2IntroductionBy 1900 many of the gains made by African Americans during Reconstruction had been taken away, and relations between blacks and whites had grown strained.
3Three different approaches to African American equality Most African Americans favored social integrationMany blacks and some whites called for racial separationMany whites looked for ways to keep races separate and unequal through voluntary segregationCalled for separation of the races in daily life; developed into new era of discrimination called the Jim Crow era that lasted nearly 100 yearsSought to place blacks on an equal basis with whitesLevel social, economic, and political barriersCreate equal opportunity among people of all racesRespectful division of the races into their own communitiesBlacks would develop independent social, educational, and economic institutions
4History of Jim CrowThe origins of the term "Jim Crow" can be traced back to a song and dance known as "Jump Jim Crow" in 1828 by a white comedian known as Thomas Dartmouth Rice.Rice created this routine earlier in the decade. He was supposedly inspired by watching a crippled black man known as "Jim Cuff" on a Cincinnati levee, dancing to his own accord.1 After some time, he imitated this dance while smearing grease paint on his face, a technique now known as "blackface.
8Redeemer governments1870s white Democrats who favored segregation began to gain power in SouthSoutherners referred to new governments as Redeemer governmentsThought the new leaders would “redeem” the South by reversing Reconstruction policiesFirm believers in white supremacy, leaders wanted to limit the power of black citizensWere elected to state governments; replacing African American politicians elected during Reconstruction
9Jim Crow lawsRedeemer lawmakers passed laws to establish separate facilities for black people; laws became known as Jim Crow lawsThroughout South blacks forced to ride in separate railway cars, eat in separate restaurants, attend separate schools, and live in separate neighborhoodsIn the North, laws less widespread; African Americans still dealt with prejudice; blacks denied admittance to hotels, restaurants, and theaters
10What events led to the passing of Jim Crow laws in the South What events led to the passing of Jim Crow laws in the South? (3 events)
11Legalizing Segregation The Slaughterhouse CasesSlaughterhouse owners argued Louisiana law violated 14th amendment rights; no state could impede the rights and privileges of its citizensCourt did not agree; 14th only protected rights of national citizenship—not rights granted by statesCases later used to justify Jim Crow laws and creation of separate facilities in states
12Plessy v. Ferguson“Separate but equal”In landmark case the Supreme Court sided with the Louisiana court; agreed segregation was lawful as long as blacks and whites had access to equal facilities
13Louisiana Supreme Court Louisiana Supreme Court. Justice Henry Billings Brown, writing the majority opinion, wrote the following:"Legislation is powerless to eradicate racial instincts or to abolish distinctions based on physical differences....If the civil and political rights of both races be equal, one cannot be inferior to the other civilly or politically. If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them on the same plane.”
14Black Disfranchisement New black codes included unfair voting laws; adding literacy tests to their voting restrictionsMany blacks had received no education; could not pass testsStates voting fee called a poll taxPoor and illiterate whites were exempted by grandfather clause; if grandfather eligible to vote, then that person could vote as well
16Racial Violence on the Rise Race RiotsNumber of race riots increased; in cities large numbers of whites took to the streets to punish blacks accused of crimes1st major riot in Wilmington, NC in 1898, another in Atlanta, GA in 1906Lynchings and race riots more common in the South; both occurred in the North as well
20Racial Violence on the Rise LynchingMost common forms of racial violence in late 1800s—lynchings, murders of individuals without a trialNearly 900 blacks lynched from 1882 to 1892; many committed no crimeBlack journalist Ida Wells- Barnett fought to expose and end the practice
21The statistics may be very inaccurate... Who was Lynched?Between 1882 and 1951, 4, 730 people were lynched in the United States…3,437 were Black1,293 were WhiteThe most lynching happened in 1892 (203) were Black.The statistics may be very inaccurate...The Chicago Tribune did not start keeping record of lynching until 1882.The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) did not start keeping records until 1912.
22Georgia/ 423 Louisiana/ 283 Alabama/ 262 South Carolina/ 143 Deep SouthMississippi/ 462Georgia/ 423 Louisiana/ 283 Alabama/ 262 South Carolina/ 143Border SouthFlorida/ 212 Tennessee/ 174 Arkansas/ 162 Kentucky/ 118 North Carolina/ 75