond company to foreclose the property if the bond is not repaid. Bail Bond Liens

36 A B C D Feedback Question – 5.
A ___________is a security interest in the title to property for the benefit of those who have supplied labor or materials that improve the property. A Mechanic's lien Judgment lien Mortgage lien Property tax lien B C D

37 A B C D Feedback Question – 5.
A ___________is a security interest in the title to property for the benefit of those who have supplied labor or materials that improve the property. A Mechanic's lien Judgment lien Mortgage lien Property tax lien B C D

38 Case Study: Mechanic's Lien - RTBH, Inc. v. Simon Property Group
Dick's Sporting Goods, Inc. entered into a lease with Simon Property Group for a property that Simon owned at a mall. Dick's planned to build a new store on the property, which would required the deconstruction of the existing units. Simon agreed to pledge to finish the construction of the building if Dick's failed to complete it. Dick's used S.C. Nestel, Inc. as the general contractor for the project. McAndrews was then subcontracted by Nestel to do the window and glass work. Throughout the construction process, a representative from McAndrews was in contact with representatives from Dicks' and Nestel, but not with anyone from Simon. The store was eventually completed without the need for Simon to intervene. Nestel refused to pay McAndrews for the work and, instead, filed a complaint for damages against them. McAndrews filed a counterclaim against both Nestel and Simon stating that there was a valid mechanic's lien on the property. Simon made a motion for a partial summary judgment. They claimed there was no mechanic's lien on their interest of the property. Dick's Sporting Goods, Inc. entered into a lease with Simon Property Group for a property that Simon owned at a mall. Dick's planned to build a new store on the property, which would required the deconstruction of the existing units. Simon agreed to pledge to finish the construction of the building if Dick's failed to complete it. Dick's used S.C. Nestel, Inc. as the general contractor for the project. McAndrews was then subcontracted by Nestel to do the window and glass work. Throughout the construction process, a representative from McAndrews was in contact with representatives from Dicks' and Nestel, but not with anyone from Simon. The store was eventually completed without the need for Simon to intervene. Nestel refused to pay McAndrews for the work and, instead, filed a complaint for damages against them. McAndrews filed a counterclaim against both Nestel and Simon stating that there was a valid mechanic's lien on the property. Simon made a motion for a partial summary judgment. They claimed there was no mechanic's lien on their interest of the property.

39 Case Study: Mechanic's Lien - RTBH, Inc. v. Simon Property Group
What is the issue in this case? A Whether or not McAndrews is entitled to payment for their services B Whether or not Simon is responsible for the improvements provided by McAndrews C How much McAndrews is entitled to receive D None of the answers shown

40 Case Study: Mechanic's Lien - RTBH, Inc. v. Simon Property Group
What is the issue in this case? A Whether or not McAndrews is entitled to payment for their services B Whether or not Simon is responsible for the improvements provided by McAndrews C How much McAndrews is entitled to receive D None of the answers shown

41 Case Study: Mechanic's Lien - RTBH, Inc. v. Simon Property Group
McAndrews wanted to be paid for their services. However, Simon claimed they were targeting the wrong people. Simon was not necessarily claiming that McAndrews was not owed money, only that they were not responsible for it. How, do you think, the court ruled in this case? A As the owners of the property, Simon Group is responsible for any lien associated with that property B Simon did not consent to the improvements, so the lien does not apply to their interest

42 Case Study: Mechanic's Lien - RTBH, Inc. v. Simon Property Group
McAndrews wanted to be paid for their services. However, Simon claimed they were targeting the wrong people. Simon was not necessarily claiming that McAndrews was not owed money, only that they were not responsible for it. How, do you think, the court ruled in this case? A As the owners of the property, Simon Group is responsible for any lien associated with that property In this case, there was no indication that Simon had any dealings at all with the construction of the property. Since they did not consent to the improvements, the lien did not apply to the property. McAndrews believed that a valid mechanic's lien was placed on the property because of the services they provided and wanted the lien to be foreclosed. However, the court ruled that, since the property owner (Simon) was not involved in the construction, the lien could not be applied to the property. Therefore, a partial summary judgment was given in favor of Simon Group. B Simon did not consent to the improvements, so the lien does not apply to their interest

43 The Effects of Liens on Title
Unlike personal debts, tax liens "run with the land" in that a property owner becomes responsible for payment even if the tax lien obligation was incurred by a previous owner. Depending on the local state and county law, the new owner of the property may also become personally liable for any and all payment of the tax lien. So, when a property owner doesn't pay his property taxes, the county government puts a lien on the property, making it a tax lien property. The county government will then look for investors to pay the property owner’s back taxes owed, so that the local government can continue to run on budget. Unlike personal debts, tax liens "run with the land" in that a property owner becomes responsible for payment even if the tax lien obligation was incurred by a previous owner. Depending on the local state and county law, the new owner of the property may also become personally liable for any and all payment of the tax lien. So, when a property owner doesn't pay his property taxes, the county government puts a lien on the property, making it a tax lien property. The county government will then look for investors to pay the property owner’s back taxes owed, so that the local government can continue to run on budget.

44 Feedback Question – 6. The previous owner of the laundromat failed to pay his municipal property taxes for 3 years / $ The new owner should pay the tax bill? A TRUE FALSE B

45 Feedback Question – 6. The previous owner of the laundromat failed to pay his municipal property taxes for 3 years / $ The new owner should pay the tax bill? A TRUE FALSE B

46 Priority of Liens The usual rule as to priority of liens is that they rank in the order of their filing or recording in the office of the proper officials. A mortgage recorded yesterday has precedence over one recorded today, and both are prior in lien to a mechanic's lien that may be filed tomorrow. As to judgments, there is an exception to this rule; a judgment is not good against the rights of those claiming under a deed or mortgage actually delivered prior to the date of docket of the judgment, even though the deed or mortgage has not been recorded. The usual rule as to priority of liens is that they rank in the order of their filing or recording in the office of the proper officials. A mortgage recorded yesterday has precedence over one recorded today, and both are prior in lien to a mechanic's lien that may be filed tomorrow. As to judgments, there is an exception to this rule; a judgment is not good against the rights of those claiming under a deed or mortgage actually delivered prior to the date of docket of the judgment, even though the deed or mortgage has not been recorded. The creditor who secures a judgment does so regardless of what a debtor may or may not own. The creditor asserts an existing claim in an action at law; when a judgment is secured, it becomes a lien on what the debtor actually owns at that time. It must, of course, be recognized that deeds and mortgages given to defraud creditors may be set aside, and that reference here is only to those given in good faith for value. It must also be noted that the lien of all taxes and assessments imposed by any governmental authority is superior to every other lien, regardless of the date of the lien or its recording. Of course, the relative rank of any two or more liens can be changed by agreement between their holders; this is often done with respect to mortgages by means of an instrument known as a subordination agreement.

47 Perfected and Unperfected Liens
Liens may be "perfected" or "unperfected.“ Perfected liens are those liens for which a creditor has established a priority right in the encumbered property with respect to third party creditors. Perfection is generally accomplished by taking steps required by law to give third party creditors notice of the lien. The fact that an item of property is in the hands of the creditor usually constitutes perfection. Where the property remains in the hands of the debtor, some further step must be taken, such as recording a notice of the security interest with the appropriate office. Liens may be "perfected" or "unperfected." Perfected liens are those liens for which a creditor has established a priority right in the encumbered property with respect to third party creditors. Perfection is generally accomplished by taking steps required by law to give third party creditors notice of the lien. The fact that an item of property is in the hands of the creditor usually constitutes perfection. Where the property remains in the hands of the debtor, some further step must be taken, such as recording a notice of the security interest with the appropriate office.

48 Selling Property If you are planning on selling property that has a lien on it, it is unlikely that the sale will close unless the debt is taken care of. A buyer will expect liens to be paid to allow for a transfer of clear title. LIEN If you are planning on selling property that has a lien on it, it is unlikely that the sale will close unless the debt is taken care of. A buyer will expect liens to be paid to allow for a transfer of clear title.

49 A B C D Poll Question – 7. Liens are ranked in order of their:
Importance Filing date Amount Urgency B C D

50 A B C D Poll Question – 7. Liens are ranked in order of their:
Importance Filing date Amount Urgency B C D

51 Purchasing Property When purchasing real estate, it is important to make sure there is no lien on the property that will prevent the securing of a clear title to the property. Generally, a bank or other mortgage lender will not provide mortgage financing until all liens on the property have been removed. A title search will usually indicate whether or not a lien exists and whether the seller is the legally recognized property owner. It should also indicate the exact legal description of the property, as well as providing details regarding a lien or other encumbrances against the title. When purchasing real estate, it is important to make sure there is no lien on the property that will prevent the securing of a clear title to the property. Generally, a bank or other mortgage lender will not provide mortgage financing until all liens on the property have been removed. A title search will usually indicate whether or not a lien exists and whether the seller is the legally recognized property owner. It should also indicate the exact legal description of the property, as well as providing details regarding a lien or other encumbrances against the title.

52 Transferring Property without Removing Liens
The law does not require that liens be removed before title to property can be sold or transferred. But the lien will need to be cleared up if the buyer needs financing or wants clear title. If property is transferred without the lien being paid off, it remains on the property. In transfers between relatives, the new owner may be willing to take title to property that already has liens encumbering it. The law does not require that liens be removed before title to property can be sold or transferred. But the lien will need to be cleared up if the buyer needs financing or wants clear title. If property is transferred without the lien being paid off, it remains on the property. In transfers between relatives, the new owner may be willing to take title to property that already has liens encumbering it.

53 Property Lien Disputes
If there is a property lien dispute, an experienced real estate attorney should be contacted to help resolve it. If there is a property lien dispute, an experienced real estate attorney should be contacted to help resolve it.

54 Feedback Question – 8. Mr. Trump purchased a property that had a cloud on the property. A mechanics lien had been placed at city hall. 1 day prior to close. His title insurance __________ cover this as it was less than 36 hours before close. A WOULD WOULD NOT B

55 Feedback Question – 8. Mr. Trump purchased a property that had a cloud on the property. A mechanics lien had been placed at city hall. 1 day prior to close. His title insurance __________ cover this as it was less than 36 hours before close. A WOULD WOULD NOT B

56 How are Real Estate Liens Released/Assigned?
Obviously, a full payoff of one's debt will lead to the removal of a lien upon providing evidence to the County Records Office, but suppose you are ready to sell your home or trade in your vehicle but you've been told you have to obtain a "Release of Lien" first. Normally, you would go back to the bank or Savings and Loan and ask them to prepare a release for you. But, where do you go if the bank or Savings and Loan has failed? Obviously, a full payoff of one's debt will lead to the removal of a lien upon providing evidence to the County Records Office, but suppose you are ready to sell your home or trade in your vehicle but you've been told you have to obtain a "Release of Lien" first. Normally, you would go back to the bank or Savings and Loan and ask them to prepare a release for you. But, where do you go if the bank or Savings and Loan has failed?

57 How are Real Estate Liens Released/Assigned?
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which is best known for insuring bank depositors to at least $250,000 per insured bank account, may be able to help by providing you with a Release of Lien on your home, vehicle, boat or other personal property if: The lien holder is a bank or Savings and Loan Institution that failed and has been placed in FDIC receivership. Also, in some cases, if the lien holder is a Subsidiary of a failed bank or Savings and Loan. If you're not sure, please call the appropriate DRR Customer Service Center at or toll-free at The loan was paid off before the institution failed. The loan was paid off to the FDIC after the institution failed. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which is best known for insuring bank depositors to at least $250,000 per insured bank account, may be able to help by providing you with a Release of Lien on your home, vehicle, boat or other personal property if: The lien holder is a bank or Savings and Loan Institution that failed and has been placed in FDIC receivership. Also, in some cases, if the lien holder is a Subsidiary of a failed bank or Savings and Loan. If you're not sure, please call the appropriate DRR Customer Service Center at or toll-free at The loan was paid off before the institution failed. The loan was paid off to the FDIC after the institution failed.

58 How are Real Estate Liens Released/Assigned?
A request for a Release of Lien must be made in writing and be detailed. Mail, or fax your request to the appropriate DRR Customer Service Center with the recorded document to be released or to be assigned showing the closed institution as the lien holder. Also, a proof of payoff must be provided to expedite the completion of your request and avoid researching the records of the closed institution which will delay the completion of your request. A request for a Release of Lien must be made in writing and be detailed. Mail, or fax your request to the appropriate DRR Customer Service Center with the recorded document to be released or to be assigned showing the closed institution as the lien holder. Also, a proof of payoff must be provided to expedite the completion of your request and avoid researching the records of the closed institution which will delay the completion of your request.

59 How are Real Estate Liens Released/Assigned?
When an Assignment of Lien is needed to complete a chain of title, you must obtain an Assignment of Lien from the FDIC. The following documents are needed to obtain an Assignment of Lien: A copy of the Mortgage or Deed of Trust Document that you are requesting to be assigned. The copy must be readable and clearly show the recording information. This document can be obtained from the Public Records in the County where the property is located or from your title company or title attorney. Copies of any subsequent assignments that show the chain of title leading to an FDIC receivership. Proof that the party to whom the assignment is being made is the current holder of the mortgage. Proof can be in the form of a Note Endorsement, Loan History, Sales Contract or Indemnification Agreement. When an Assignment of Lien is needed to complete a chain of title, you must obtain an Assignment of Lien from the FDIC. The following documents are needed to obtain an Assignment of Lien: A copy of the Mortgage or Deed of Trust Document that you are requesting to be assigned. The copy must be readable and clearly show the recording information. This document can be obtained from the Public Records in the County where the property is located or from your title company or title attorney. Copies of any subsequent assignments that show the chain of title leading to an FDIC receivership. Proof that the party to whom the assignment is being made is the current holder of the mortgage. Proof can be in the form of a Note Endorsement, Loan History, Sales Contract or Indemnification Agreement. If the lien holder of record is not a Bank or Savings and Loan that failed and has been placed in FDIC receivership, please provide copies of any and all assignments that show the chain of title leading to an FDIC receivership. It is highly suggested you also provide the following documents, if available: A copy of a recent Title Search or Title Commitment, or Attorney's Title Opinion on the property for which you are requesting an assignment showing the breaks in the chain of title. This is especially helpful in cases where the Mortgage documents are of poor quality and hard to read. Your Title Company or Title Attorney can usually provide you with this.

