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Chapter 16: Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt: Past, Present, and Future By: Varanessa Dixon.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16: Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt: Past, Present, and Future By: Varanessa Dixon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16: Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt: Past, Present, and Future By: Varanessa Dixon

2 Budgets and Budget Concepts Discretionary The government sets a spending limit annually Mandatory: Annual expenditure depends on how many people meet the requirements Federal Budget: A statement of income (receipts) and expenditures (outlays) for a specific period of time (a year). Unified Budget: The federal budget with Social Security included Net Budget Balance: The bottom-line; total receipts minus total outlays Off-budget surplus: The surplus regarding the Social Security portion of the unified budget On-budget surplus: The surplus regarding the Non-Social Security portion of the unified budget Note: Receipts > Outlays = Budget Surplus Receipts < Outlays = Budget Deficit Receipts = Outlays = Balanced Budget

3 Historical Budget Perspective : Almost an unbroken string of budget deficits : The federal government achieves a surplus in the unified budget How to fix the budget is a: 1.Pocket Book Issue 3. Fairness Issue 2.Productivity and Economic-Growth Issue 4. International Issue In 2001, tax cuts, a recession, and growing demands for money to fight terrorism depleted the surplus

4 Historical Budget Perspective: The Inclusion of Social Security Figure 16.2 illustrates the differences between the On-Budget and the Unified Budget. Including Social Security understates the budget, but only by a small portion

5 The Public Debt Gross Federal Debt: The debt of the federal government held by both the public and government agencies Public Debt: The portion of the gross federal debt held by the public; the value of all government securities that have been sold to the public and are still outstanding 3.5 Million 2.7 Million Public Debt is a major concern for businesses and financial markets because it effects the economy : Growing period for public debt : Public debt fell due to the Treasury using the surpluses to redeem maturing securities

6 Burden of the Public Debt Smaller in 2001 than in 1962 due to increasing GDP and a shrinking deficit The public debt as a percentage of GDP Public Debt GDP X 100

7 The Long-Run Budget and Debt Projections The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projected in 2001 a 10-year surplus. September 11 and a recession caused the CBO to change their forecast to deficits from and surpluses from CBO Projections from : 1.Tax policy will remain unchanged (including the expiration of the tax cut provision in 2001) 2.SS, Medicare and Medicaid, and Net interest are primary drivers of expenditures and will constrain other areas of the budget 3.There will be surpluses from A negative budget balance will cause the deficit to grow as a percentage of GDP for the next 50 years

8 Measurement Issues Some economists say the federal budget deficits are overstated due to: Structural Deficit: The deficit at full employment Actual Deficit: The amount by which actual government expenditures exceed actual government revenues 1. Inflation 2. Business Cycles 3. Government Investment 4. State and Local Government Deficits and Surpluses Consumption-type Expenditures: Food stamps and farm subsidies Investment-type Expenditures: Education, Research, and Highways Eliminate this portion

9 Economic Effects of a Deficit Keynesian View Modern View Deficits are desirable in recessions because the increase disposable income Depends on the way a deficit is financed: -Public -Social Security -The Federal Reserve Increase in Output and Employment if the economy is at less than full- employment The Public: Expansionary, but by less than the Keynesians thought Social Security: Does not affect the budget due to no market transactions The Federal Reserve: No harmful effect to the deficit if the economy is operating at less than full-employment Modern View Increase in Output and Employment if the economy is at less than full- employment Keynesian View Deficits are desirable in recessions because the increase disposable income Increase in Output and Employment if the economy is at less than full- employment

10 Public and Federal Reserve Financing Effects Public Financing Interest Rate Demand for and Supply of Loanable Funds D0. S0 i0 D1. S1 i1 D0. D1 S0 Demand for loanable funds (funds available for borrowing by households, firms, and government = Interest Rates Higher Interest rates lead to: Reduced investment Effect on Net Exports and Imports -Increased demand leads to dollar appreciation -Dollar appreciation= Decreased US Exports and Increased US Imports Federal Reserve Increases the money supply causing demand to increase if the economy is operating at less than full-employment If the economy is operating at full-employment, the price level will increase, causing inflation to rise

11 The Burden of the Debt Invalid Arguments About the Budget Deficits: The federal government should be required to balance its budget annually. The federal government should make the debt zero The national debt is owed to ourselves Burden to Tax Payers: Burden on tax payers If tax rates are high enough, incentives to work, save, invest, and innovate could be distorted

12 Taking Stock Establishing separate capital and operating budgets could lead to better deficit measurement Three Ways to Turn Surpluses From Social Security and On-Budget: 1. 1.Using Them to Finance Public Debt 2. 2.Finance Government Investment 3. 3.Turn Them Into Tax Relief Future strains on the budget are showing up faster than the government can deal with


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