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The New South SS8H7: Student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877- 1918 a. Evaluate the impact.

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Presentation on theme: "The New South SS8H7: Student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877- 1918 a. Evaluate the impact."— Presentation transcript:

1 The New South SS8H7: Student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between a. Evaluate the impact of the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton States Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populists, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank case, and the [effect that] the county unit system had on Georgia during this period.

2 Bourbon Triumvirate Redemption Era : period after Reconstruction and before the “New South” Redeem the state from the hardships of Reconstruction (i.e.…The Republican Party) Redeem the state from the hardships of Reconstruction (i.e.…The Republican Party) The Bourbon Triumvirate: Joseph Brown, Alfred Colquitt, and John Gordon The Bourbon Triumvirate: Joseph Brown, Alfred Colquitt, and John Gordon Democrats who wanted stronger economic ties with northern industry but maintain “old South traditions” (White Supremacy) Democrats who wanted stronger economic ties with northern industry but maintain “old South traditions” (White Supremacy) The three men dominated Georgia politics for a quarter century The three men dominated Georgia politics for a quarter century Alfred Colquitt Joseph Brown John Gordon

3 The Bourbon Triumvirate Democrats controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction. Democrats controlled Georgia’s government after Reconstruction. Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate” were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. Powerful Democratic leaders, known as the “Bourbon Triumvirate” were Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon. Their goals were: Their goals were: – expand Georgia’s economy and ties with industries in the North; – maintain the tradition of white supremacy.

4 Joseph Brown Opened law office in Canton, GA Opened law office in Canton, GA State senator State senator Judge Judge N. Georgia farmer N. Georgia farmer 1857: elected governor 1857: elected governor –State’s rights activist –Remained until June 1865—lost popularity by asking Georgians to go along with Rad. Repub. Policies, believing it would shorten Reconstruction Governor Joseph Brown

5 Alfred Colquitt Princeton Law School Princeton Law School State congressman State congressman –Served at Georgia’s secession convention Maj. Gen. in Confederate Army Maj. Gen. in Confederate Army 1876: elected Governor 1876: elected Governor –State debt reduced –New state constitution (1877) Alfred Colquitt

6 John B. Gordon Lt. Gen. in Confederate Army Lt. Gen. in Confederate Army US Senator from GA: US Senator from GA: –Resigned 1880 (scandal) –Gov. Colquitt appointed Joseph E. Brown to fill his place –Revolters within his own party (Democrat) felt that a corrupt deal had been struck –Rebecca Latimer Felton was critical of his involvement Contributed to the Compromise of 1877—gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency in exchange for the removal of Federal troops from the South Contributed to the Compromise of 1877—gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency in exchange for the removal of Federal troops from the South Manager of coal mine Manager of coal mine Rumored Head of Georgia’s KKK during Reconstruction Rumored Head of Georgia’s KKK during Reconstruction 1886: elected Governor 1886: elected Governor Brought new industry to Georgia Brought new industry to Georgia Lt. Gen. John B. Gordon

7 The Bourbon Triumvirate group of three (Brown, Colquitt, Gordon)—wanted to strengthen economic ties with the North, while keeping white supremacy— considered old Southern traditions Successes State taxes lowered State taxes lowered State war debts reduced State war debts reduced Business and industry expanded Business and industry expandedFailures Did not improve lives of poor Did not improve lives of poor Education suffered Education suffered Did not reform prisons Did not reform prisons Poor working conditions in factories Poor working conditions in factories

8 Decline of the Bourbon Triumvirate “Independent Democrats” criticized the Bourbons for not attending to the needs of the poor or improve education and working conditions in factories. “Independent Democrats” criticized the Bourbons for not attending to the needs of the poor or improve education and working conditions in factories. Leaders William and Rebecca Felton worked to improve conditions for poor Georgians using newspapers to highlight problems in the state. Leaders William and Rebecca Felton worked to improve conditions for poor Georgians using newspapers to highlight problems in the state. The convict lease system “rented” prisoners to companies to use as workers. It took many years for the poor conditions the prisoners endured to be brought to light and changed. The convict lease system “rented” prisoners to companies to use as workers. It took many years for the poor conditions the prisoners endured to be brought to light and changed.

9 The New South Era Challengers to the Bourbon Triumvirate wanted Georgia to be more industrialized. Challengers to the Bourbon Triumvirate wanted Georgia to be more industrialized. Henry Grady was a speaker and newspaper editor. Henry Grady was a speaker and newspaper editor. Grady described Georgia as a place which could have competitive industry and more efficient farming. Grady described Georgia as a place which could have competitive industry and more efficient farming. Grady envisioned improved race relations in a “New South” which left its antebellum past behind. Grady envisioned improved race relations in a “New South” which left its antebellum past behind.