60 A B C D Feedback Question – 9.
Who should be contacted to settle a property lien dispute? A The FDIC A real estate attorney The Police The County Clerk B C D

61 A B C D Feedback Question – 9.
Who should be contacted to settle a property lien dispute? A The FDIC A real estate attorney The Police The County Clerk B C D

62 Where to Send Your Request
A request for a Release of Lien must be made in writing. You can mail your request to: FDIC, 1910 Pacific Ave, Dallas TX 75201 Attention: DRR Customer Service Center/Inwood OR It can be faxed to A request for a Release of Lien must be made in writing. You can mail your request to: FDIC, 1910 Pacific Ave, Dallas TX Attention: DRR Customer Service Center/Inwood OR it can be faxed to We ask that you either fax your request OR mail it in. Please do not do both. Hard to read documents should be mailed or sent overnight, rather than faxed. Unreadable documents cannot be processed. Be sure to include your address and phone number with your written request. Because of the large volume of release requests we get, it may take up to 30 business days to obtain an assignment so you may want to plan accordingly. If you have any questions you may call the DRR Customer Service Center at or toll-free at between the hours of 8:00 am and 5:00 pm Central Standard Time, Monday through Friday (except Holidays). A Customer Service Representative will be happy to answer your questions, OR check out our Frequently Asked Questions. Source: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to view the website click here.

63 Section 2 REAL ESTATE TAX LIENS

64 General Ad Valorem Tax General Ad Valorem Tax
An ad valorem tax (Latin for “according to value”) is a tax based on the value of real estate or personal property. An ad valorem tax is typically imposed at the time of a transaction, as in a sales tax or value-added tax (VAT), but it may be imposed on an annual basis (real or personal property tax) or in connection with another significant event (inheritance tax, surrendering citizenship, or tariffs). These taxes are specific, involuntary, statutory liens. General Ad Valorem Tax  An ad valorem tax (Latin for “according to value”) is a tax based on the value of real estate or personal property. An ad valorem tax is typically imposed at the time of a transaction, as in a sales tax or value-added tax (VAT), but it may be imposed on an annual basis (real or personal property tax) or in connection with another significant event (inheritance tax, surrendering citizenship, or tariffs). These taxes are specific, involuntary, statutory liens.   Ad valorem rates, which have come into increased use, have the important advantage of adjusting the tax burden according to the amount the consumer spends on the taxed items. They thus avoid the serious discrimination of specific rates against low-priced commodities. The primary difficulty with the ad valorem taxation, especially in the case of tariffs, is in establishing a satisfactory value figure. Sales taxes of broad scope must, of necessity, have ad valorem rates. Property taxes are sometimes considered ad valorem taxes (since the rates are applied to the value of the property) as opposed to special assessments, which are frequently imposed on a specific unit basis (e.g., front footage). Ad Valorem taxes are a substantial source of revenue for local governments. The basis of ad valorem property taxation is the fair market value of the property, established as of January 1 of each year. The tax is levied on the assessed property value which is established by law. The amount of tax is determined by the tax rate levied by various entities. Ad Valorem taxes are imposed by taxing bodies of government, including: States and counties Cities, towns, and villages School districts Drainage districts Water districts Sanitary districts Parks, forest preserves, and recreation districts

65 General Ad Valorem Tax General Ad Valorem Tax
A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. The tax is usually set as a percentage by the government charging the tax. Sales Tax General Ad Valorem Tax A sales tax is a consumption tax charged at the point of purchase for certain goods and services. The tax is usually set as a percentage by the government charging the tax. There is usually a list of exemptions. The tax can be included in the price (tax-inclusive) or added at the point of sale (tax-exclusive). Ideally, a sales tax is fair, has a high compliance rate, is difficult to avoid, is charged exactly once on any one item, and is simple to calculate and collect. A conventional or retail sales tax attempts to achieve this by charging the tax only to the final end user, unlike a gross receipts tax levied on the intermediate business which purchases materials for production or ordinary operating expenses prior to delivering a service or product to the marketplace. This prevents so-called tax "cascading" or "pyramiding," in which an item is taxed more than once as it makes its way from production to final retail sale. There are several types of sales taxes: Seller or Vendor Tax, Consumer Excise Tax, Retail Transaction Tax, or Value-Added Tax.

66 General Ad Valorem Tax General Ad Valorem Tax Sales Tax
Value-Added Tax A value-added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST), is a tax on exchanges, levied on the added value that results from each exchange. It differs from a sales tax because a sales tax is levied on the total value of the exchange. For this reason, a VAT is neutral with respect to the number of passages between the producer and the final consumer. A VAT is an indirect tax, in that the tax is collected from someone other than the person who actually bears the cost of the tax (namely, the seller rather than the consumer). To avoid double taxation on final consumption, exports (which by definition are consumed abroad) are usually not subject to VAT and VAT charged under such circumstances is usually refundable. A value-added tax (VAT), or goods and services tax (GST), is a tax on exchanges, levied on the added value that results from each exchange. It differs from a sales tax because a sales tax is levied on the total value of the exchange.

67 General Ad Valorem Tax General Ad Valorem Tax Sales Tax Property Tax
Value-Added Tax A property tax, or millage tax, is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. There are three species or types of property: Land, Improvements to Land (immovable man-made things), and Personalty (movable man made things). Real estate, real property and realty are all terms for the combination of land and improvements. The taxing authority requires and/or performs an appraisal of the monetary value of the property, and tax is assessed in proportion to that value. Forms of property tax used vary between countries and jurisdictions. A property tax, or millage tax, is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. There are three species or types of property: Land, Improvements to Land (immovable man-made things), and Personalty (movable man made things).

68 Ad Valorem Importance Ad valorem duties are important to those importing goods into the United States, because the amount of duty owed is often based on the value of the imported commodity. Ad valorem taxes (mainly real property tax and sales taxes) are a major source of revenues for state and municipal governments, especially in jurisdictions that do not employ a personal income tax. "Ad valorem" is used frequently to refer to property values by county tax assessors. In many states, the central appraisal district sends certified values to the county tax assessor, who determines the final tax rate to be imposed on the property. Other states use a state tax commission, which notifies the appropriate taxing authorities of the assessed value of property within their billing jurisdiction. Ad valorem tax relates to a tax with a rate given as a proportion of the price. For example, virtually all state and local taxes on restaurant meals and clothing are ad valorem. Ad valorem duties are important to those importing goods into the United States, because the amount of duty owed is often based on the value of the imported commodity. Ad valorem taxes (mainly real property tax and sales taxes) are a major source of revenues for state and municipal governments, especially in jurisdictions that do not employ a personal income tax. "Ad valorem" is used frequently to refer to property values by county tax assessors. In many states, the central appraisal district sends certified values to the county tax assessor, who determines the final tax rate to be imposed on the property. Other states use a state tax commission, which notifies the appropriate taxing authorities of the assessed value of property within their billing jurisdiction. Ad valorem tax relates to a tax with a rate given as a proportion of the price. For example, virtually all state and local taxes on restaurant meals and clothing are ad valorem.

69 A B C D Feedback Question - 10.
Who benefits the most from ad valorem taxes? A Taxpayers Local government Federal government Businesses B C D

70 A B C D Feedback Question - 10.
Who benefits the most from ad valorem taxes? A Taxpayers Local government Federal government Businesses B C D

71 What Property is Taxed? Taxes on Real Property "Real property" for property tax purposes generally includes the land, building, structures, and all improvements or fixtures annexed to the building or structure. The definition of real property often excludes business personal property such as tools, implements, machinery, and equipment attached to or installed as real property for use in the business. "Real property" for property tax purposes generally includes the land, building, structures, and all improvements or fixtures annexed to the building or structure. The definition of real property often excludes business personal property such as tools, implements, machinery, and equipment attached to or installed as real property for use in the business.

72 What Property is Taxed? Taxes on Personal Property Taxing authorities may also tax personal property. The items taxed vary by jurisdiction, but most jurisdictions do not impose property taxes on household goods, inventories, and intangible personal property such as bonds. Motor vehicles, however, are often subject to ad valorem taxation. Taxing authorities may also tax personal property. The items taxed vary by jurisdiction, but most jurisdictions do not impose property taxes on household goods, inventories, and intangible personal property such as bonds. Motor vehicles, however, are often subject to ad valorem taxation.

73 Determining the Amount of Ad Valorem Taxes
Generally, ad valorem taxes are assessed as of January 1 each year and are computed as a percentage of the assessed value of the property being taxed. The assessed value of property generally is a fair percentage of fair market value. "Fair market value" is usually defined as the price that a willing buyer would pay and a willing seller would accept for property, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell. It is also defined as the price at which property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller when both have reasonable knowledge of all the facts necessary and neither is required to buy or sell. Generally, ad valorem taxes are assessed as of January 1 each year and are computed as a percentage of the assessed value of the property being taxed. The assessed value of property generally is a fair percentage of fair market value. "Fair market value" is usually defined as the price that a willing buyer would pay and a willing seller would accept for property, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell. It is also defined as the price at which property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller when both have reasonable knowledge of all the facts necessary and neither is required to buy or sell.

74 Determining the Amount of Ad Valorem Taxes
Appraisers hired by the taxing authority most often value the property. Most taxing authorities require periodic inspections of the subject property as part of the valuation process and establish appraisal criteria to determine fair market value. Such criteria include factors analyzing: the cost of the property and subsequent depreciation; comparable market data; the use of the property; and estimated annual net income generated by a business property. Appraisers hired by the taxing authority most often value the property. Most taxing authorities require periodic inspections of the subject property as part of the valuation process and establish appraisal criteria to determine fair market value. Such criteria include factors analyzing: the cost of the property and subsequent depreciation; comparable market data; the use of the property; and estimated annual net income generated by a business property.

75 Poll Question – 11. Which of the following is considered “real property”? A Land Buildings Structures All of the above B C D

76 Poll Question – 11. Which of the following is considered “real property”? A Land Buildings Structures All of the above B C D

77 Disputing Valuation Upon notification of assessment, the property owner may dispute the valuation. Generally, taxpayers may request a hearing at the local level and, if necessary, appeal the valuation to a higher agency and, ultimately, a tax court. Upon notification of assessment, the property owner may dispute the valuation. Generally, taxpayers may request a hearing at the local level and, if necessary, appeal the valuation to a higher agency and, ultimately, a tax court.

78 Levy of Tax and Classification
Once a value is determined, the tax is levied, and the property owner is notified. The actual tax rate may vary depending on the property's classification. Property is often classified according to its use. Once a value is determined, the tax is levied, and the property owner is notified. The actual tax rate may vary depending on the property's classification. Property is often classified according to its use. Common classifications include commercial/industrial property, multiple dwelling property, residential homestead property, agricultural property, and business property. Common classifications include commercial/industrial property, multiple dwelling property, residential homestead property, agricultural property, and business property.

79 Parties Involved State Revenue Commissioner County Tax Commissioner
County Board of Tax Assessors County Board of Education County Board of Equalization Board of County Commissioners Here are some of the entities that may be involved in the ad valorem tax process. The terms for these individuals or entities may be different in your area, but there will likely be an individual or board that has similar duties and responsibilities in the county where you live:

80 Parties Involved County Tax Commissioner County Board of Tax Assessors County Board of Equalization Board of County Commissioners County Board of Education State Revenue Commissioner The County Tax Commissioner, an office established by the Constitution and elected in all counties except one, is the official responsible for receiving tax returns filed by taxpayers or designating the board of tax assessors to receive them; receiving and processing application for homestead exemption; serving as agent of the State Revenue Commissioner for the registration of motor vehicles; and  performing all functions related to billing, collecting, accounting for, and disbursing ad valorem taxes collected in this county. The County Tax Commissioner, an office established by the Constitution and elected in all counties except one, is the official responsible for receiving tax returns filed by taxpayers or designating the board of tax assessors to receive them; receiving and processing application for homestead exemption; serving as agent of the State Revenue Commissioner for the registration of motor vehicles; and  performing all functions related to billing, collecting, accounting for, and disbursing ad valorem taxes collected in this county.

