Motivating students to do certain tasks may be difficult. Students just might not want to do the assignments. The mystery component in this intervention is based on offering an unknown reinforcer. The mystery will engage students in the academic task, even when the task is difficult. Mystery Motivator
For students who can, but don’t want to do the task. Class or individual level. Mystery Motivators can be used in a variety of content areas including reading, math, social studies, science, writing, homework completion, and based on a variety of outcomes including test averages and classroom participation. Materials include: List of Reinforcers, Reinforcers, Mystery Motivator Chart, Envelopes, Note Cards Mystery Motivator
Implementation Steps 1.Develop reward menu with the student or class. 2.Select a behavior that you wish to reduce or increase and write out the concrete definition for it. 3.Decide on a time period during the day for which the program will be implemented. For example choose math class if a student is lacking motivation to complete homework or class assignments.
Mystery Motivator Implementation Steps 4.Define goal (Example: 100% homework completion, 80% accuracy on test grades in math). 5.Construct Motivation Chart for the student with all the days of the week.
Mystery Motivator Implementation Steps 6.If criterion is met, have the child remove the envelope on that particular day. If the Mystery “*” is located on that day, have them open the envelope to reveal the mystery motivator. Reinforcement should be implemented as soon as possible. 7.If there is not an “*,” encourage students that tomorrow will present another chance to earn the Mystery Motivator. 8.Define the criteria for earning a bonus Motivator. For example, if the student removes four out of five envelopes they can redeem them for a prize from the reward menu.
Mystery Motivator Comments/Tips – Place reinforcement randomly, put a lot of “*” on the calendar during the teaching phase of the intervention. – Define goal so students know what they are expected to achieve. – Reinforcement should be implemented as soon as possible. – It is important to know that the students are performing at grade level and are capable of the assigned tasks. If not, a more appropriate acquisition-level intervention should be selected in order to teach the academic skill first. – Students need to find the reinforcements appealing. Students in lower grades or with lower cognitive functioning may need more consistent reinforcement in order to understand the link between the task and the Mystery Motivator. Tangible motivators may also be more appropriate for younger ages or lower functioning students.
Positive Peer Reporting Cognitive Restructuring Coping Cards Graduated Exposure Therapy Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart! Mystery Motivator Self-Monitoring
Self-monitoring Why? Evidence-based intervention. Easy to implement. Time efficient. Can be modified to meet criteria of Tier 1, 2, or 3 instruction. Allows student to be an active participant.
Steps: Operationally define target behavior(s). Select/design the self-monitoring worksheet. Plan where and when the intervention will be implemented. Choose rewards. Conduct accuracy checks. Create a plan to condense or fade the intervention.
Self-monitoring Operationally define target behavior(s) Plan should be written in a positive tone. Focus can be to increase or decrease certain behaviors. Be clear and specific. Data Collection Rating scale.Checklist.Frequency Count.
Where and When? Specific class period.Split A.M. and P.M.During class assignments. Rewards Talk with student.Ask parents.Survey. Self-monitoring
Accuracy Checks More frequently in the beginning.Perform random spot checks. Condense/fade plan Multiple target behaviors single question. Decrease recording times. Daily monitoring 3x per week weekly. Self-monitoring
Positive Peer Reporting Cognitive Restructuring Coping Cards Graduated Exposure Therapy Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart! Mystery Motivator Self-Monitoring
Positive Peer Reporting Presented by Sharol Whyte
Positive Peer Reporting Purpose: To enhance prosocial behavior and positive peer relationships and reduce inappropriate social behaviors by systematically encouraging and reinforcing peer compliments
Positive Peer Reporting Materials Poster board chart that displays: the number of points needed to earn the group reward the number of points earned per day Points Chart Poster board chart that displays: the steps in providing compliments examples of compliments Compliments Chart
Positive Peer Reporting (Collecting Baseline/Observation) Record the number of negative and positive social interactions displayed by the entire class or a group of target students during recess, a major transition (such as packing up at the end of the day), or an instructional period that includes class wide discussions or cooperative learning activities. Conduct these observations during the targeted period for 4 to 7 days. If desired, use these data to help set a criterion for the number of points (compliments) needed to earn the reward.
