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10-1. 10-2 REPORTING AND ANALYZING LIABILITIES Accounting, Fourth Edition 10.

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Presentation on theme: "10-1. 10-2 REPORTING AND ANALYZING LIABILITIES Accounting, Fourth Edition 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 10-1

2 10-2 REPORTING AND ANALYZING LIABILITIES Accounting, Fourth Edition 10

3 Explain a current liability and identify the major types of current liabilities Describe the accounting for notes payable Explain the accounting for other current liabilities Identify the types of bonds Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense Describe the entries when bonds are redeemed Identify the requirements for the financial statement presentation and analysis of liabilities. Study Objectives

4 10-4 Current Liabilities Bonds: Long- Term Liabilities Accounting for Bond Issues Accounting for Bond Retirements Financial Statement Presentation and Analysis Reporting and Analyzing Liabilities What is a current liability? Notes payable Sales taxes payable Unearned revenues Current maturities of long-term debt Payroll and payroll taxes payable Types of bonds Issuing procedures Determining the market value of bonds Issuing bonds at face value Discount or premium on bonds Issuing bonds at a discount Issuing bonds at a premium Redeeming bonds at maturity Redeeming bonds before maturity Balance sheet presentation Analysis Off-balance- sheet financing

5 10-5 Two key features: 1.Company expects to pay the debt from existing current assets or through the creation of other current liabilities. 2.Company will pay the debt within one year or the operating cycle, whichever is longer. Current Liabilities SO 1 Explain a current liability and identify the major types of current liabilities. Current liabilities include notes payable, accounts payable, unearned revenues, and accrued liabilities such as taxes, salaries and wages, and interest payable. What is a Current Liability?

6 10-6 To be classified as a current liability, a debt must be expected to be paid: a.out of existing current assets. b.by creating other current liabilities. c.within 2 years. d.both (a) and (b). SO 1 Explain a current liability, and identify the major types of current liabilities. Current Liabilities Question

7 10-7 SO 2 Describe the accounting for notes payable. Notes Payable  Written promissory note.  Require the borrower to pay interest.  Those due within one year of the balance sheet date are usually classified as current liabilities. Current Liabilities

8 10-8 Illustration: First National Bank agrees to lend $100,000 on September 1, 2012, if Cole Williams Co. signs a $100,000, 12%, four-month note maturing on January 1. When a company issues an interest-bearing note, the amount of assets it receives generally equals the note’s face value. Notes payable100,000 Cash100,000 SO 2 Describe the accounting for notes payable. Current Liabilities Sept. 1

9 10-9 Illustration: If Cole Williams Co. prepares financial statements annually, it makes an adjusting entry at December 31 to recognize interest. Interest payable4,000 Interest expense4,000 * SO 2 Describe the accounting for notes payable. Current Liabilities Dec. 31 * $100,000 x 12% x 4/12 = 4,000

10 10-10 Illustration: At maturity (January 1), Cole Williams Co. must pay the face value of the note plus interest. It records payment as follows. Interest payable4,000 Notes payable100,000 SO 2 Describe the accounting for notes payable. Current Liabilities Jan. 1 Cash104,000

11 10-11 SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Sales Tax Payable  Sales taxes are expressed as a stated percentage of the sales price.  Retailer collects tax from the customer.  Retailer remits the collections to the state’s department of revenue. Current Liabilities

12 10-12 Illustration: The March 25 cash register readings for Cooley Grocery show sales of $10,000 and sales taxes of $600 (sales tax rate of 6%), the journal entry is: SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Current Liabilities Mar. 25 Sales revenue10,000 Cash10,600 Sales tax payable600

13 10-13 Illustration: Cooley Grocery rings up total receipts of $10,600. Because the amount received from the sale is equal to the sales price 100% plus 6% of sales, (sales tax rate of 6%), the journal entry is: SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Current Liabilities Mar. 25 Sales revenue10,000 Cash10,600 Sales tax payable600 Sometimes companies do not ring up sales taxes separately on the cash register. * $10,600 / 1.06 = 10,000 *

14 10-14 SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Unearned Revenue Revenues that are received before the company delivers goods or provides services. Current Liabilities 1.Company debits Cash, and credits a current liability account (unearned revenue). 2.When the company earns the revenue, it debits the Unearned Revenue account, and credits a revenue account.

15 10-15 Illustration: Superior University sells 10,000 season football tickets at $50 each for its five-game home schedule. The entry for the sales of season tickets is: SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Unearned ticket revenue500,000 Cash 500,000Aug. 6 Ticket revenue100,000 Unearned ticket revenue 100,000Sept. 7 Current Liabilities As each game is completed, Superior records the earning of revenue.