81 Parties Involved The County Board of Tax Assessors, appointed for fixed terms by the county governing authority in all counties except one, is responsible for determining taxability and also for the appraisal, assessment, and equalization of all assessments within the county. The Board of Tax Assessors notifies taxpayers when changes are made to the value of property, receive and review all appeals filed, and insure that the appeal process proceeds properly. In addition, the Board approves all exemptions claimed by the taxpayer. County Tax Commissioner State Revenue Commissioner County Board of Tax Assessors County Board of Education County Board of Equalization The County Board of Tax Assessors, appointed for fixed terms by the county governing authority in all counties except one, is responsible for determining taxability and also for the appraisal, assessment, and equalization of all assessments within the county. The Board of Tax Assessors notifies taxpayers when changes are made to the value of property, receive and review all appeals filed, and insure that the appeal process proceeds properly. In addition, the Board approves all exemptions claimed by the taxpayer. Board of County Commissioners

82 Parties Involved State Revenue Commissioner County Tax Commissioner
The County Board of Equalization, appointed by the Grand Jury, is the body charged by law with hearing and adjudicating administrative appeals to property assessments made by the Board of Tax Assessors. (Note: An arbitration method of appeal is available to the taxpayer in lieu of an appeal to the Board of Equalization at the option of the taxpayer at the time the appeal is filed.) County Board of Tax Assessors County Board of Education County Board of Equalization The County Board of Equalization, appointed by the Grand Jury, is the body charged by law with hearing and adjudicating administrative appeals to property assessments made by the Board of Tax Assessors. (Note: An arbitration method of appeal is available to the taxpayer in lieu of an appeal to the Board of Equalization at the option of the taxpayer at the time the appeal is filed.) Board of County Commissioners

83 Parties Involved State Revenue Commissioner County Tax Commissioner
The Board of County Commissioners, or County Governing Authority (or the sole Commissioner in some counties), an elected body, establishes the annual budget for county government operations and then levies the mill rate necessary to fund the portion of the budget to be paid for by ad valorem tax. County Board of Tax Assessors County Board of Education County Board of Equalization The Board of County Commissioners, or County Governing Authority (or the sole Commissioner in some counties), an elected body, establishes the annual budget for county government operations and then levies the mill rate necessary to fund the portion of the budget to be paid for by ad valorem tax. Board of County Commissioners

84 Parties Involved State Revenue Commissioner County Tax Commissioner
The County Board of Education, an elected body, establishes the annual budget for school purposes and then recommends the mill rate, which, with very few exceptions, must be levied for the School Board by the County Commissioners.   County Board of Tax Assessors County Board of Education County Board of Equalization The County Board of Education, an elected body, establishes the annual budget for school purposes and then recommends the mill rate, which, with very few exceptions, must be levied for the School Board by the County Commissioners.   Board of County Commissioners

85 Parties Involved State Revenue Commissioner County Tax Commissioner
The State Revenue Commissioner exercises general oversight of the entire ad valorem tax process. In addition, the State levies ad valorem tax each year in an amount which cannot exceed one-fourth of one mill (.00025). County Board of Tax Assessors County Board of Education County Board of Equalization The State Revenue Commissioner exercises general oversight of the entire ad valorem tax process. In addition, the State levies ad valorem tax each year in an amount which cannot exceed one-fourth of one mill (.00025). Board of County Commissioners

86 A B C D Feedback Question – 12.
Who receives tax returns filed by taxpayers? A County Board of Tax Assessors County Board of Equalization Board of County Commissioners County Tax Commissioner B C D

87 A B C D Feedback Question – 12.
Who receives tax returns filed by taxpayers? A County Board of Tax Assessors County Board of Equalization Board of County Commissioners County Tax Commissioner B C D

88 Special Assessment (Improvement Taxes)
Special assessment is the term used in the United States to designate a unique charge government units can assess against real estate parcels for certain public projects. This charge is levied in a specific geographic area known as a Special Assessment District (SAD). A special assessment may be levied only against parcels of real estate which have been identified as having received a direct and unique "benefit" from the public project This type of tax is always a specific and statutory lien. It can either be voluntary – meaning the property owners in the area that is going to be affected can petition for the improvement – or involuntary, which means that a government authority can initiate the process. Special assessment taxes are imposed on real estate that requires property owners to pay for improvements such as streets, alleys, street lighting, curbs, and similar items that benefit their real estate. Such taxes are enforced in the same manner as general real estate taxes, with the same lien priority after the general real estate tax. Special assessment is the term used in the United States to designate a unique charge government units can assess against real estate parcels for certain public projects. This charge is levied in a specific geographic area known as a Special Assessment District (SAD). A special assessment may be levied only against parcels of real estate which have been identified as having received a direct and unique "benefit" from the public project This type of tax is always a specific and statutory lien. It can either be voluntary – meaning the property owners in the area that is going to be affected can petition for the improvement – or involuntary, which means that a government authority can initiate the process. Special assessment taxes are imposed on real estate that requires property owners to pay for improvements such as streets, alleys, street lighting, curbs, and similar items that benefit their real estate. Such taxes are enforced in the same manner as general real estate taxes, with the same lien priority after the general real estate tax. Examples The most universally known special assessments are charges levied against lands when drinking water lines or sewer lines are installed, or when streets are paved with macadam or some other impervious surface. However, special assessment taxes can be levied for police or fire protection, parking structures, street lighting, and many other purposes permitted by state and local government statutes.

89 Special Assessment District
A Special Assessment District (SAD) is a unique geographic area in which the market value of real estate is enhanced due to the influence of a public improvement and in which a tax is apportioned to recover the costs of the improvement. Individual special assessment levies may be made only in a Special Assessment District. The SAD is one of two kinds of geographic areas commonly associated with a special assessment levy. The other kind of geographic area is the "service district." Circumstances vary according to state law, but the essential distinguishing feature between these two types of districts is this: a service district is composed of all individual parcels of land that are somehow connected to the public improvement for which the special assessment is to be levied. The special assessment district consists of only those properties which are designated by the applicable law as having received a specific and unique "benefit" from the public improvement. A Special Assessment District (SAD) is a unique geographic area in which the market value of real estate is enhanced due to the influence of a public improvement and in which a tax is apportioned to recover the costs of the improvement. Individual special assessment levies may be made only in a Special Assessment District. The SAD is one of two kinds of geographic areas commonly associated with a special assessment levy. The other kind of geographic area is the "service district." Circumstances vary according to state law, but the essential distinguishing feature between these two types of districts is this: a service district is composed of all individual parcels of land that are somehow connected to the public improvement for which the special assessment is to be levied. The special assessment district consists of only those properties which are designated by the applicable law as having received a specific and unique "benefit" from the public improvement. Examples of properties which may be connected in some way to a public improvement and are therefore included within a service district, but may be excluded from the special assessment district, are properties associated with a dam and properties associated with a business parking structure.

90 Special Assessment District
In the case of a dam, all properties located within a scientifically defined "watershed" and all properties lying within the floodplain of the dam are connected by how water drains from an entire watershed into a lake and how water within the lake may flood specific areas downstream. Since the area of a watershed and the area of a floodplain are often very, very large when compared to the area of a lake, it is possible for some portions of the watershed and floodplain to be physically located in a government unit other than the one in which the lake is located. It is also possible that the government unit authorizing a special assessment levy does not have jurisdiction to include all land within the watershed and floodplain. In the case of a dam, all properties located within a scientifically defined "watershed" and all properties lying within the floodplain of the dam are connected by how water drains from an entire watershed into a lake and how water within the lake may flood specific areas downstream. Since the area of a watershed and the area of a floodplain are often very, very large when compared to the area of a lake, it is possible for some portions of the watershed and floodplain to be physically located in a government unit other than the one in which the lake is located. It is also possible that the government unit authorizing a special assessment levy does not have jurisdiction to include all land within the watershed and floodplain. In this example, the service district would be large enough to include all properties connected to the lake by how water flows. The Special Assessment District would be a smaller area within which the government unit proposing the special assessment has the power to levy a special assessment tax.

91 Special Assessment District
In the case of an economic development project (e.g. a parking structure for a business district) circumstances which would cause the service district and Special Assessment District to have differing geographic boundaries relate to the existing and permitted use of property rather than political subdivisions. That is, economic forces within the market would be the key to including or excluding a specific property.  The service district for a parking facility is generally limited to the geographic area in which pedestrians would walk between businesses and the parking structure. An example might be that users of a parking structure will traverse an area defined as being within six blocks or less of a parking structure. In this example, the service district would consist of all properties lying within six blocks of the parking structure. In the case of an economic development project (e.g. a parking structure for a business district) circumstances which would cause the service district and Special Assessment District to have differing geographic boundaries relate to the existing and permitted use of property rather than political subdivisions. That is, economic forces within the market would be the key to including or excluding a specific property. The service district for a parking facility is generally limited to the geographic area in which pedestrians would walk between businesses and the parking structure. An example might be that users of a parking structure will traverse an area defined as being within six blocks or less of a parking structure. In this example, the service district would consist of all properties lying within six blocks of the parking structure. However, there may be more than just retail business structures within the six-block area. All classes of properties lying within the distance shoppers can reasonably be expected to walk to and from retail outlets could include a block of homes or an industrial facility. The commercial properties would be assessed because surveys would illustrate that retail sales depend upon adequate parking for customers. It could also be demonstrated that residential properties (homes), would be excluded because users of those properties might not reasonably be expected to "benefit" from the parking structure. Depending upon various scenarios, industrial properties might, similarly, not benefit from a parking structure.

92 A B C D Feedback Question – 13.
__________is the term used in the United States to designate a unique charge government units can assess against real estate parcels for certain public projects. A Special assessment Unique assessment Helpful assessment Tax assessment B C D

93 A B C D Feedback Question – 13.
__________is the term used in the United States to designate a unique charge government units can assess against real estate parcels for certain public projects. A Special assessment Unique assessment Helpful assessment Tax assessment B C D

94 Special Assessment District
Benefit There are variations between state governments as to what constitutes a “benefit” under special assessment laws. In general, the "benefit" must result directly, uniquely, and specifically from the public project. For example, when water and sewer lines are installed by government units, nearby land often increases in value. The presence both of safe drinking water and of sewer lines means that expensive wells and septic systems do not have to be installed by affected property owners. It also means the potential for contamination of ground water and surface areas from improperly treated sewage will be eliminated. Land that might have been “unbuildable” before may become buildable once government-provided water and sewer services become available. Providing water and sewer service are situations which may adapt formerly unusable land for residential or commercial use. A storm sewer or a dam or dike may mitigate flooding and make properties within the former flood zone more valuable. Benefit There are variations between state governments as to what constitutes a “benefit” under special assessment laws. In general, the "benefit" must result directly, uniquely, and specifically from the public project. For example, when water and sewer lines are installed by government units, nearby land often increases in value. The presence both of safe drinking water and of sewer lines means that expensive wells and septic systems do not have to be installed by affected property owners. It also means the potential for contamination of ground water and surface areas from improperly treated sewage will be eliminated. Land that might have been “unbuildable” before may become buildable once government-provided water and sewer services become available. Providing water and sewer service are situations which may adapt formerly unusable land for residential or commercial use. A storm sewer or a dam or dike may mitigate flooding and make properties within the former flood zone more valuable. The term “benefit” most frequently means an increase in the market value of the benefited property. However, some states historically have defined the term to mean more than an increase in market value. For example, it may refer to a special adaptability of the land or a relief from some burden.

95 Special Assessment vs. Ad Valorem Tax
The property tax most citizens are aware of is the ad valorem tax. Special assessment levies are not ad valorem property taxes, even though they may be collected on a property tax bill. A special assessment is based strictly upon the concepts of "need" and "benefit." Special assessments require a finding that the public improvement is "needed" for a reason consistent with the law which permits the special assessment and that each property specially assessed receives a unique, measurable and direct benefit from the public improvement that was needed. The basic idea is, if government funds make a property more valuable, the government has the right to get money back from a property owner. The property tax most citizens are aware of is the ad valorem tax. Special assessment levies are not ad valorem property taxes, even though they may be collected on a property tax bill. A special assessment is based strictly upon the concepts of "need" and "benefit." Special assessments require a finding that the public improvement is "needed" for a reason consistent with the law which permits the special assessment and that each property specially assessed receives a unique, measurable and direct benefit from the public improvement that was needed. The basic idea is, if government funds make a property more valuable, the government has the right to get money back from a property owner. This contrasts significantly with the ad valorem tax, which is extracted to fund government operations designed to benefit all citizens. An ad valorem tax is based upon the legal principles of equity and uniformity. That is, everyone must be treated fairly and equally. In special assessments, proportionality is a key element. A special assessment is premised upon the necessity for the public improvement and the fiscal burden imposed must be reasonably proportional to the benefit created. Unlike ad valorem taxes, special assessments are not expected to be uniformly levied (the same millage rate for each parcel). The fiscal burden is spread among only those properties within the special assessment district and apportioned to each property based upon the unique, specific, and direct benefit the property receives from the public improvement. Thus, a vacant lot might be assessed the same fee as an adjacent lot which has a million-dollar home on it.

96 Tax Sale As one means of generating lost income from delinquent taxpayers, county governments offer tax sales at auction to the public. During Tax Lien Sales, what is purchased at these auctions is not land, rather a debt to be collected on. By purchasing the right to collect past due taxes, a buyer is in essence loaning money to the property owner to pay their taxes. During Tax Deed Sales however, the winning bidder will own the deed and the land, having purchased it from the county or authority performing the sale. As one means of generating lost income from delinquent taxpayers, county governments offer tax sales at auction to the public. During Tax Lien Sales, what is purchased at these auctions is not land, rather a debt to be collected on. By purchasing the right to collect past due taxes, a buyer is in essence loaning money to the property owner to pay their taxes. During Tax Deed Sales however, the winning bidder will own the deed and the land, having purchased it from the county or authority performing the sale.

97 Tax Lien Sale A Tax Lien or Tax Certificate Sale is a public sale, usually at auction, of the right to collect on a delinquent taxpayer's debt. This sale is held by the County, generally once each year. What is purchased by the winning bidder is not the deed to a property. The purchaser's money pays the delinquent taxes to the County on behalf of the delinquent property owner. In exchange, the purchaser is given first lien position on title, ahead of mortgages, deeds of trust, and judgments, subordinate only to State tax liens. Under the terms of the sale which may differ greatly from county to county, if the debt is not repaid with interest (rate determined at the time of sale) within a specified time period, the purchaser of the tax lien may foreclose upon the property, and all junior (subordinate) liens are dissolved, forgiven, or otherwise not the responsibility of the purchaser. A Tax Lien or Tax Certificate Sale is a public sale, usually at auction, of the right to collect on a delinquent taxpayer's debt. This sale is held by the County, generally once each year. What is purchased by the winning bidder is not the deed to a property. The purchaser's money pays the delinquent taxes to the County on behalf of the delinquent property owner. In exchange, the purchaser is given first lien position on title, ahead of mortgages, deeds of trust, and judgments, subordinate only to State tax liens. Under the terms of the sale which may differ greatly from county to county, if the debt is not repaid with interest (rate determined at the time of sale) within a specified time period, the purchaser of the tax lien may foreclose upon the property, and all junior (subordinate) liens are dissolved, forgiven, or otherwise not the responsibility of the purchaser. If you are interested in participating in a Tax Lien or Tax Certificate Sale, contact your county for specific information and details both about the sale and the properties.

