3THE ANOINTED,THE CHRIST, THE MESSIAH MESSIAH (English Trans.)A Hebrew word meaning "the anointed one."In the Old Testament the high priests and the kings were anointed.But the name Messiah was used among the Israelites for Him alone who was foretold to Adam and Abraham as the “Savior from sin and the blessing of all nations”(Gen. 3:15; 12:3; 22:18).
4Old Testament, prophecies about Him constantly sustain hope in and desire for His coming. He would have a precursor(Mal. 3:1);His birth of a virgin was foretold(Is. 7:14; Jer. 31:22);the time of His coming was revealed to Daniel(Dan. 9:24);even the place of His birth was designated(Mic. 5:2);His reign was described(Jer. 23:5);He would enter the rebuilt Temple(Hag. 2:8; Mal. 3:1);He was to abide among men and would suffer a cruel passion and death at their hands to redeem mankind(Is. 42:1-4; 53:1-12);and was to rise from the dead as a proof of His divinity(Hosea 6:2, Ps 16:10).CHRIST FORETOLD
5THE FOUR FACES OF JESUS Same general purpose Own style and flavor Four different authorsFour different traditions
6THE FOUR FACES OF JESUSJesus’ words and actions received a new light, a new depth and fuller interpretation than was possible before the resurrection and the coming of the Spirit.They were passed on in new situations, and according to the mentality, culture and need of new hearers.
8MATTHEW Matthew (Levi) the disciple and tax collector wrote 40-90 AD Original Aramaic and “sayings” versus later Greek text still debatedLongest Gospel at 28 chaptersKnown as a book of “teaching”Law, mission, mystery, greatness, and future
9Matthew’s Organization Infancy Narrative(1:1 – 2:23)Proclamation of the Kingdom(3:1 – 7:29)Ministry and Mission in Galilee(8:1 – 11:1)Opposition from Israel(11:2 – 13:53)Jesus, Kingdom and Church(13:54 – 18:35)Ministry Judea, Jerusalem(19:1 – 25:46)Passion and Resurrection( 26:1 – 28:20)
10Matthew’s Style Jesus the King, descendent of David Genealogy traced to DavidSon of David mentioned 10 timesVisited by Kings at birthThe fulfillment of prophecyVirgin birth (brief), Bethlehem, innocentsQuotes the prophetsThe TeacherCalls his own gospel a “book”Beatitudes, law, anger, adultery, divorce, oaths, retaliation, almsgiving, prayer
11Matthew’s Style cont. Teaches us to pray. (6:10)Establishes the Church and authority to Apostles(16:18, 18:18 twice)Gives Peter the Keys to the KingdomPeter 195, others 130, John 29
12Matthew’s Audience Primarily Jewish/Jewish Christians “Kingdom of Heaven” vs “Kingdom of God”32 times in 31 versesExclusive to Matthew“King of the Jews” – Magi, CrucifixionOT similarities: 40 years/40 days, Moses mount/sermon on mount, 12 tribes/12 apostles,Matthew focuses on “tradition” (not gentile trait)
13Matthew’s MessageJesus is Messiah prophesized in OT of the lineage of DavidJesus was Son of God and sinlessJesus performed miracles beyond natureCalm storm, healing, raising deadJesus gives examples of how to liveParables: faith, salvation, sacrifice, love, legal issues, forgiveness, temptation, hypocrisy, giving to others, Heaven and Hell
14JESUS THE SUFFERING SERVANT The Gospel of MarkJESUS THE SUFFERING SERVANT
15The Gospel of Mark John Mark a follower of Peter Written 50 - 60 AD Mentioned in: Acts 12/13, Col 4:10, 2 Tim 4:11 (obscure)Written ADBefore Jewish War 66-70Calls his account a “gospel”Shortest gospel with 16 chaptersLast five deal with entry into Jerusalem, passion, death, and resurrectionOmits genealogy and birth
16Mark Organization Preparation of public ministry (1-1:13)John the Baptist, Jesus’ baptism, Jesus' temptationThe Mystery and Ministry of Jesus(1:14-8:26)Calling Peter/Andrew, Beginning miracles, parablesBeginning of the Revelation(8:27-9:32)Peters confession (not the keys to kingdom), Prediction of passion, TransfigurationThe Full Revelation(9:33-16:20)Greatest in the kingdom, Marriage and divorce, Jerusalem, Last Supper, CrucifixionTwo endings (long ending, short ending)Mark Organization
17Mark’s StylePresents Jesus as a servant obedient to the Father and way of the cross“For the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve” (10:45)No information about Jesus before baptismJesus has authority“…he speaks with authority, power” (1:27)Repeated controls the forces of evil, darkness, disease, natureJesus speaks of fulfillment, nearness of kingdom, and need for repentance and faith(1:14-15)
18Mark’s style “Son of Mary” “a carpenter” (not son) No conversation w/ Satan in wilderness, very brief description“Sabbath made for man” unique (2:27)“brothers” and “sisters” named (6:3)Only Gospel that Jesus admits he doesn’t know when the end of the world will come (13:32)
