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Ty Hubicki, Jennifer Montoya, Angelic Sinova, Brett Christner.

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Presentation on theme: "Ty Hubicki, Jennifer Montoya, Angelic Sinova, Brett Christner."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ty Hubicki, Jennifer Montoya, Angelic Sinova, Brett Christner

2 A legislative method of regulating land use by the division of a political subdivision into districts and the enactment of local regulations to control buildings and uses within the district. Or… Regulating Private Land for the Public Good What is Zoning?

3 Designate selected land uses and building requirements to appropriate areas in the community. Keeping a constant and visually pleasing setting To prevent incompatible uses. Prevent interference with existing residents or businesses. To insure coordination of infrastructure services Commercial, business, agricultural To protect quality of life (health/safety) Direct, manage and control growth Purposes of zoning

4 height of buildings use of green space density (number of structures in a certain area) use of lots types of businesses. Specific examples

5 Controls on land use begin mid- nineteenth century due to health/safety concerns Nations first building code Fire of 1871 Did not provide adequate protection Early 1910’s Priority for city officials to address concerns to aesthetics and property values. Chicago turns towards adopting a city wide zoning ordinance in response to NYC zoning ordinance of 1916 Chicago

6 May 1, 1893 Changed Chicago from an industrialist city to a more “inviting” city Proved that city had risen, prosperous and strong, from the ashes and was ready to take its place in the front rank of the world's great cities The “White City”


8 Urban Development in Cleveland New England Puritan Culture on the Shore of Lake Erie – Western Reserve of Conneticut Mark Hanna – Republican Party kingmaker John D. Rockefeller – first billionaire

9 Western Reserve of Connecticut map

10 Cleveland Urban Politics: Thomas L. Johnson Elected mayor of Cleveland in 1901 Urban government provided few public services at the time Progressives, led by Johnson, set out to “redeem” municipal government Municipal public services expanded Associated with low fare for street cars

11 “White City” of the Chicago Exposition Influences Cleveland’s Development Cleveland Architectural Club sponsored competition for formal grouping of Cleveland’s Public Buildings (1895) Enabling legislation passed by Ohio state legislature facilitates the Cleveland Group Plan

12 Mayor Johnson Implements “Group Plan” Influence of Baron Haussman strong “Haussmanization” Private land subjected to public good Fitted into the progressive ideology Public buildings arranged around a Mall – laid out on 44 acre site Nearly a century of sporadic efforts – but largely realized

13 Cleveland “Group Plan” Urban Mall

14 Issues of “Zoning” Exclusionary Zoning: prohibit low- and moderate-income housing Housing Discrimination Minimum lot sizes and Floor Space requirements Large-lot zoning imposes burden on low- and moderate-income people Limited- Growth Zoning Strict Subdivision Requirements

15 Exclusionary Zoning Continued Strict building Codes Prohibit Subsidized Housing Refuse all attempts of subsidized housing New York Discrimination in Housing Fair Housing Act 1968

16 Mount Laurel I New Jersey Supreme Court in 1975 - Southern Burlington County N.A.A.C.P. v. Mount Laurel Township. Plaintiffs challenged the zoning ordinance of Mount Laurel Township, New Jersey, on the grounds that it operated to exclude low and moderate income persons from obtaining housing in the municipality. Mount Laurel II After an appeal by the plaintiffs, the decision of Mount Laurel II created specific requirements that every town in New Jersey must provide its “fair share” of the regional need for low- and moderate-income housing. Towns would have to provide a “realistic opportunity” for such housing. Fair Share Housing Act and the Opening to New Jersey suburbs to the Poor

17 Inclusionary Zoning Fair Share Housing Mount Laurel, NJ Doctrine that prohibits economic discrimination against poor by the state and municipalities in the exercise of their land powers First case of its type and is regarded as one of the most significant Civil Rights cases in the United States since Brown vs. Board of Education (1954)

18 Euclid, Ohio vs. Amber Realty Co. Decided by U.S Supreme Court in 1926 Zoning as important and legitimate exercise of police powers zoning restrictions on the use of the land could be supported by valid considerations of public health, safety, morals, and general welfare, made in the interest of preserving the character and quality of the neighborhood.

19 1. How did the “White City” influence other cities? 2. In what ways did the White City change the layout of Chicago? 3. What kind of “zoning area” is this? A. Commercial B. Industrial C. Residential Questions

20 e.pdf,0,1555067.story http://rsc.byu/archived/regional-studies-latter-day-saint-church-history-ohio-and-upper-canada/6-religion-and- ethni content&view=article&id=794:the-abolition- movement-in-northeast-ohio&catid=257:the-abolition-movement&itemid=56 k2&view=itemlist&layout=category&task=category&id=168&itemid=285 References

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