98 Tax Deed Sale A Tax Deed Sale is a public sale, usually at auction, of the deed to the property of a delinquent taxpayer. The Owner and all lien holders have been given ample time and have received proper legal notification that the property will be sold if due taxes are not satisfied. Different than a Tax Lien Certificate Sale, the winning bidder purchases the deed to a piece of property, becoming the new owner and obtaining all rights to the property free and clear of liens, mortgages, deeds of trust, etc. The more people who do bid generally means prices get higher and ultimately may not be such great deals. Sometimes, though, not that much interest exists in property, and people can acquire it for extremely low rates. A Tax Deed Sale is a public sale, usually at auction, of the deed to the property of a delinquent taxpayer. The Owner and all lien holders have been given ample time and have received proper legal notification that the property will be sold if due taxes are not satisfied. Different than a Tax Lien Certificate Sale, the winning bidder purchases the deed to a piece of property, becoming the new owner and obtaining all rights to the property free and clear of liens, mortgages, deeds of trust, etc. The more people who do bid generally means prices get higher and ultimately may not be such great deals. Sometimes, though, not that much interest exists in property, and people can acquire it for extremely low rates. It should be stated that a few people feel moral qualms about making money on the misery of others, which is clearly the case with many tax sale situations, especially when taxes owed were very low, and could have been met with a little charity. It is extremely important to know and understand which type of sale you are attending, a tax deed or tax lien/certificate sale. Each has specific rules and guidelines which must be followed promptly, and which can differ greatly county to county. It is strongly recommended that anyone interested in attending a tax sale be aware of the method and timeliness required for payment and delivery of a property. For further information, familiarize yourself with property tax law, consult a legal attorney, and contact the government agency conducting the sale.

99 Redemption The “right of redemption” is the right of the foreclosed homeowner to buy the home back from the person who bought it at foreclosure. Once the sale is complete, if the home was sold by judicial foreclosure, you may buy it back. This is a statutory right, meaning there has to be a specific law providing for the right. Therefore if there is no statute there is no right of redemption. Redemption The “right of redemption” is the right of the foreclosed homeowner to buy the home back from the person who bought it at foreclosure. Once the sale is complete, if the home was sold by judicial foreclosure, you may buy it back. This is a statutory right, meaning there has to be a specific law providing for the right. Therefore if there is no statute there is no right of redemption. Under a trust deed with a power of sale, there is no right of redemption after the trustee sale. The sale is final. On June 8 of the tax year, the delinquent tax list is published in a local newspaper of general circulation. Unpaid taxes are subject to delinquency payments. Over time, the amount owed also is increased by additional costs, interest, and redemption penalties. If a taxpayer begins making currently due payments, such arrearages may be paid in five annual installments. At the time all past due amounts have been paid, the country tax collector issues a certificate of redemption. The right of redemption or Equity of Redemption as it is known in those states using mortgages rather than trust deeds, usually allows a borrower in default to redeem the property within three months after foreclosure sale if the proceeds are sufficient to pay off all indebtedness plus any other foreclosure costs. If the sale does not bring enough money to pay off the debt, the mortgagor has one year to redeem the property by paying off the amount owed, plus costs.

100 Understanding Property Reassessment
Buyers of commercial properties are supposed to have their properties reassessed and pay taxes on the full value of their property when “a change in ownership has occurred.” Some states’ property tax laws require in general that real property be reassessed when there is a change in ownership. But loopholes in the law allow buyers to avoid reassessment even if 100% of a company changes hands. The current system provides property owners with innumerable ways to structure change of ownership transactions to avoid paying higher taxes. The laws governing “change of ownership” reassessments could be tightened to require reassessment if at least 50% of a corporation’s stock or ownership shares change hands. Buyers of commercial properties are supposed to have their properties reassessed and pay taxes on the full value of their property when “a change in ownership has occurred.” Some states’ property tax laws require in general that real property be reassessed when there is a change in ownership. But loopholes in the law allow buyers to avoid reassessment even if 100% of a company changes hands. The current system provides property owners with innumerable ways to structure change of ownership transactions to avoid paying higher taxes. The laws governing “change of ownership” reassessments could be tightened to require reassessment if at least 50% of a corporation’s stock or ownership shares change hands.

101 Poll Question – 14. ___________________ is a unique geographic area in which the market value of real estate is enhanced due to the influence of a public improvement and in which a tax is apportioned to recover the costs of the public improvement. A Homeowners district Tax district Special assessment district Business district B C D

102 Poll Question – 14. ___________________ is a unique geographic area in which the market value of real estate is enhanced due to the influence of a public improvement and in which a tax is apportioned to recover the costs of the public improvement. A Homeowners district Tax district Special assessment district Business district B C D

103 Understanding Property Reassessment
To qualify for reassessment, the following is required: A written “Application for Reassessment” (reverse) must be filed with the Assessor-Recorder within 60 days of the misfortune or calamity, or as otherwise provided by law, but in no case more than twelve months after the occurrence of said damage. If no application is made and the Assessor determines that within the preceding twelve months a property has suffered damage caused by misfortune or calamity that may qualify the property owner for relief under an ordinance adopted under this section, the assessor shall provide the last known owner of the property with an application for reassessment. The property owner shall file the completed application with the Assessor within 60 days of the date of mailing which appears on the notification by the Assessor, but in no case more than twelve months after the occurrence of said damage. To qualify for reassessment, the following is required: A written “Application for Reassessment” (reverse) must be filed with the Assessor-Recorder within 60 days of the misfortune or calamity, or as otherwise provided by law, but in no case more than twelve months after the occurrence of said damage. If no application is made and the Assessor determines that within the preceding twelve months a property has suffered damage caused by misfortune or calamity that may qualify the property owner for relief under an ordinance adopted under this section, the assessor shall provide the last known owner of the property with an application for reassessment. The property owner shall file the completed application with the Assessor within 60 days of the date of mailing which appears on the notification by the Assessor, but in no case more than twelve months after the occurrence of said damage.

104 Understanding Property Reassessment
To qualify for reassessment, the following is required: The damage to taxable property is $10,000 or more of full cash value, not including non-taxable items such as household and personal effects. The damage or destruction is not attributable to fault by the owner. Upon receiving a proper application, the Assessor will verify damage or loss by reappraising separately the land, improvements, and any personal property subject to property taxation. If the total value loss is $10,000 or more, the Assessor shall determine the percentage of loss to land, improvements and personalty. A ratio of damaged to undamaged full cash value will be established, and the current taxable value shall then be adjusted by the same ratio. The assessor shall notify the applicant in writing of the amount of the proposed reassessment and state that the applicant may appeal the proposed reassessment to the local Board of Equalization within six months of the date of mailing the notice. To qualify for reassessment, the following is required: The damage to taxable property is $10,000 or more of full cash value, not including non-taxable items such as household and personal effects. The damage or destruction is not attributable to fault by the owner. Upon receiving a proper application, the Assessor will verify damage or loss by reappraising separately the land, improvements, and any personal property subject to property taxation. If the total value loss is $10,000 or more, the Assessor shall determine the percentage of loss to land, improvements and personalty. A ratio of damaged to undamaged full cash value will be established, and the current taxable value shall then be adjusted by the same ratio. The assessor shall notify the applicant in writing of the amount of the proposed reassessment and state that the applicant may appeal the proposed reassessment to the local Board of Equalization within six months of the date of mailing the notice.

105 Transfer Tax on Purchase Price of Property
The transfer of title to real estate with consideration is taxed in many states. The methods and tax rates vary by state. Some states use "tax stamps" that are affixed to the deed and cancelled. Generally, the calculation begins with the purchase price of the property. Exemptions in some states include: The balance owed on an assumed mortgage Some states exempt property transfers below a certain stated dollar amount Rates and methods of rate application also vary. On the next slide we will show you some examples of these rates and methods. The transfer of title to real estate with consideration is taxed in many states. The methods and tax rates vary by state. Some states use "tax stamps" that are affixed to the deed and cancelled. Generally, the calculation begins with the purchase price of the property. Exemptions in some states include: The balance owed on an assumed mortgage Some states exempt property transfers below a certain stated dollar amount Rates and methods of rate application also vary. On the next slide we will show you some examples of these rates and methods.

106 Transfer Tax on Purchase Price of Property
An amount may be determined based upon a rate of $X for each $XXX or fractional part of the taxable value.   For this example, we will assume that the tax rate is $0.90 for each $1,000 of taxable value.   Suppose the taxable value is $225,000. We will need to divide the taxable value by $1,000 (Remember the equation $0.90 for each $1,000 - there are 225 1,000s in $225,000).  Once we have the equation set up correctly, all that is left to do is to multiply the tax rate ($0.90) by the taxable units (225). This gives us a tax amount of $    An amount may be determined based upon a rate of $X for each $XXX or fractional part of the taxable value.   For this example, we will assume that the tax rate is $0.90 for each $1,000 of taxable value.   Suppose the taxable value is $225,000. We will need to divide the taxable value by $1,000 (Remember the equation $0.90 for each $1,000 - there are 225 1,000s in $225,000).  Once we have the equation set up correctly, all that is left to do is to multiply the tax rate ($0.90) by the taxable units (225). This gives us a tax amount of $  

107 Transfer Tax on Purchase Price of Property
The tax amount may also be calculated based upon a percentage of the taxable value. For this example, we will use the same taxable value of $225,000. The tax rate, for this example, will be You could also express this as .55%.   To determine the tax amount, you will need to multiply the taxable value ($225,000) by the tax rate (.0055). This gives you a property transfer tax amount of $   The tax amount may also be calculated based upon a percentage of the taxable value. For this example, we will use the same taxable value of $225,000. The tax rate, for this example, will be You could also express this as .55%.   To determine the tax amount, you will need to multiply the taxable value ($225,000) by the tax rate (.0055). This gives you a property transfer tax amount of $  

108 Transfer Tax on Purchase Price of Property
Let's say an investor is purchasing a property for $350,000, and is assuming the existing $218,000 mortgage. The tax rate is $0.45 per $500 or fraction thereof. So, we can start the equation with $0.45.  Finding this number is similar to the first example, but with an additional step. Since we are assuming that a portion of the taxable value will be exempt, we must first calculate which portion is actually taxable. We mentioned in the last step that the investor is assuming the $218,000 mortgage. In this scenario, the amount that was assumed will be exempt and the remainder is the taxable value ($350,000 - $218,000 = $132,000). We then apply the tax rate like we did in the first example. Divide $132,000 by $500 to get the taxable units (264).  To get the property transfer tax amount, we multiply the tax rate ($0.45) by the taxable units (264). This gives us a tax of $   Let's say an investor is purchasing a property for $350,000, and is assuming the existing $218,000 mortgage. The tax rate is $0.45 per $500 or fraction thereof. So, we can start the equation with $0.45.  Finding this number is similar to the first example, but with an additional step. Since we are assuming that a portion of the taxable value will be exempt, we must first calculate which portion is actually taxable. We mentioned in the last step that the investor is assuming the $218,000 mortgage. In this scenario, the amount that was assumed will be exempt and the remainder is the taxable value ($350,000 - $218,000 = $132,000). We then apply the tax rate like we did in the first example. Divide $132,000 by $500 to get the taxable units (264).  To get the property transfer tax amount, we multiply the tax rate ($0.45) by the taxable units (264). This gives us a tax of $   Remember that this varies by state, and also by area of the state in many cases. Check your state's rates and methods.   The documentary transfer tax applies on all transfers of real property located in the county. Notice of payment is entered on the face of the deed or on a separate paper filed with the deed. If a portion of the total price paid for the property is exempt because a lien or encumbrance remains on the property, this fact must be stated on the deed or on a separate paper filed with the deed. A merger, reorganization or other corporate transaction that is “tax-free” for purposes of federal income or state franchise or corporation income tax is not necessarily free from transfer tax. In addition, tax-free transfers of realty involving partnerships or LLCs may be subject to transfer tax, even though partnerships and some LLCs are treated as “passthrough” entities for federal and state income tax purposes. For example, a transfer of realty to a corporation or partnership that is not subject to federal income tax under IRC § 351 or IRC § 721, respectively, may be subject to transfer tax. Similarly, transfers of realty pursuant to a reorganization under IRC § 368 or a spin-off under IRC § 355 also may be subject to transfer tax. Thus, the transfer tax generally should apply to transactions involving the transfer of realty, including “tax-free” transactions, unless otherwise exempted. 

109 A B C D Feedback Question – 15.
What right allows a borrower in default to redeem a property within three months after a foreclosure sale if the proceeds are sufficient to pay off all indebtedness plus any other foreclosure costs? A Right of redemption Right of reassessment Both a and b Neither a nor b B C D

110 A B C D Feedback Question – 15.
What right allows a borrower in default to redeem a property within three months after a foreclosure sale if the proceeds are sufficient to pay off all indebtedness plus any other foreclosure costs? A Right of redemption Right of reassessment Both a and b Neither a nor b B C D

111 Examining Tax Considerations
The tax benefits of home ownership may differ from those available to owners of investment property. The legal reduction of tax liability, otherwise known as tax shelter, is available to all owners of a primary residence as well as to a taxpayer who owns investment property. Different rules apply to each type of property, however, and must be followed carefully to earn the desired tax shelter. The tax benefits of home ownership may differ from those available to owners of investment property. The legal reduction of tax liability, otherwise known as tax shelter, is available to all owners of a primary residence as well as to a taxpayer who owns investment property. Different rules apply to each type of property, however, and must be followed carefully to earn the desired tax shelter. For the Homeowner Improvements to real estate owned as a personal residence, whether house, condominium, or stock in a cooperative apartment, cannot be depreciated.  Homeowners receive other forms of preferential treatment, however. As of August 5, 1997, homeowners are allowed an exemption from federal income taxation of up to $250,000 (single taxpayers) or $500,000 (for a couple married at time of sale) of the profit on the sale of the principal residence. The full $250,000 single/$500,000 married exemption is available every two years. If qualified property is owned for less than two years, a proportionate share of the exemption can be taken.