19Mark’s Style cont. Messianic “secret” stronger in Mark (1:34 vs Matt 8:16, 5:43,7:36,8:23)Only direct answer to Sanhedrin :“Are you the Christ?” “I am”(14:62)“visual gospel”(6:39)Jesus’ death predicted 3 times and apostles misunderstand each time(8:31,931:10:33)
20Mark’s Audience Greek speaking residents of Rome Jewish traditions are explained(7:1-4)Aramaic words are expanded(5:41)
21Mark’s Message Jesus is Son of God (1:1, 15:39) Jesus died for many that sins might be forgiven. (10:45)Emphasis on the passion, death and resurrectionLast five chapters of 16 deal with thisEternal salvation is real and through Jesus
22JESUS THE HUMANITARIAN The Gospel of LukeJESUS THE HUMANITARIAN
23Gospel of Luke Author a doctor and companion of Paul (obscure) Also wrote Acts of ApostlesWell educatedWorks comprise 28% of NTGives complete history of Jesus from birth to resurrection.Uses names to place dates of eventCalls his gospel a “narrative”Probably written between ADAuthor ref. in Col 4:14St. Luke by El Greco
24Luke’s Organization Prologue (1:1-4) Infancy Narrative (1:5- 2:52) Genealogy goes back to GodPreparation for Ministry (3:1- 4:13)Ministry in Galilee (4:14 – 9:50)Journey to Jerusalem (9:51 – 19:27)Teaching in Jerusalem (19:28 – 21:38)The Passion Narrative (22:1 – 23:56)The Resurrection Narrative (24:1-53)
25Luke’s Style Jesus the “social worker” Very descriptive covering large time frameMuch scrutiny based on historical comparisons availableVery accurate in descriptions geographically, politically, and nautically.Paints Jesus as a teacher, ethically wise, serene, interested in teaching virtues among peopleJesus is powerful and knowledgeable (4: )Appears more socially and politically conscious
26Luke’s Style cont.Jesus more of a teacher, critical yet still concerned about society.Jesus’ death calmer w/ different words than Matt/MkPilate’s responsibility mitigatedPolitical/social considerationJewish responsibility more significantGentile perspective
27Luke’s Audience Gentiles and well educated based on his language Highlights more political and social concernsPossible concern for the way Christians will be perceived
28Luke’s MessageFor Theophilus and others to “…realize the certainty of the teachings (Christian truths)…”Jesus is the Son of Man who “…came to seek and save what was lost” (19:10)HumanityGenealogy goes back to Adam “son of God”“…all who heard were astounded…”Christ shows us our humanity with his loveChrist is God
30Gospel of John The Lord’s closest friend “the beloved” Part of the inner circle of Peter and James“Behold your Mother, behold your son”Written after 90 ADCovers last 3 years of Jesus
31John’s Organization Prologue (1:1-18) Book of Signs (1:19 – 12:50) The Incarnate Word of GodNo baptism, only John the BaptistBook of Signs (1:19 – 12:50)Wondrous deeds of JesusBook of Glory (13:1 – 20:31)Meaning of the passion, death, and resurrectionEpilogue: Resurrection Appearance in Galilee ( 21:1-25)
32John’s Style Jesus is God, John explains the “signs” Cana (2:11), Cleansing of Temple (2:18 – 22)Full explanation of the Real PresenceThe “heart” of the Eucharist (6: )The “Light of the World” (9:1 -5)The “Glory of God” (11:4)The Glory“You do not always have me” (12:8)“While you have the light, believe in the light (12:36)
33John’s Style cont.“what I am doing you do not understand but will understand later” (13:7)“Now is the Son of Man glorified”(13:3)Introduces the “Advocate” the spirit (14:16)The spirit that will teach (14:26)No “Last Supper” narrativeExtensive “discourses”Passion, crucifixion and death“his Mother” at crucifixion and given to JohnThomas doubts and is shown
34John’s Style cont. Epilogue unique Third time Jesus revealed after resurrectionNo ascension describedTwo “conclusions” (20:30) (21:24)Although possibly written after manuscript complete, epilogue is in earliest available manuscripts.
36John’s Message“…these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in His name.” (20:31)“It is this disciple who testifies to these things and has written them…There are many other thing Jesus did…I do not think … world would contain the books (21:24)
37THE FOUR FACES OF JESUS Matthew Mark Luke John The Christian Rabbi and King intent on catechesis concentrates on fulfillment of scripture.MarkFocuses on what Jesus did rather than what he said, on his suffering humanness rather than his divinity.LukeConcentrates on on Jesus’ mercy, Christian prayer and the poor .JohnPresents a majestic, divine Jesus, and a Kingdom of salvation already in force.
38THE GOSPEL MESSAGE“…Christ died for our sins in accordance with the scriptures…he was buried…he was raised on the third day in accordance with the scriptures…” 1 Cor 15:3-5)