Positive Peer Reporting Introduction & Training Tell the students that they are going to have an opportunity to help create a friendlier classroom atmosphere and earn group rewards by participating in a new activity. Each day three or four students (or an appropriate number, based on class size) will have a chance to be the class “stars,” and everyone will have a chance to praise the stars’ friendly and helpful behavior that has contributed to making the classroom a good place to learn and have fun. Using the compliments chart, conduct a 20-minute training session in which you teach students how to give compliments.
Positive Peer Reporting Introduction & Training Tell students that during “star time” (e.g. at the end of the morning instructional period, during afternoon homeroom period, during circle/advisory time), you will review the list of stars for the day and invite other students to raise their hands to offer compliments about each of those students. Explain that if you call on a student and he or she is able to offer a sincere, appropriate compliment about one of the class starts, the class will earn a point toward a group reward. Set a criterion for the number of points required to earn the reward, using data obtained during the observation period.
Positive Peer Reporting Implementation Select 2 or 3 students at random, as well as 1 or 2 of the target students Announce the lists of names and write their names on the board At the end of the intervention period, ask students to raise their hands if they have an appropriate compliment for the students on the list After all the “stars” have received compliments, tally the number of appropriate compliments and add that number of points to the point chart Once the criterion has been met, deliver the reward
Positive Peer Reporting Progress monitoring Compare the number of positive and negative social interactions for the entire class or the group of target students during recess, the selected transition, or the selected instructional period before and after implementation
Notes Do not place the same names on the list every day because this may embarrass them and lead to great ostracism by the rest of the class. If a student offers a sarcastic remark rather than a compliment, tell that individual that you will not award points for any comments that may be embarrassing or hurtful to a fellow student. During field testing, teachers observed that some students occasionally reacted negatively (by pouting, arguing, etc) when their names were not on the daily list of stars, especially during the initial stages of implementation. To address this problem, remind students prior to the announcement of the star list that everyone will have a chance to be a star for the day and model appropriate responses during the star list posting.
Cognitive Restructuring Coping Cards Graduated Exposure Therapy Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart! Mystery Motivator Self-Monitoring Positive Peer Reporting
Graduated Exposure Therapy Presented by Michelle Powers
Graduated Exposure Therapy Target Problem Anxiety or Phobias/Fears Location School psychologist’s office; Individual sessions Materials Plain white paper, writing utensil, fear thermometer, fear ladder form / hopping down the worry path, facing fears progress monitoring form, child chosen rewards Frequency 2x weekly until fear is phased out; 20-minute sessions Intervention Overview
Graduated Exposure Therapy: Steps to Implementation Session 1 Understanding Help the child to understand the importance of facing fears Develop rapport
Graduated Exposure Therapy: Steps to Implementation Session 2 Make a List With the child, make a list of things or places that they fear. Be sure to group similar fears together if there are many fears. Work with the child to come up with the list. Arrange the list from Least (1-No Fear) to Most scary (10-Extreme Fear). Use the ‘Fear Thermometer’ to help the child rate their fears. My List of Fears School People Getting on the bus Flying Failing a test People laughing at me Getting hurt
Graduated Exposure Therapy: Steps to Implementation Session 3 Build a ‘Fear Ladder’ Once each fear has been rated, identify the child’s most prominent fear (10 on list). This will be the focus of the intervention. The main fear should then be broken down into gradual “steps” that lead up to facing the most prominent fear. Use the ‘Fear Ladder Form’ to create this final list.