112 Section 3 Taxes

113 Federal Income Tax When the Tax Reform Act of 1986 reduced most tax rates and simplified the rate structure, certain real property tax benefits were changed or repealed. The 60% deduction for long-term capital gain was repealed, and capital gain was treated as ordinary income and taxed at a rate no higher than 28%. Mortgage interest also became subject to different rules that could limit its deductibility, especially if the home was refinanced, or a second mortgage, home equity loan, or line of credit was obtained. The rules regarding depreciation also changed, so that all tangible property placed in service after December 31, 1986 was subject to the modified acceleration cost recovery system. When the Tax Reform Act of 1986 reduced most tax rates and simplified the rate structure, certain real property tax benefits were changed or repealed. The 60% deduction for long-term capital gain was repealed, and capital gain was treated as ordinary income and taxed at a rate no higher than 28%. Mortgage interest also became subject to different rules that could limit its deductibility, especially if the home was refinanced, or a second mortgage, home equity loan, or line of credit was obtained. The rules regarding depreciation also changed, so that all tangible property placed in service after December 31, 1986 was subject to the modified acceleration cost recovery system.

114 Federal Income Tax The federal government taxes individuals based on their earnings by means of a progressive income tax. The important consideration of a progressive tax is that the tax rate on which the taxpayer’s obligation increases rises with additional levels of income. One of the major reasons for buying real estate is to get relief from taxes.  A federal income tax return must be filed by April 15 for the preceding calendar year if adjusted gross income is high enough or federal income tax has been withheld and a refund is due. The federal government taxes individuals based on their earnings by means of a progressive income tax. The important consideration of a progressive tax is that the tax rate on which the taxpayer’s obligation increases rises with additional levels of income. One of the major reasons for buying real estate is to get relief from taxes.  A federal income tax return must be filed by April 15 for the preceding calendar year if adjusted gross income is high enough or federal income tax has been withheld and a refund is due.

115 Federal Income Tax Both individuals and corporations are taxed.
The amount of gross income required before a tax is imposed on an individual depends on:  Whether the income earner is married or single, including the divorced or legally separated; Whether there are any dependent children; If there is a spouse, whether the income earner is living with the spouse and whether income earner and spouse are filing jointly or separately. Both individuals and corporations are taxed.  The amount of gross income required before a tax is imposed on an individual depends on:  Whether the income earner is married or single, including the divorced or legally separated; Whether there are any dependent children; If there is a spouse, whether the income earner is living with the spouse and whether income earner and spouse are filing jointly or separately. Ten percent of the sales price of property sold by a foreigner must be withheld to make sure any capital gain tax is paid.  Residential property under the sales price of $300,000 is exempt from the Foreign Investment Real Property Tax Act (FIRPTA) disclosure requirements. The tax law revisions and clarifications passed by Congress in 1986, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998, and 1999 have been phased in gradually. Future tax law revisions are inevitable. Your local Internal Revenue Service office has complete details on the current law.

116 A B C D Feedback Question – 16.
The Tax Reform Act of _____ reduced most rates and simplified rate structure. A 1986 1976 1968 1966 B C D

117 A B C D Feedback Question – 16.
The Tax Reform Act of _____ reduced most rates and simplified rate structure. A 1986 1976 1968 1966 B C D

118 Mortgage Interest Payment Deductions
Mortgage interest payments on first and second homes are deductible from taxable income on loan amounts up to $1,000,000. Interest on loans secured by a personal residence, but not used to purchase the residence, is deductible on loan amounts up to $100,000. Local property taxes are also deductible. For most homebuyers, such deductions make the difference between an affordable home payment and one that is not. Mortgage interest payments on first and second homes are deductible from taxable income on loan amounts up to $1,000,000. Interest on loans secured by a personal residence, but not used to purchase the residence, is deductible on loan amounts up to $100,000. Local property taxes are also deductible. For most homebuyers, such deductions make the difference between an affordable home payment and one that is not.

119 Tax Credits A tax credit is a direct deduction, not from income but from tax owed. Credits for home solar energy system installations, as well as energy and water conservation measures, have been available in the past.  Whether they will be available again depends on whether conservation and development of alternative sources of energy are again viewed as desirable goals to be pursued, even at the expense of a loss in tax revenue.  A tax credit is a direct deduction, not from income but from tax owed. Credits for home solar energy system installations, as well as energy and water conservation measures, have been available in the past.  Whether they will be available again depends on whether conservation and development of alternative sources of energy are again viewed as desirable goals to be pursued, even at the expense of a loss in tax revenue. 

120 For the Investor An active investor is an investor who materially participates in managing the property on a regular and substantial basis. A passive investor is an investor who does not materially participate in managing the activity. Investment transactions are even more complex than normal transactions. Unless a real estate licensee is qualified as an income tax or investment counselor, offering advice on tax and economic factors should be left to the client’s tax preparer or advisor.  An investor is someone who buys property for its appreciation or income potential and who does not plan to occupy it personally. An investor cannot take advantage of the homeowner’s exemption from federal income taxation, but receives other benefits of property ownership. Mortgage interest and property taxes are deductible from property income. Property income also can be reduced by such operating expenses as maintenance, utilities, and property management. An active investor is an investor who materially participates in managing the property on a regular and substantial basis. A passive investor is an investor who does not materially participate in managing the activity. Investment transactions are even more complex than normal transactions. Unless a real estate licensee is qualified as an income tax or investment counselor, offering advice on tax and economic factors should be left to the client’s tax preparer or advisor.  An investor is someone who buys property for its appreciation or income potential and who does not plan to occupy it personally. An investor cannot take advantage of the homeowner’s exemption from federal income taxation, but receives other benefits of property ownership. Mortgage interest and property taxes are deductible from property income. Property income also can be reduced by such operating expenses as maintenance, utilities, and property management.

121 Depreciation Depreciation has two important components.
The depreciable basis of the property is the amount that may be depreciated. For real estate property, this is generally the price of the property plus acquisition costs, minus the value of the land. The second component, useful life of an asset, is the number of years the asset will be useful to the investor, as determined by IRS tax laws. Depreciation has two important components. The depreciable basis of the property is the amount that may be depreciated. For real estate property, this is generally the price of the property plus acquisition costs, minus the value of the land. The second component, useful life of an asset, is the number of years the asset will be useful to the investor, as determined by IRS tax laws. Depreciation is a deduction from income for the loss in value through wear and tear of property used in a trade or business or held for the production of income.  In effect, depreciation allows the cost of property to be spread over its useful life.  An owner-occupied residence, even though purchased for its appreciation potential, is not considered a depreciable investment. The cost of improvements to qualified real property can be depreciated over a certain number of years.  Land is not depreciable.  One of the most important tax benefits for the real estate investor involves the depreciation of property improvements. Property that can be depreciated, which includes buildings used in business or for rental or other income-producing activities, is called recovery property. The cost of real estate is recovered through deductions from taxable income over a certain number of years. The 1986 tax reform law provided for the depreciable value of real estate owned as of January 1, 1987, to be deducted over 27½ years for residential rental property or 31½ years for most other real property, in equal amounts each year.  This is called the straight-line method of computing depreciation. In 1993, tax law revisions increased the depreciation period for commercial nonresidential property from 31½ to 39 years. Investors in a real estate partnership may take allowable deductions, but only up to the amount at risk. Losses from partnership investments cannot be used to offset wages and other income. The longer depreciation term currently in effect has forced many would-be investors to carefully examine the cash-flow potential of investment property. With the tax advantages of property ownership of somewhat less importance, the property buyer must consider the traditional goal of investment: the ability to generate profit through income or long-term appreciation.

122 Basis of Depreciation Depreciation for tax purposes is not based on actual deterioration, but on the calculated useful life of the property. The theory is that improvements, not land, deteriorate and lose their value. A building is thought to have a certain number of years where it can generate an income and after that is no longer a practical investment. The investor is compensated for the loss by being allowed to deduct a certain dollar amount each year based on the useful life of the property until, on paper at least, the property no longer has any value as an investment. Depreciation for tax purposes is not based on actual deterioration, but on the calculated useful life of the property. The theory is that improvements, not land, deteriorate and lose their value. A building is thought to have a certain number of years where it can generate an income and after that is no longer a practical investment. The investor is compensated for the loss by being allowed to deduct a certain dollar amount each year based on the useful life of the property until, on paper at least, the property no longer has any value as an investment. Tax laws regarding depreciation change so often, it is advisable to check current Internal Revenue Service rules for calculating depreciation. A common method that may be used to determine the dollar amount per year that may be deducted is referred to as “straight line”, where the same amount is deducted every year over the depreciable life of a property. When using the straight line method to calculate depreciation, the value of the improvements is divided by the depreciable life of the property, to arrive at the annual depreciation that can be taken. Using the straight-line method, equal amounts of depreciation are taken annually over the asset’s useful life. To calculate depreciation using this method, divide the basis by the number of years of useful life. For real property, the useful life is 27½ years for residential property and 39 years for nonresidential property.

123 Poll Question – 17. A/an _________ investor materially participates in managing a property, while a/an _______ investor does not materially participate in managing activity. A Active, passive Passive, active Hands-on, absentee Old, new B C D

124 Poll Question – 17. A/an _________ investor materially participates in managing a property, while a/an _______ investor does not materially participate in managing activity. A Active, passive Passive, active Hands-on, absentee Old, new B C D

125 Installment Sales The seller pays tax on the gain from the sale of real estate in the year the gain is collected. In most cases, the entire gain is received in the same year as the sale occurs. In an installment sale, a taxpayer sells property and receives payments over a term that extends beyond the present tax year. The seller finances the portion of the purchase price that is received in future installments. The taxpayer can elect to report any profit on the transaction at the time of sale or as installment payments are received. The taxpayer’s basis in the property plus costs of sale are totaled and deducted from the purchase price, or deducted proportionately from each tax year’s installment payments, with the remainder reported as taxable income.  The seller pays tax on the gain from the sale of real estate in the year the gain is collected. In most cases, the entire gain is received in the same year as the sale occurs. In an installment sale, a taxpayer sells property and receives payments over a term that extends beyond the present tax year. The seller finances the portion of the purchase price that is received in future installments. The taxpayer can elect to report any profit on the transaction at the time of sale or as installment payments are received. The taxpayer’s basis in the property plus costs of sale are totaled and deducted from the purchase price, or deducted proportionately from each tax year’s installment payments, with the remainder reported as taxable income. 

126 Installment Sales Interest income is always taxable.
The IRS will impute an interest rate on the purchase balance if the sales contract does not provide for one or if the rate in the contract is below market rates. Another requirement is that the sales price must be more than $3,000, and at least one payment must be due six months after the date of sale. Spreading out the reporting of income usually favors the taxpayer/seller, who may avoid a step up to a higher tax bracket or who may not be able to pay the required tax in the year of sale. Investment property probably will have been depreciated by the taxpayer, and the taxpayer’s cost basis in the property reduced accordingly. To the extent that the installment contract price exceeds the property’s reduced basis, it must be reported as gain in the year of sale. Interest income is always taxable. The IRS will impute an interest rate on the purchase balance if the sales contract does not provide for one or if the rate in the contract is below market rates. Another requirement is that the sales price must be more than $3,000, and at least one payment must be due six months after the date of sale. Spreading out the reporting of income usually favors the taxpayer/seller, who may avoid a step up to a higher tax bracket or who may not be able to pay the required tax in the year of sale. Investment property probably will have been depreciated by the taxpayer, and the taxpayer’s cost basis in the property reduced accordingly. To the extent that the installment contract price exceeds the property’s reduced basis, it must be reported as gain in the year of sale.

127 Installment Sales Taxpayers selling real property and receiving one or more payments in a later year or years must report the sale as an installment sale unless the taxpayer specifically elects otherwise. By selling on multi-year terms, a taxpayer avoids bunching gain/income in the year of sale. Rather, recognition of gain is deferred by spreading it over a number of tax years. The installment sale method may be used for any kind of real estate, including vacant land. The taxable part of installment payments is calculated by applying to each payment the profit percentage realized on the full transaction. This percentage is found by dividing the realized profit on the sale by the full contract price. IRS instructions should be followed for determining this percentage, based on the contract price, selling price, gross profit, and payments received. Taxpayers selling real property and receiving one or more payments in a later year or years must report the sale as an installment sale unless the taxpayer specifically elects otherwise. By selling on multi-year terms, a taxpayer avoids bunching gain/income in the year of sale. Rather, recognition of gain is deferred by spreading it over a number of tax years. The installment sale method may be used for any kind of real estate, including vacant land. The taxable part of installment payments is calculated by applying to each payment the profit percentage realized on the full transaction. This percentage is found by dividing the realized profit on the sale by the full contract price. IRS instructions should be followed for determining this percentage, based on the contract price, selling price, gross profit, and payments received.

128 A B C D Feedback Question – 18.
______, not _______, deteriorate and lose value. A Land, improvements Owners, sellers Improvements, land None of the above B C D

129 A B C D Feedback Question – 18.
______, not _______, deteriorate and lose value. A Land, improvements Owners, sellers Improvements, land None of the above B C D

130 Considering Home Valuation and Property Taxes
Assessed value is price placed on land and buildings by a government tax assessor for use in levying property taxes. The assessed value of the property may be different than the appraised value. Appraised value or market value is rarely the same as assessed value. Assessed value is price placed on land and buildings by a government tax assessor for use in levying property taxes. The assessed value of the property may be different than the appraised value. Appraised value or market value is rarely the same as assessed value.

