Presentation on theme: "The Jim Crow Era. Introduction By 1900 many of the gains made by African Americans during Reconstruction had been taken away, and relations between blacks."— Presentation transcript:
The Jim Crow Era
Introduction By 1900 many of the gains made by African Americans during Reconstruction had been taken away, and relations between blacks and whites had grown strained.
Three different approaches to African American equality Most African Americans favored social integration Many blacks and some whites called for racial separation Many whites looked for ways to keep races separate and unequal through voluntary segregation – Called for separation of the races in daily life; developed into new era of discrimination called the Jim Crow era that lasted nearly 100 years
History of Jim Crow The origins of the term "Jim Crow" can be traced back to a song and dance known as "Jump Jim Crow" in 1828 by a white comedian known as Thomas Dartmouth Rice. Rice created this routine earlier in the decade. He was supposedly inspired by watching a crippled black man known as "Jim Cuff" on a Cincinnati levee, dancing to his own accord. 1 After some time, he imitated this dance while smearing grease paint on his face, a technique now known as "blackface.
Redeemer governments 1870s white Democrats who favored segregation began to gain power in South Southerners referred to new governments as Redeemer governments Thought the new leaders would “redeem” the South by reversing Reconstruction policies Firm believers in white supremacy, leaders wanted to limit the power of black citizens
Jim Crow laws Redeemer lawmakers passed laws to establish separate facilities for black people; laws became known as Jim Crow laws Throughout South blacks forced to ride in separate railway cars, eat in separate restaurants, attend separate schools, and live in separate neighborhoods In the North, laws less widespread; African Americans still dealt with prejudice; blacks denied admittance to hotels, restaurants, and theaters
What events led to the passing of Jim Crow laws in the South? (3 events)
Legalizing Segregation The Slaughterhouse Cases Slaughterhouse owners argued Louisiana law violated 14 th amendment rights; no state could impede the rights and privileges of its citizens Court did not agree; 14 th only protected rights of national citizenship—not rights granted by states Cases later used to justify Jim Crow laws and creation of separate facilities in states
Plessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but equal” – In landmark case the Supreme Court sided with the Louisiana court; agreed segregation was lawful as long as blacks and whites had access to equal facilities
Louisiana Supreme Court. Justice Henry Billings Brown, writing the majority opinion, wrote the following: "Legislation is powerless to eradicate racial instincts or to abolish distinctions based on physical differences....If the civil and political rights of both races be equal, one cannot be inferior to the other civilly or politically. If one race be inferior to the other socially, the Constitution of the United States cannot put them on the same plane.”
Black Disfranchisement New black codes included unfair voting laws; adding literacy tests to their voting restrictions Many blacks had received no education; could not pass tests States voting fee called a poll tax Poor and illiterate whites were exempted by grandfather clause; if grandfather eligible to vote, then that person could vote as well
Racial Violence on the Rise Race Riots Number of race riots increased; in cities large numbers of whites took to the streets to punish blacks accused of crimes 1 st major riot in Wilmington, NC in 1898, another in Atlanta, GA in 1906 Lynchings and race riots more common in the South; both occurred in the North as well
Racial Violence on the Rise Lynching Most common forms of racial violence in late 1800s—lynchings, murders of individuals without a trial Nearly 900 blacks lynched from 1882 to 1892; many committed no crime Black journalist Ida Wells- Barnett fought to expose and end the practice
Between 1882 and 1951, 4, 730 people were lynched in the United States… 3,437 were Black 1,293 were White The most lynching happened in 1892 (203). 161 were Black. The Chicago Tribune did not start keeping record of lynching until 1882. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) did not start keeping records until 1912.
1882-1930 Deep South Mississippi/ 462 Georgia/ 423 Louisiana/ 283 Alabama/ 262 South Carolina/ 143 Border South Florida/ 212 Tennessee/ 174 Arkansas/ 162 Kentucky/ 118 North Carolina/ 75
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