Subsequent Sessions Facing Fears (Exposure) Starting with the situation that causes the least anxiety (the bottom of the fear ladder), encourage the child to repeatedly engage in that activity (e.g., repeatedly saying “hi” to an unfamiliar person) until he or she starts to feel less anxious doing it. Graduated Exposure Therapy: Steps to Implementation At the start of each session, progress monitoring should be done using the ‘Facing Fears Form’ Parental involvement is critical Goal Anxiety rating of “1” when engaging in the activity
Reminder Practice Encourage the child to practice exposing themselves to each step often. The more the child practices, the quicker the fear will fade. Graduated Exposure Therapy Every child will have 3 initial sessions in order to identify his/her major fear, then there will be subsequent sessions until the student faces the major fear with no anxiety.
Graduated Exposure Therapy: Goals, Praise, and Rewards Goals Small goals are set in order to maintain determination. The main goal is successfully facing their main fear. Praise An important component of this intervention. Should be used while the child is gradually exposing themselves to fears. Encourage the child to praise themselves. Rewards At some point, reward options should be discussed with the child. Rewards will be awarded once the child has reached their main goal (Facing their main fear while experiencing an anxiety rating of ‘1’ [no fear])
Graduated Exposure Therapy: Tips and Comments This activity should only be done after the child is familiar with anxiety and their symptoms. Parental involvement is crucial. Building rapport with the parent in order to reach success in this intervention is critical.
Cognitive Restructuring Coping Cards Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart! Mystery Motivator Self-Monitoring Positive Peer Reporting Graduated Exposure Therapy
What is CBT? The way we perceive (think about) situations influences how we feel emotionally and how we subsequently behave. Main Idea Research currently supports the use of CBT in the treatment of both depression and anxiety disorders. The Research Says… By changing belief systems and cognitions through this form of therapy, children with anxiety and depression can begin to function more appropriately and adequately in their environments. Best Practices Says…
Cognitive Restructuring Presented by Monica Azzaro What was I feeling?
Cognitive Restructuring Target Population DEPRESSION ANXIETY MIDDLE SCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS Materials WRITING UTENSILS THOUGHT RECORDS Location SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST’S OFFICE; GROUP SESSION WEEKLY SESSIONS Frequency 1x WEEKLY FOR 6-8 WEEKS; 40- MINUTE SESSIONS (i.e. 1 PERIOD) Intervention Overview
Cognitive Restructuring: Initial Sessions GOAL OF THE GROUP IS TO RECOGNIZE NEGATIVE THOUGHTS AND THINK OF ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIORS AND THOUGHTS EXPLAIN THE RULES OF THE SESSION EXPLAIN WHAT A TYPICAL SESSION AGENDA LOOKS LIKE USES THESE FIRST COUPLE OF SESSIONS TO ESTABLISH RAPPORT COLLECT BASELINE DATA
Cognitive Restructuring: Initial Sessions HAND OUT AND EXPLAIN THE THOUGHT RECORDS THINK OF A HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: STUDENTS AND SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS COLLABORATIVELY END THE SESSION WITH A RELAXATION TECHNIQUE
http://www.depression- help-resource.com/cesd- depression-test.pdf This scale should be administered prior to the intervention then every week that the intervention is implemented. The scale is appropriate for children between the ages of 6 and 17.
Cognitive Restructuring: Initial Session HAND OUT AND EXPLAIN THE THOUGHT RECORDS PRACTICE FILLING OUT THE THOUGHT RECORD WITH THE STUDENTS THINK OF A HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: STUDENTS AND SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS COLLABORATIVELY END THE SESSION WITH A RELAXATION TECHNIQUE
You got a test back and you received a bad grade I feel like a failure. I am so stupid. Negative self- labeling: since I couldn’t pass this test, I’ll probably fail all of the other ones I tend to be really hard on myself. Even though I didn’t pass this test, I have passed other ones in the past. People have even told me that I am smart. Next time I do not do so well on a test, I’ll try to make the negative thinking into a positive learning experience. I can see if I need to study harder or if I should ask more questions in class.