131 Sales Comparison Approach
Considering Home Valuation and Property Taxes Most appraisers use one of three approaches to establish the value of a property. Sales Comparison Approach Cost Approach Income Capitalization Approach The Sales Comparison Approach is normally considered to be the best indication of value for residential property.  In this approach, the appraiser finds three to four comparable properties in the neighborhood which have recently sold. Ideally, these properties are within a one-half mile radius of the subject property and have sold within the last six months. The principle states that the maximum value of a house and property tends to be set by the sales price of an equivalent, equally desirable, similar substitute house and property, for a certain moment in time. The appraiser compares the sold properties to the subject property. Most appraisers use one of three approaches to establish the value of a property. The Sales Comparison Approach is normally considered to be the best indication of value for residential property.  In this approach, the appraiser finds three to four comparable properties in the neighborhood which have recently sold. Ideally, these properties are within a one-half mile radius of the subject property and have sold within the last six months. The principle states that the maximum value of a house and property tends to be set by the sales price of an equivalent, equally desirable, similar substitute house and property, for a certain moment in time. The appraiser compares the sold properties to the subject property.

132 Sales Comparison Approach Income Capitalization Approach
Considering Home Valuation and Property Taxes Most appraisers use one of three approaches to establish the value of a property. Sales Comparison Approach Cost Approach Income Capitalization Approach This approach considers the value of the land, assumed vacant, added to the cost to reconstruct the appraised building as new on the date of value, less the accrued depreciation the building suffers in comparison with a new building. This approach considers the value of the land, assumed vacant, added to the cost to reconstruct the appraised building as new on the date of value, less the accrued depreciation the building suffers in comparison with a new building.

133 Sales Comparison Approach
Considering Home Valuation and Property Taxes Most appraisers use one of three approaches to establish the value of a property. Sales Comparison Approach Cost Approach Income Capitalization Approach In this approach, the potential net income of the property is capitalized to arrive at a property value. This approach is suited to income-producing properties and is usually used in conjunction with other valuation methods. The process of converting a future income stream to a present value is known as capitalization. In this approach, the potential net income of the property is capitalized to arrive at a property value. This approach is suited to income-producing properties and is usually used in conjunction with other valuation methods. The process of converting a future income stream to a present value is known as capitalization. The first step in house tax reduction is to determine the value of the home. This process is referred to as an appraisal and is used to determine the market value of a home. The formal name given to this process is market analysis, or fair market value comparison. A market value is “the most probable price which a property should bring in a competitive and open market under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, (whereby) the buyer and seller, each (are) acting prudently, knowledgeable and assuming the price is not affected by undue stimulus.” * *“FDIC Law, Regulations, Related Acts,” 200 Rules and Regulations. FDIC, Feb, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Feb. 16, 2009 <http://www.fdic.gov/regulations/laws/rules/ html

134 A B C D Feedback Question – 19.
Which of the following is the best method of establishing the value of a residential property? A Sales Comparison Approach Cost Approach Income Capitalization Approach Land Use Approach B C D

135 A B C D Feedback Question – 19.
Which of the following is the best method of establishing the value of a residential property? A Sales Comparison Approach Cost Approach Income Capitalization Approach Land Use Approach B C D

136 Capital Gain on Home Sale
Before the 1997 Tax Act, capital gains were taxed at a 28% maximum tax rate if the capital assets were held more than one year. The new tax Act brought a new set of rules. The 1997 Tax Act cuts the top tax rate on capital gains of individuals and introduces new holding period rules. Since July 28, 1997, there have been two different types of capital gains for non-corporate taxpayers: Short-term gains, which are taxed at ordinary income rates; Long-term capital gains.  For tax years beginning after the year 2000, the maximum capital gains rate for long-term gains is 15%. Before the 1997 Tax Act, capital gains were taxed at a 28% maximum tax rate if the capital assets were held more than one year. The new tax Act brought a new set of rules. The 1997 Tax Act cuts the top tax rate on capital gains of individuals and introduces new holding period rules. Since July 28, 1997, there have been two different types of capital gains for non-corporate taxpayers: Short-term gains, which are taxed at ordinary income rates; Long-term capital gains.  For tax years beginning after the year 2000, the maximum capital gains rate for long-term gains is 15%. The cost of capital improvements or physical improvements made to the property – such as the cosmetic addition of a new roof, swimming pool, or driveway – may not be deducted yearly, but may be added to the cost basis of the property when it is sold. The cost basis is usually the original cost of buying the property. 

137 Types of Gain GAINS The gain on the sale of a capital asset – including a residence – may be placed in one of the following categories:

138 Types of Gain GAINS Realized Gain (Loss)
When a home is sold, a gain or loss is generally realized; in other words, there usually is a potentially taxable event. GAINS Realized Gain (Loss) – When a home is sold, a gain or loss is generally realized; in other words, there usually is a potentially taxable event.

139 Types of Gain GAINS Recognized Gain
The part of the realized gain for which income tax must be paid is called recognized gain. Losses on a personal residence cannot be recognized; that is, they may not be written off. Realized Gain (Loss) When a home is sold, a gain or loss is generally realized; in other words, there usually is a potentially taxable event. GAINS Recognized Gain – The part of the realized gain for which income tax must be paid is called recognized gain. Losses on a personal residence cannot be recognized; that is, they may not be written off.

140 Types of Gain GAINS Recognized Gain
The part of the realized gain for which income tax must be paid is called recognized gain. Losses on a personal residence cannot be recognized; that is, they may not be written off. Realized Gain (Loss) When a home is sold, a gain or loss is generally realized; in other words, there usually is a potentially taxable event. Deferred Gain GAINS The part of the realized gain that may be postponed from recognition is deferred gain; the taxpayer may postpone paying it. Deferred Gain – The part of the realized gain that may be postponed from recognition is deferred gain; the taxpayer may postpone paying it.

141 Types of Gain GAINS Recognized Gain
The part of the realized gain for which income tax must be paid is called recognized gain. Losses on a personal residence cannot be recognized; that is, they may not be written off. Realized Gain (Loss) When a home is sold, a gain or loss is generally realized; in other words, there usually is a potentially taxable event. Deferred Gain GAINS The part of the realized gain that may be postponed from recognition is deferred gain; the taxpayer may postpone paying it. Excluded Gain – The part of the realized gain for which there is no tax obligation is the excluded gain. Excluded gain can be used with a personal residence up to $500,000 for married persons filing jointly and $250,000 for single taxpayers. The important point is that taxes are paid on only the recognized gain. In the sale of a home, non-excluded realized gain must be recognized. If the seller meets the two-out-of-five-years occupancy requirement, then the gain will likely be excluded from taxation in its entirety. If the occupancy requirement for exclusion is not met or the profit exceeds the exclusion, then the gain exceeding the exclusion, or a portion thereof, will be subject to taxation. Excluded Gain The part of the realized gain for which there is no tax obligation is the excluded gain. Excluded gain can be used with a personal residence up to $500,000 for married persons filing jointly and $250,000 for single taxpayers.

142 Poll Question – 20. The maximum tax rate for taxing capital gains before 1997 was: A 38% 28% 18% 8% B C D

143 Poll Question – 20. The maximum tax rate for taxing capital gains before 1997 was: A 38% 28% 18% 8% B C D

144 Calculation of Gain or Loss
When calculating capital gains, one must first understand the basis. “Basis is the amount of an investment in property for tax purposes,” according to IRS Publication “Use the basis of property… to figure gain or loss on the sale or other disposition of property.” The amount of gain from the sale of a principal residence is the difference between the net sales price and the adjusted cost basis. The net sales price is the selling price less selling expenses. To calculate the gain on the sale of a primary residence, the cost basis usually is determined to be the original purchase price. So to compute the gain or loss, subtract the adjusted cost basis from the net sales price. When calculating capital gains, one must first understand the basis. “Basis is the amount of an investment in property for tax purposes,” according to IRS Publication “Use the basis of property… to figure gain or loss on the sale or other disposition of property.” The amount of gain from the sale of a principal residence is the difference between the net sales price and the adjusted cost basis. The net sales price is the selling price less selling expenses. To calculate the gain on the sale of a primary residence, the cost basis usually is determined to be the original purchase price. So to compute the gain or loss, subtract the adjusted cost basis from the net sales price.

145 Calculation of Gain or Loss
The taxable gain generally is the difference between the purchase price plus capital improvements and the price when sold. Closing costs on the sale also may be added to the cost basis. When capital improvements plus costs of the sale are added to the original cost basis, the “adjusted cost basis” is the result. The adjusted cost basis is the owner’s original cost plus buying expenses, plus capital improvements, less certain deductions. Deductions include the nontaxable gain deferred from the sale of a prior residence and any depreciation or casualty losses taken.  The taxable gain generally is the difference between the purchase price plus capital improvements and the price when sold. Closing costs on the sale also may be added to the cost basis. When capital improvements plus costs of the sale are added to the original cost basis, the “adjusted cost basis” is the result. The adjusted cost basis is the owner’s original cost plus buying expenses, plus capital improvements, less certain deductions. Deductions include the nontaxable gain deferred from the sale of a prior residence and any depreciation or casualty losses taken.  Adjusted basis is used in calculating capital gain or loss. Adjusted basis reflects increases or decreases in the book value of an asset through time. The book value is the value which will be used to compute depreciation write-offs. Increases in basis result from improvements that add to book value. Decreases in basis result from depreciation, casualty loss, and other reductions in book value of the property. Adjusted basis is not a result of inflation and consequent change in the market value of assets.

146 Calculation of Gain or Loss
Increases in Basis Increases in basis result from improvements to property that has a useful life of more than one year. Generally the costs of improvements which add to the basis of an asset include supplies and materials purchased for major repairs or additions, legal fees, recording fees, and similar charges Increases in basis result from improvements to property that has a useful life of more than one year. Generally the costs of improvements which add to the basis of an asset include supplies and materials purchased for major repairs or additions, legal fees, recording fees, and similar charges. Such increases in the basis are added to the capital account of the asset improved, resulting in a higher book value.

147 Calculation of Gain or Loss
Increases in Basis Decreases in Basis Increases in basis result from improvements to property that has a useful life of more than one year. Generally the costs of improvements which add to the basis of an asset include supplies and materials purchased for major repairs or additions, legal fees, recording fees, and similar charges Basis is reduced by any event that represents a return of capital. This includes depreciation, expensing deduction (under the Internal Revenue Code Section 179), casualty losses, and depletion. Basis is reduced by any event that represents a return of capital. This includes depreciation, expensing deduction (under the Internal Revenue Code Section 179), casualty losses, and depletion. Basis is decreased by the amount of any casualty related insurance or other reimbursement received, as well as by any deductible loss not covered by insurance. Amounts spent after the casualty for restoration of property to its pre-casualty state of repair increase the basis.

148 A B C D Feedback Question – 21.
The _____ value is the value which will be used to compute depreciation and gain or loss on the sale of the asset. A Capital Book Federal Increased B C D

149 A B C D Feedback Question – 21.
The _____ value is the value which will be used to compute depreciation and gain or loss on the sale of the asset. A Capital Book Federal Increased B C D

150 Capital Improvements vs. Maintenance
Improvements are additions that add value to the property. Repairs are expenditures to maintain the current condition of the property. For example: a homeowner may paint the house, fix some windows, replace a broken gutter, or add aluminum siding over the existing wood siding. These items are ordinary repairs and maintenance except for the new siding, which is a capital improvement. Improvements are additions that add value to the property. Repairs are expenditures to maintain the current condition of the property. For example: a homeowner may paint the house, fix some windows, replace a broken gutter, or add aluminum siding over the existing wood siding. These items are ordinary repairs and maintenance except for the new siding, which is a capital improvement.

151 Capital Gain Exclusion
The tax laws allow a taxpayer who sells his or her principal residence to exclude the gain on the sale if certain conditions are met. A principal residence is considered for tax purposes to be the primary place where the taxpayer resides.  The taxpayer may reside in more than one place, but can have only one principal residence. Therefore, second homes and summer homes do not qualify.  The tax laws allow a taxpayer who sells his or her principal residence to exclude the gain on the sale if certain conditions are met. A principal residence is considered for tax purposes to be the primary place where the taxpayer resides.  The taxpayer may reside in more than one place, but can have only one principal residence. Therefore, second homes and summer homes do not qualify. 

152 Capital Gain Exclusion
Generally, some or all of the gain from the sale is excluded from income taxes if: The exclusion is limited to $250,000 for taxpayers filing singly and $500,000 for married couples filing joint returns. A married couple both occupied the home for two out of the last five years and one of them owned the home. The two years do not have to be the most recent years, nor do they have to be consecutive. The exclusion cannot be used more than once every two years. The taxpayer owned and occupied the property as his or her principal residence for at least two of the five years before the sale.  A prorated exemption can be claimed if sold before two years because of a job-related move or for health reasons. Generally, some or all of the gain from the sale is excluded from income taxes if: The exclusion is limited to $250,000 for taxpayers filing singly and $500,000 for married couples filing joint returns. A married couple both occupied the home for two out of the last five years and one of them owned the home. The two years do not have to be the most recent years, nor do they have to be consecutive. The exclusion cannot be used more than once every two years. The taxpayer owned and occupied the property as his or her principal residence for at least two of the five years before the sale.  A prorated exemption can be claimed if sold before two years because of a job-related move or for health reasons. If the homeowner does not meet these criteria or if the homeowner’s capital gains exceed these maximum exclusions, then the regular Long-Term Capital Gains rates apply on the excess. The rates are 10% for those in the ordinary 15% tax bracket and 20% for those in the ordinary tax brackets of 28% and above. If the property has been owned for one year or less, then any profit is a short-term capital gain, which is taxed at the ordinary rate for the taxpayer’s income tax bracket, from 15% to 39.6%.