10 “The New South” New South: A phrase used to describe southern progress in the late 1800s…Industry! New South: A phrase used to describe southern progress in the late 1800s…Industry! New South New South –Henry W. Grady: first to use the phrase…editor for the Atlanta Constitution Henry W. Grady Example of Georgia Industry

11 Henry Grady: “Voice of the New South” 1880: became managing editor of the Atlanta Constitution 1880: became managing editor of the Atlanta Constitution –Known for his controversial editorials Visited northern cities and spoke about the “New South” Visited northern cities and spoke about the “New South” –Southern economy was growing as agriculture was replaced by industry (textile mills, coal mining, tobacco factories) –Pointed out that race relations had improved (had they?) –Ability to sell the New South brought jobs, recognition, and investments to GA economy Principal planner for 1881 International Cotton Exposition Principal planner for 1881 International Cotton Exposition Increased circulation of Atlanta Constitution from 10,000 to 140,000 (used interview process) Increased circulation of Atlanta Constitution from 10,000 to 140,000 (used interview process) Died in 1889 at 39 Died in 1889 at 39

12 Georgia’s Granges Grange: Groups of Southern sharecroppers, tenant farmers, and farmers with small plots of land Grange: Groups of Southern sharecroppers, tenant farmers, and farmers with small plots of land –Faced growing debts –Could not feed/clothe their families –Could not pay their debts to merchants/landowners 1872: Georgia’s Granges become political (Along with others in the South and Midwest). 1872: Georgia’s Granges become political (Along with others in the South and Midwest). –Applied political pressure (lobbying) to state legislature and forced the formation of a State Department of Agriculture (1 st in the nation) –Established Grange-owned stores and cotton gins to reduce costs for farmers –Helped establish that farmers wanted to improve their lives The National Grange The National Grange

13 The Farmers’ Alliance Farmers’ Alliance: began as social organizations in the Northwest and the South. Farmers’ Alliance: began as social organizations in the Northwest and the South. –Formed co-ops: purchased goods and equipment directly from producers and sold to farmers at wholesale prices -cost of production (No taxes). –Called for more U.S. production of paper money –Higher credit limits to farmers

14 The Populist Movement Rose from farmers and workers who were becoming tired, poor, and discouraged! The Grange: name used for the “Patrons of Husbandry”, a group organized to allow social gatherings where farmers could talk about common problems. The Grange: name used for the “Patrons of Husbandry”, a group organized to allow social gatherings where farmers could talk about common problems.“Patrons of Husbandry”, “Patrons of Husbandry”, –Early 1870s prices began to drop –Banks not lending as much money to farmers

15 The Populist Party The Farmers’ Alliance joined with labor organizations (unions) to form this new political party. Platform: 1. 8 hour workday 2. Gov’t ownership of railroad, telephone, and telegraph 3. Graduated federal income tax 4. Direct election of U.S. Senators 5. Restriction of immigration 6. Use of Australian Ballot: Ballot printed by gov’t, distributed at voting places, and collected in secret sealed boxes Election: Democrat Grover Cleveland won…Populist candidate: James B. Weaver James B. Weaver White and black farmers

16 Tom Watson Georgia’s best known Populist. Georgia’s best known Populist. 1882: elected to Georgia General Assembly 1882: elected to Georgia General Assembly 1890: elected to Congress with backing of Farmers’ Alliance 1890: elected to Congress with backing of Farmers’ Alliance –Introduced the Rural Free Delivery Bill (RFD): required the postmaster general to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge –Created a boom in the building of roads, bridges, and other improvements needed for the delivery to rural areas. 1896: ran as vice-president under William Jennings Bryant (Lost) 1896: ran as vice-president under William Jennings Bryant (Lost) Tom Watson, Populist

17 Rebecca Felton A leader towards suffrage-votes, particularly for women. A leader towards suffrage-votes, particularly for women. Pushed for temperance-anti-alcohol Pushed for temperance-anti-alcohol Popular writer for the “Atlanta Constitution” Popular writer for the “Atlanta Constitution” Used paper as a forum (Way to communicate ideas…TV, paper, radio, speech…) Used paper as a forum (Way to communicate ideas…TV, paper, radio, speech…) Began Georgia Training School for Girls in Atlanta Began Georgia Training School for Girls in Atlanta With Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage With Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage First female U.S. Senator in nation’s history First female U.S. Senator in nation’s history Replaced another Senator due to death (24 hours) Replaced another Senator due to death (24 hours)

18 Rebecca and William Felton Roots of Populist Movement Roots of Populist MovementPopulist Led a group of independent Democrats against the Triumvirate Led a group of independent Democrats against the Triumvirate From Cartersville From Cartersville William Felton: U.S. Congressman; served in GA General Assembly –Worked to improve education, prison reform, and paved the way for controls and limits on alcohol. Rebecca Latimer Felton Picture of 1930 Prohibition

19 Industrial Revolution New inventions and leaps forward in technology New inventions and leaps forward in technology The rise of the factory and industry The rise of the factory and industry –Assembly Line –Poor, difficult and dangerous working conditions (Laissez- faire) Rise of the City (Urban) Rise of the City (Urban) Labor Organizations: Unions Labor Organizations: Unions –Worked for the improvement of safety and working conditions in the work place. Religious and Charitable (Philanthropic) organizations came to the aid of workers and child laborers. Religious and Charitable (Philanthropic) organizations came to the aid of workers and child laborers.

20 The Progressive Movement Goal: Progress! SocietyBusinessGovernment fight poverty fight poverty improve working conditions improve working conditions votes for women votes for women prison reform prison reform outlaw alcohol outlaw alcohol break up large corporations break up large corporations regulate businesses regulate businesses decrease corporate power in government decrease corporate power in government greater voice of “the people” greater voice of “the people” more voters more voters did not seek to increase participation of blacks in elections did not seek to increase participation of blacks in elections


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