Cognitive Restructuring: Follow Up Sessions GO OVER THE HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT WITH THE GROUP IF THERE WERE ANY DIFFICULTIES, HAVE A DISCUSSION WITH THE GROUP ONCE A NEGATIVE COGNITION IS HEARD, THE SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGIST FILLS OUT THE THOUGHT RECORD WITH THE GROUP HAVE THE GROUP FILL OUT THE CES-DC DISCUSS WHAT THE HOMEWORK WILL BE END THE SESSION WITH A RELAXATION TECHNIQUE
Coping Cards Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart! Mystery Motivator Self-Monitoring Positive Peer Reporting Graduated Exposure Therapy Cognitive Restructuring
Coping Cards Presented by Katie Viola Count to 10 Write in a journal
Coping Cards Target Problem Anxiety Materials Index Cards Writing Utensil Location School psychologist’s office; Individual sessions Frequency 1x weekly for 6 weeks; 30- minute sessions Intervention Overview
Coping Cards: Steps to Implementation Step 1 Discuss with the student how to recognize anxious thoughts and feelings. Step 2 In collaboration with the student, create a list of the anxious thoughts and feelings that he/she frequently experiences. Step 3 Explain to the student that his or her anxious thoughts can be changed to reflect more relaxed and balanced thinking.
Coping Cards: Steps to Implementation Step 4 Introduce the purpose of coping cards. Say “Coping cards are small index cards with short sentences of some of the coping skills you can use when experiencing anxiety. The cards are portable reminders to boss back anxiety!” Step 5 Take out the index cards and a writing utensil. Model to the student how he or she might create a coping card using one of the student’s anxious thoughts identified in Step 2. Provide the student with examples of coping card statements. Pictures can be substituted for words for very young children, or you can transcribe the student’s thoughts.
Coping Cards: Steps to Implementation Step 6 Instruct the student to create the coping card(s). Say, “On one side of the card, you will write down one of your anxious thoughts or feelings. On the other side, you will write a replacement thought, or an activity you can do when experiencing the anxious thought.” Provide assistance as needed. Step 7 Allow the student to decorate his or her card(s) with stickers or colored pencils (optional).
Coping Cards: Examples Other people don’t like me. Social situations make me nervous. I am a likeable person. Other people get nervous too. My heart is racing. Count to 10.
Coping Cards: Steps to Implementation Step 8 Practice using the coping card(s). Role-play different scenarios in which the student might need to use his or her coping card(s). Instruct the student to refer to the card(s) whenever he or she is feeling anxious.
Coping Cards: Follow Up Sessions Follow up with the student once weekly for 6 weeks. At these sessions, discuss how the cards are working, add additional cards as needed, and role-play various situations in which the cards may be useful. Follow up with the student once weekly for 6 weeks. At these sessions, discuss how the cards are working, add additional cards as needed, and role-play various situations in which the cards may be useful.
Progress Monitoring Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS) The SCAS is sensitive to treatment outcome and may be used to evaluate the impact of therapy on anxiety symptoms in children. This scale should be administered three times prior to the implementation of coping cards in order to collect baseline data, and at the beginning of each subsequent session for progress monitoring. This scale is appropriate for children between the ages of 8 and 15. Use the SCAS- Parent Version for children as young as age 6.
Presenter Information BA Psychology/Criminal Justice & MS Educational Psychology, SUNY Albany School Psychology Intern – Cornwall Central School District Danielle Jordan BA Psychology, Marist College School Psychology Intern - Hyde Park Central School District Danielle Kraus BA Psychology, Pace University School Psychology Intern - Hyde Park Central School District Sharol WhyteMichelle PowersMonica AzzaroKatie Viola BA Psychology, Mount Saint Mary College School Psychology Intern - Arlington Central School District BA Psychology, Mount Saint Mary College School Psychology Intern – Warwick Valley Central School District BA Psychology, Marist College School Psychology Intern - Wappingers Central School District