153 Determining Gain The seller’s escrow statement lists a number of expenses. The expenses are write-offs or deductions, selling expenses, or nondeductible expenses. The mortgage interest and real estate taxes are deductions. Selling expenses, however, are not deductions; they are used to reduce the gain. When sellers pay points for a buyer’s loan, the points are not considered to be interest paid by the buyer. For the seller, they are a sales expense that will reduce any gain. The seller’s escrow statement lists a number of expenses. The expenses are write-offs or deductions, selling expenses, or nondeductible expenses. The mortgage interest and real estate taxes are deductions. Selling expenses, however, are not deductions; they are used to reduce the gain. When sellers pay points for a buyer’s loan, the points are not considered to be interest paid by the buyer. For the seller, they are a sales expense that will reduce any gain.

154 A B C D Feedback Question – 22.
What additions add value to a property? A Improvements Maintenance Repairs Only luxury items B C D

155 A B C D Feedback Question – 22.
What additions add value to a property? A Improvements Maintenance Repairs Only luxury items B C D

156 Determining Tax on a Property
The fraction used to determine assessed value from market value is called the assessment ratio. Furthermore, some jurisdictions exempt certain amounts of a property’s assessed value to provide tax relief for certain types of property owners. Subtracting the amounts of exemptions from assessed value gives the property’s taxable value. In determining property taxes, we could consider a property with a market value of $210,000 in a jurisdiction that applies an assessment ratio of 40%. The fraction used to determine assessed value from market value is called the assessment ratio. Furthermore, some jurisdictions exempt certain amounts of a property’s assessed value to provide tax relief for certain types of property owners. Subtracting the amounts of exemptions from assessed value gives the property’s taxable value. In determining property taxes, we could consider a property with a market value of $210,000 in a jurisdiction that applies an assessment ratio of 40%.

157 Determining Tax on a Property
From the government’s perspective, the steps in administering the property tax are: property value assessment; development of the budget and tax rate; tax billing and collection. Taxation is an indirect yet significant controlling device affecting estimates of value. It is important for those engaged in the real estate business to know the variety of taxes and their effect on property transfers. Full consideration may involve retaining the services of accounting, legal, and tax specialists. There are many categories of property that may be exempt from taxation. From the government’s perspective, the steps in administering the property tax are: property value assessment; development of the budget and tax rate; tax billing and collection. Taxation is an indirect yet significant controlling device affecting estimates of value. It is important for those engaged in the real estate business to know the variety of taxes and their effect on property transfers. Full consideration may involve retaining the services of accounting, legal, and tax specialists. There are many categories of property that may be exempt from taxation. Local governments assess taxes directly on the property, such as ad valorem property taxes, special assessments, and transfer taxes. Most state governments have an income tax. The federal and state governments tax property indirectly through the taxation of ordinary and capital gain on income earned from real estate. Federal and state governments also tax property indirectly when it is transferred through an estate or gift to others; i.e., estate and gift taxes. A Certificate of Taxes Due is a written statement or guaranty of the condition of the taxes on a certain property made by the Treasurer of the county in which the property is located. Any loss resulting to any person from an error in a tax certificate shall be paid by the county which such treasurer represents. Federal law requires that a buyer of real property must withhold and send to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 10% of the gross sales price if the seller of the real property is a “foreign person.” The primary grounds for exemption from this requirement are: the seller’s non-foreign affidavit and U.S. taxpayer I.D. number; a qualifying statement obtained through the IRS attesting to other arrangements resulting in collection of, or exemption from, the tax; or the sales price does not exceed $300,000 and the buyer intends to reside in the property. Because of the number of exemptions and other requirements relating to this law, it is recommended that the IRS be consulted for more detailed information. The price of a property may be less important than the financial or tax position of the buyer or seller for purposes of developing acquisition and/or disposition strategies. Tax planning should start in the pre-acquisition stage. Real estate has historically enjoyed a favorable position in both federal and state income tax laws.

158 Section 4 FORECLOSURES

159 Foreclosure Foreclosure is the most commonly used legal process by which a lender or other real property lien holder may dispossess you of your home and sell the home in order to obtain repayment of a debt. Foreclosure is the most commonly used legal process by which a lender or other real property lien holder may dispossess you of your home and sell the home in order to obtain repayment of a debt. A foreclosure most often results from a failure to make timely mortgage payments, or some other default on your home loan. In most states, a lender may either foreclose judicially through a court action or non-judicially through a statutory power of sale. Typically your loan documents will give the lender the option to proceed either way, but most often a lender will choose a non-judicial foreclosure because it takes about half of the time of a judicial foreclosure. Lenders are in the business of lending money. They are not in the business of owning and selling homes, so they are usually reluctant to proceed with a foreclosure unless they feel like they really need to. A lender will usually not commence a foreclosure action unless you have missed multiple consecutive payments and have not made prior arrangements with them to do so.

160 Foreclosure The foreclosure process (judicial or non-judicial) in most states is a very technical process which the lender must follow. It is also time-consuming and may take a minimum of a couple months. If the lender does not strictly adhere to the technical, statutory requirements, then the foreclosure may be set aside or the lender may have to redo the foreclosure, which could add more time to the process. It is common for state statutes to provide a redemption period for homeowners, whereby an owner who is being foreclosed on may stop the foreclosure at any time up to the minute of the foreclosure sale by paying all amounts owed on the loan, including late fees, accrued interest, and the lender’s costs of foreclosure up to that point. The foreclosure process (judicial or non-judicial) in most states is a very technical process which the lender must follow. It is also time-consuming and may take a minimum of a couple months. If the lender does not strictly adhere to the technical, statutory requirements, then the foreclosure may be set aside or the lender may have to redo the foreclosure, which could add more time to the process. It is common for state statutes to provide a redemption period for homeowners, whereby an owner who is being foreclosed on may stop the foreclosure at any time up to the minute of the foreclosure sale by paying all amounts owed on the loan, including late fees, accrued interest, and the lender’s costs of foreclosure up to that point. It is also worth noting that, if a lender completes a foreclosure and the proceeds obtained from the foreclosure sale are less than the amount owed on the loan, then the lender may also be entitled to seek a deficiency judgment from a court against the homeowner for the difference between the amount of the sale proceeds and the amount owed on the loan. Conversely, if there are leftover proceeds from the sale of the property at a foreclosure sale, after payment of all amounts owed to the lender and to additional junior lenders or secured creditors, then the foreclosing lender is typically required by statute to return such additional proceeds to the homeowner. Foreclosure auctions are usually public – in fact, in Reno, Nevada, foreclosure auctions are still done on the front steps of the Courthouse once a week.

161 Types of Foreclosures Foreclosure by Judicial Sale
It is available in every state and required in many; involves the sale of the mortgaged property under the supervision of a court, with the proceeds going first to satisfy the mortgage, then other lien holders and, finally, the mortgagor/borrower if any proceeds are left. Foreclosure by Judicial Sale This is more commonly known as “judicial foreclosure.” It is available in every state and required in many; involves the sale of the mortgaged property under the supervision of a court, with the proceeds going first to satisfy the mortgage, then other lien holders and, finally, the mortgagor/borrower if any proceeds are left. As with all other legal actions, all parties must be notified of the foreclosure, but notification requirements vary significantly from state to state. A judicial decision is announced after pleadings at a (usually short) hearing in a state or local court. In some fairly rare instances, foreclosures are filed in Federal courts.

162 Types of Foreclosures Foreclosure by Judicial Sale
It is available in every state and required in many; involves the sale of the mortgaged property under the supervision of a court, with the proceeds going first to satisfy the mortgage, then other lien holders and, finally, the mortgagor/borrower if any proceeds are left. Foreclosure by Power of Sale This type of foreclosure is also allowed by many states if a power of sale clause is included in the mortgage or if a deed of trust was used instead of a mortgage. In some states so-called mortgages are actually deeds of trust. It involves the sale of the property by the mortgage holder without court supervision. Foreclosure by Power of Sale This type of foreclosure is also allowed by many states if a power of sale clause is included in the mortgage or if a deed of trust was used instead of a mortgage. In some states so-called mortgages are actually deeds of trust. This foreclosure process involves the sale of the property by the mortgage holder without court supervision. It is generally more expedient than foreclosure by judicial sale. As in judicial sale, the mortgage holder and other lien holders are, respectively, first and second claimants to the proceeds from the sale. Other types of foreclosure are considered minor because of their limited availability. Under strict foreclosure, which is available in a few states including Connecticut, New Hampshire and Vermont, suit is brought by the mortgagee. If successful, a court orders the defaulted mortgagor to pay the mortgage within a specified period of time. Should the mortgagor fail to do so, the mortgage holder gains the title to the property with no obligation to sell it. This type of foreclosure is generally available only when the value of the property is less than the debt ("under water"). Historically, strict foreclosure was the original method of foreclosure.

163 Poll Question – 23. Which foreclosure process is available in every state? A Foreclosure by Power of Sale Foreclosure by Tax Foreclosure by Judicial Sale Both a and b B C D

164 Poll Question – 23. Which foreclosure process is available in every state? A Foreclosure by Power of Sale Foreclosure by Tax Foreclosure by Judicial Sale Both a and b B C D

165 Foreclosures Process Pre-Foreclosure In the pre-foreclosure stage, investors will likely be able to do the most good for the distressed homeowner and for themselves. Pre-foreclosure is where further damage to the homeowner's credit rating can be forestalled and the home may be transferred at a mutually-agreed-upon price before it is necessary to get the lender involved. This stage can last from one month to a year, depending on your local laws. There are three ways to acquire distressed property, based on where the property lies in the foreclosure process. The three stages are as follows: pre-foreclosure, foreclosure, and post-foreclosure. Pre-Foreclosure In the pre-foreclosure stage, investors will likely be able to do the most good for the distressed homeowner and for themselves. Pre-foreclosure is where further damage to the homeowner's credit rating can be forestalled and the home may be transferred at a mutually-agreed-upon price before it is necessary to get the lender involved. This stage can last from one month to a year, depending on your local laws.

166 Foreclosures Process Pre-Foreclosure Foreclosure Stage The foreclosure auction is the most commonly known way in which a foreclosure can be purchased. If the homeowner does not reinstate their mortgage, the property goes to a public auction, where anyone can bid. Auctions can be tough because they sometimes occur on short notice and don't allow you much time to do research and analysis of the property. The foreclosure process itself will vary from one state to the next, depending on whether it is a title or lien state, which determines whether a judicial or non-judicial form of foreclosure is involved. Foreclosure Stage The best way to identify a potential property is through the County Clerk's office. Find out where the notices of default are filed and determine how to sort through the general index to discover pending foreclosure sales. You may also be able to request that your address or address be placed on an advance notice list or a list of pending defaults.  The foreclosure auction is the most commonly known way in which a foreclosure can be purchased. If the homeowner does not reinstate their mortgage, the property goes to a public auction, where anyone can bid. Auctions can be tough because they sometimes occur on short notice and don't allow you much time to do research and analysis of the property. The foreclosure process itself will vary from one state to the next, depending on whether it is a title or lien state, which determines whether a judicial or non-judicial form of foreclosure is involved. Judicial foreclosures pertain to mortgages, rather than deeds of trusts, and take significantly longer to complete. Non-judicial foreclosures pertain to deeds of trust where a third party, called a trustee, handles the entire process in a matter of two to four months after a borrower has defaulted and stopped making payments. Once the property passes through either the judicial or non-judicial phase, it is then ready to be sold at auction to the highest bidder.

167 Foreclosures Process Pre-Foreclosure Foreclosure Stage Post Foreclosure At the post-foreclosure stage, the lender has already taken control of the property. The home is then in the possession of the lender's REO (Real Estate Owned) department, or in the hands of a new owner or investor who purchased the property at auction. Refer to the foreclosure notice to determine the name of the lender as well as the balance owed on the mortgage. Lenders are typically extremely willing sellers, because an REO on the books is an obvious sign of having made a poor lending decision. Both the overhead and losses involved with an REO – reflected in both the added reserves a lender must maintain as well as any potential property management fees incurred – means the bank is likely a willing negotiator. Post-Foreclosure At the post-foreclosure stage, the lender has already taken control of the property. The home is then in the possession of the lender's REO (Real Estate Owned) department, or in the hands of a new owner or investor who purchased the property at auction. Refer to the foreclosure notice to determine the name of the lender as well as the balance owed on the mortgage. Lenders are typically extremely willing sellers, because an REO on the books is an obvious sign of having made a poor lending decision. Both the overhead and losses involved with an REO – reflected in both the added reserves a lender must maintain as well as any potential property management fees incurred – means the bank is likely a willing negotiator.   After the sale is completed, the homeowner will be notified on the number of days they have to vacate the home. If they do not vacate the home by the date that is given, then the eviction process will begin and the local sheriff will come to the home to make sure the eviction is carried out if someone is still residing in the house. 

168 A B C D Feedback Question – 24.
In what part of the foreclosure process will investors be able to do the most good for the homeowner? A Post-Foreclosure Foreclosure Mid-Foreclosure Pre-Foreclosure B C D

169 A B C D Feedback Question – 24.
In what part of the foreclosure process will investors be able to do the most good for the homeowner? A Post-Foreclosure Foreclosure Mid-Foreclosure Pre-Foreclosure B C D

170 Contesting a Foreclosure
Because the right of redemption is an equitable right, foreclosure is an action in equity. In order to keep the right of redemption, the debtor can ask an equity court for an injunction. If repossession is imminent, the debtor would need to seek a temporary restraining order. However, the debtor may have to post a bond in the amount of the debt. This would protect the creditor if the attempt to stop foreclosure were a naked attempt to cheat the lender and skip on the debt. A debtor may also challenge the validity of the debt in a claim against the bank in order to stop the foreclosure and sue for damages. In a foreclosure proceeding, the lender bears the burden of proving that there was a valid debt. Because the right of redemption is an equitable right, foreclosure is an action in equity. In order to keep the right of redemption, the debtor can ask an equity court for an injunction. If repossession is imminent, the debtor would need to seek a temporary restraining order. However, the debtor may have to post a bond in the amount of the debt. This would protect the creditor if the attempt to stop foreclosure were a naked attempt to cheat the lender and skip on the debt. A debtor may also challenge the validity of the debt in a claim against the bank in order to stop the foreclosure and sue for damages. In a foreclosure proceeding, the lender bears the burden of proving that there was a valid debt.

171 Contesting a Foreclosure
There is case law to support the debtor's case: First National Bank of Montgomery v. Jerome Daly, 1969, in the Justice Court State of Minnesota; the Judge ruled in favor of the debtor on December 9, 1968: IT IS HEREBY ORDERED, ADJUDGED AND DECREED: That the Plaintiff is not entitled to recover the possession of Lot 19, Fairview Beach, Scott County, Minnesota according to the Plat thereof on file in the Register of Deeds office. That because of failure of a lawful consideration the Note and Mortgage dated May 8, 1964 is null and void. That the Sheriff’s sale of the above described premises held on June 26, 1967 is null and void, of no effect. That because of failure of a lawful consideration the Note and Mortgage dated May 8, 1964 is null and void. There is case law to support the debtor's case: First National Bank of Montgomery v. Jerome Daly, 1969, in the Justice Court State of Minnesota; the Judge ruled in favor of the debtor on December 9, 1968: IT IS HEREBY ORDERED, ADJUDGED AND DECREED: That the Plaintiff is not entitled to recover the possession of Lot 19, Fairview Beach, Scott County, Minnesota according to the Plat thereof on file in the Register of Deeds office. That because of failure of a lawful consideration the Note and Mortgage dated May 8, 1964 is null and void. That the Sheriff’s sale of the above described premises held on June 26, 1967 is null and void, of no effect. That because of failure of a lawful consideration the Note and Mortgage dated May 8, 1964 is null and void.

172 Mortgage Modification
Delaying a Foreclosure Forebearance The lender may agree to forbear, or hold off on, foreclosing for a specified period of time, during which time the lender may agree to allow the homeowner to pay less than the full amount of their mortgage; however, in the end the homeowner will eventually have to pay all amounts owed under the loan with applicable interest and late fees. Reinstatement Repayment Plan Mortgage Modification Refinance Home Sale As stated previously, banks are in the business of lending money, not in the business of owning and selling homes. Lenders are reluctant to foreclose if they feel like they have a better option to remedy a default. There are several ways a foreclosure can be delayed. Forbearance – the lender may agree to forbear, or hold off on, foreclosing for a specified period of time, during which time the lender may agree to allow the homeowner to pay less than the full amount of their mortgage; however, in the end the homeowner will eventually have to pay all amounts owed under the loan with applicable interest and late fees; Short Sale Loan Assumption DIL of Foreclosure

173 Mortgage Modification
Delaying a Foreclosure Forebearance Reinstatement In many states a homeowner has a statutory right, regardless of the lender’s attitude, up to a certain point in the foreclosure process, to reinstate the loan or cure the default on the loan by paying all unpaid monthly payments with applicable interest and late fees, in which case your loan is reinstated, the foreclosure is stopped, and the homeowner has the right to continue making monthly payments on their loan as if a default had not occurred. Repayment Plan Mortgage Modification Refinance Home Sale Reinstatement – in many states a homeowner has a statutory right, regardless of the lender’s attitude, up to a certain point in the foreclosure process, to reinstate the loan or cure the default on the loan by paying all unpaid monthly payments with applicable interest and late fees, in which case your loan is reinstated, the foreclosure is stopped, and the homeowner has the right to continue making monthly payments on their loan as if a default had not occurred; Short Sale Loan Assumption DIL of Foreclosure

174 Mortgage Modification
Delaying a Foreclosure Forebearance Reinstatement Repayment Plan The lender may agree to allow the homeowner to continue to make regular monthly payments on the loan and allow you to pay additional amounts each month to repay amounts owed for previously missed payments, interest and late fees. Mortgage Modification Refinance Home Sale Repayment Plan – the lender may agree to allow the homeowner to continue to make regular monthly payments on the loan and allow you to pay additional amounts each month to repay amounts owed for previously missed payments, interest and late fees; Short Sale Loan Assumption DIL of Foreclosure

175 A B C D Feedback Question – 25.
The right of redemption is an _________ right. A Equitable Unfair Excessive Undue B C D

176 A B C D Feedback Question – 25.
The right of redemption is an _________ right. A Equitable Unfair Excessive Undue B C D

177 Mortgage Modification
Delaying a Foreclosure Forebearance Reinstatement Repayment Plan Mortgage Modification The lender may agree to refinance or modify the homeowner’s loan so that they can pay smaller amounts over a longer period of time. This option works well if the loan amount is less than the value of the home or interest rates are currently lower than the existing interest rate Refinance Home Sale Mortgage Modification – the lender may agree to refinance or modify the homeowner’s loan so that they can pay smaller amounts over a longer period of time. This option works well if the loan amount is less than the value of the home or interest rates are currently lower than the existing interest rate; Short Sale Loan Assumption DIL of Foreclosure

178 Mortgage Modification
Delaying a Foreclosure Forebearance Reinstatement Repayment Plan Mortgage Modification Refinance The homeowner may be able to find a different lender to provide them with a new loan, which will pay off the existing loan in default. This may be a particularly good option if the homeowner has significant equity in the home (which may allow you to avoid having to pay mortgage insurance as part of the loan payment, etc.) or if interest rates or loan products currently available are more favorable than their existing loan terms. Home Sale Refinance – the homeowner may be able to find a different lender to provide them with a new loan, which will pay off the existing loan in default. This may be a particularly good option if the homeowner has significant equity in the home (which may allow you to avoid having to pay mortgage insurance as part of the loan payment, etc.) or if interest rates or loan products currently available are more favorable than their existing loan terms; Short Sale Loan Assumption DIL of Foreclosure

179 Mortgage Modification
Delaying a Foreclosure Forebearance Reinstatement Repayment Plan Mortgage Modification Refinance Home Sale The lender may agree to delay the foreclosure process to allow the homeowner enough time to sell their home and pay off the loan Home Sale – the lender may agree to delay the foreclosure process to allow the homeowner enough time to sell their home and pay off the loan; Short Sale Loan Assumption DIL of Foreclosure

180 Poll Question – 26 When a lender agrees to hold off on foreclosing for a specified period of time, this is called: A Reinstatement Forbearance Repayment plan Refinancing B C D

181 Poll Question – 26 When a lender agrees to hold off on foreclosing for a specified period of time, this is called: A Reinstatement Forbearance Repayment plan Refinancing B C D

182 Mortgage Modification
Delaying a Foreclosure Forebearance Reinstatement Repayment Plan Mortgage Modification Refinance The lender may allow the homeowner to sell their property for less than the outstanding loan amount, in which case the lender would keep the sale proceeds and forgive the remaining debt; however, it is worth noting that in a short sale situation a homeowner may also experience federal and state income tax liability for that portion of the debt that was forgiven which will likely be treated as income to them for tax purposes. Home Sale Short Sale – the lender may allow the homeowner to sell their property for less than the outstanding loan amount, in which case the lender would keep the sale proceeds and forgive the remaining debt; however, it is worth noting that in a short sale situation a homeowner may also experience federal and state income tax liability for that portion of the debt that was forgiven which will likely be treated as income to them for tax purposes; Short Sale Loan Assumption DIL of Foreclosure

183 Mortgage Modification
Delaying a Foreclosure Forebearance Reinstatement Repayment Plan Mortgage Modification Refinance Home Sale The lender may allow the homeowner to sell the home and allow a qualified buyer to take over or assume their loan and make the loan payments. However, if a homeowner decided to do this, they should make sure that the loan assumption documents specifically release them from any further liability for the loan. Loan Assumption – the lender may allow the homeowner to sell the home and allow a qualified buyer to take over or assume their loan and make the loan payments. However, if a homeowner decided to do this, they should make sure that the loan assumption documents specifically release them from any further liability for the loan; Short Sale Loan Assumption DIL of Foreclosure

184 Mortgage Modification
Delaying a Foreclosure Forebearance Reinstatement Repayment Plan Mortgage Modification The lender may allow the homeowner to give property to the lender by executing a deed in lieu of foreclosure in exchange for the lender forgiving the debt. Signing a deed in lieu of foreclosure means that the homeowner is actually conveying all of their ownership of the property to the lender or grantee under the deed. This option can still have a negative impact on their creditworthiness, but may not be as damaging as a foreclosure. If a homeowner uses this method, they should try to negotiate from the lender a full written release of any further obligation or liability relating to the debt. Refinance Home Sale Deed in Lieu of Foreclosure – the lender may allow the homeowner to give property to the lender by executing a deed in lieu of foreclosure in exchange for the lender forgiving the debt. Signing a deed in lieu of foreclosure means that the homeowner is actually conveying all of their ownership of the property to the lender or grantee under the deed. This option can still have a negative impact on their creditworthiness, but may not be as damaging as a foreclosure. If a homeowner uses this method, they should try to negotiate from the lender a full written release of any further obligation or liability relating to the debt. No matter how you look at it, the business of buying and selling properties at or near foreclosure is not a happy one. However, it can be a mutually beneficial transaction for a willing investor and a distressed homeowner. Foreclosure is the flip side of the American dream of home ownership. It's a homeowner's worst nightmare, and can result in a lasting and devastating blow to personal finances. Foreclosure can wipe out the equity in a home. It can destroy personal credit for years and could mean uprooting a family from its neighborhood, friends, family, and schools. Short Sale Loan Assumption DIL of Foreclosure

185 A B C D Feedback Question – 27.
If a lender agrees to refinance or modify a homeowner’s loan so they can make smaller payments over a longer period of time, it is called: A Reinstatement Forbearance Mortgage modification Repayment plan B C D

186 A B C D Feedback Question – 27.
If a lender agrees to refinance or modify a homeowner’s loan so they can make smaller payments over a longer period of time, it is called: A Reinstatement Forbearance Mortgage modification Repayment plan B C D

187 The Upside and Downside to Foreclosures
For a smart and hopefully generous investor, purchasing foreclosed properties can be a terrific real estate deal. The hope is that both parties to the transaction win by profiting from a timely transfer of title – which produces a good investment for the investor and divestment for the homeowner – and it might spare the homeowner's credit rating before things get any worse. The Upside to Foreclosures For a smart and hopefully generous investor, purchasing foreclosed properties can be a terrific real estate deal. The hope is that both parties to the transaction win by profiting from a timely transfer of title – which produces a good investment for the investor and divestment for the homeowner – and it might spare the homeowner's credit rating before things get any worse.

188 The Upside and Downside to Foreclosures
For a smart and hopefully generous investor, purchasing foreclosed properties can be a terrific real estate deal. The hope is that both parties to the transaction win by profiting from a timely transfer of title – which produces a good investment for the investor and divestment for the homeowner – and it might spare the homeowner's credit rating before things get any worse. Profiting from foreclosures isn't the no-brainer many assume it to be. For each success story, there are likely five horror stories. Every real estate transaction involves risk. While investors with the very best of intentions can help to reduce their risk, they cannot completely eliminate it. The Downside to Foreclosures Profiting from foreclosures isn't the no-brainer many assume it to be. For each success story, there are likely five horror stories. Every real estate transaction involves risk. While investors with the very best of intentions can help to reduce their risk, they cannot completely eliminate it.

189 Poll Question – 28. Who can benefit the most from a foreclosure? A An investor The homeowner The bank The economy B C D

190 Poll Question – 28. Who can benefit the most from a foreclosure? A An investor The homeowner The bank The economy B C D

191 Borrower's Obligations
The mortgagor may be required to pay for Private Mortgage Insurance, or PMI, for as long as the principal of his/her primary mortgage is above 80% (or 78% for FHA) of the value of his property. In most situations, insurance requirements are sufficient to guarantee that the lender will get some pre-defined percentage of the loan value back, either from foreclosure auction proceeds or from PMI, or a combination of the two. Nevertheless, in an illiquid real estate market or following a significant drop in real estate prices, it may happen that the property being foreclosed is sold for less than the remaining balance on the primary mortgage loan, and there may be no insurance to cover the loss. In this case, the court overseeing the foreclosure process may enter a deficiency judgment against the mortgagor. Deficiency judgments can be used to place a lien on the borrower's other property that obligates the mortgagor to repay the difference. It gives the lender a legal right to collect the remainder of debt from the mortgagor's other assets (if any exist). The mortgagor may be required to pay for Private Mortgage Insurance, or PMI, for as long as the principal of his/her primary mortgage is above 80% (or 78% for FHA) of the value of his property. In most situations, insurance requirements are sufficient to guarantee that the lender will get some pre-defined percentage of the loan value back, either from foreclosure auction proceeds or from PMI, or a combination of the two. Nevertheless, in an illiquid real estate market or following a significant drop in real estate prices, it may happen that the property being foreclosed is sold for less than the remaining balance on the primary mortgage loan, and there may be no insurance to cover the loss. In this case, the court overseeing the foreclosure process may enter a deficiency judgment against the mortgagor. Deficiency judgments can be used to place a lien on the borrower's other property that obligates the mortgagor to repay the difference. It gives the lender a legal right to collect the remainder of debt from the mortgagor's other assets (if any exist). There are exceptions to this rule, though. If the mortgage is a non-recourse debt (which is often the case with residential mortgages in the U.S.), the lender may not go after the borrower's assets to recoup its losses. The lender's ability to pursue deficiency judgment may be restricted by state laws. In California and some other states, original mortgages (the ones taken out at the time of purchase) are typically non-recourse loans; however, refinanced loans and home equity lines of credit are not. If the lender chooses not to pursue a deficiency judgment – or can't because the mortgage is non-recourse – and writes off the loss, the borrower may have to pay income taxes on the un-repaid amount if it can be considered "forgiven debt." However, recent changes in tax laws may change the way these amounts are reported. Any liens resulting from other loans taken out against the property being foreclosed (second mortgages, Home Equity Line of Credit) are "wiped out" by foreclosure, but the borrower is still obligated to pay those loans off if they are not paid out of the foreclosure auction's proceeds.

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