16 10-16 Illustration: Wendy Construction issues a five-year, interest-bearing $25,000 note on January 1, This note specifies that each January 1, starting January 1, 2012, Wendy should pay $5,000 of the note. When the company prepares financial statements on December 31, 2011, 1.What amount should be reported as a current liability? _________ 2.What amount should be reported as a long-term liability? _______ Current Maturities of Long-Term Debt  Portion of long-term debt that comes due in the current year.  No adjusting entry required. SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Current Liabilities $5,000 $20,000

17 10-17 The term “payroll” pertains to both: Salaries - managerial, administrative, and sales personnel (monthly or yearly rate). Wages - store clerks, factory employees, and manual laborers (rate per hour). Determining the payroll involves computing three amounts: (1) gross earnings, (2) payroll deductions, and (3) net pay. SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Payroll and Payroll Taxes Payable Current Liabilities

18 10-18 Illustration: Assume Cargo Corporation records its payroll for the week of March 7 as follows: Salaries and wages expense100,000 Federal tax payable21,864 FICA tax payable7,650 State tax payable2,922 Salaries and wages payable67,564 SO 3 Cash67,564 Salaries and wages payable 67,564Mar. 7 Record the payment of this payroll on March 7. Mar. 7 Current Liabilities

19 10-19 Payroll tax expense results from three taxes that governmental agencies levy on employers. These taxes are:  FICA tax  Federal unemployment tax  State unemployment tax SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Current Liabilities

20 10-20 Illustration: Based on Cargo Corp.’s $100,000 payroll, the company would record the employer’s expense and liability for these payroll taxes as follows. Payroll tax expense13,850 State unemployment tax payable800 FICA tax payable7,650 Federal unemployment tax payable 5,400 SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Current Liabilities

21 10-21 Employer payroll taxes do not include: a.Federal unemployment taxes. b.State unemployment taxes. c.Federal income taxes. d.FICA taxes. Question SO 3 Explain the accounting for other current liabilities. Current Liabilities

22 10-22

23 10-23 Bonds are a form of interest-bearing notes payable issued by corporations, universities, and governmental agencies. Sold in small denominations (usually $1,000 or multiples of $1,000). SO 4 Identify the types of bonds. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities

24 10-24 Types of Bonds  Secured  Unsecured  Convertible  Callable SO 4 Identify the types of bonds. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities

25 10-25

26 10-26  Bond certificate  Issued to the investor.  Provides name of the company issuing bonds, face value, maturity date, and contractual (stated) interest rate.  Face value - principal due at the maturity.  Maturity date - date final payment is due.  Contractual interest rate – rate to determine cash interest paid, generally semiannually. SO 4 Identify the types of bonds. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities Issuing Procedures

27 10-27 Bond: Long-Term Liabilities SO 4 Illustration 10-3

28 10-28 Determining the Market Value of Bonds The process of finding the present value is referred to as discounting the future amounts. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities SO 4 Identify the types of bonds. Market value is a function of the three factors that determine present value: 1.the dollar amounts to be received, 2.the length of time until the amounts are received, and 3.the market rate of interest.

29 10-29 Illustration: Assume that Acropolis Company on January 1, 2012, issues $100,000 of 9% bonds, due in five years, with interest payable annually at year-end. Bond: Long-Term Liabilities Illustration 10-5 Computing the market price of bonds Illustration 10-4 Time diagram depicting cash flows SO 4 Identify the types of bonds.

30 10-30 A corporation records bond transactions when it  issues or retires (buys back) bonds and  when bondholders convert bonds into common stock. Accounting for Bond Issues Bonds may be issued at  face value,  below face value (discount), or  above face value (premium). Bond prices are quoted as a percentage of face value. SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense.

31 10-31 The rate of interest investors demand for loaning funds to a corporation is the: a.contractual interest rate. b.face value rate. c.market interest rate. d.stated interest rate. Question SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Accounting for Bond Issues

32 10-32 Illustration: Devor Corporation issues 100, five-year, 10%, $1,000 bonds dated January 1, 2012, at 100 (100% of face value). The entry to record the sale is: Jan. 1Cash 100,000 SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Issuing Bonds at Face Value Bonds payable100,000 Prepare the entry Devor would make to accrue interest on December 31. Dec. 31Interest expense 10,000 Interest payable10,000

33 10-33 Prepare the entry Devor would make to pay the interest on Jan. 1, Jan. 1Interest payable 10,000 Cash10,000 SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Issuing Bonds at Face Value

34 % 10% 12% Premium Face Value Discount Assume Contractual Rate of 10% SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Bonds Sold AtMarket Interest Accounting for Bond Issues

35 10-35 Karson Inc. issues 10-year bonds with a maturity value of $200,000. If the bonds are issued at a premium, this indicates that: a.the contractual interest rate exceeds the market interest rate. b.the market interest rate exceeds the contractual interest rate. c.the contractual interest rate and the market interest rate are the same. d.no relationship exists between the two rates. Question SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Accounting for Bond Issues

36 10-36 Illustration: Assume that on January 1, 2012, Candlestick Inc. sells $100,000, five-year, 10% bonds at 98 (98% of face value) with interest payable on January 1. The entry to record the issuance is: SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Issuing Bonds at a Discount Jan. 1Cash 98,000 Discount on bonds payable2,000 Bonds payable100,000 Illustration 10-8 Computation of total cost of borrowing—bonds issued at discount

37 10-37 Statement Presentation SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Issuing Bonds at a Discount Illustration 10-7 Statement presentation of discount on bonds payable

38 10-38 Discount on Bonds Payable: a.has a credit balance. b.is a contra account. c.is added to bonds payable on the balance sheet. d.increases over the term of the bonds. Question SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Issuing Bonds at a Discount

39 10-39 Illustration: Assume that the Candlestick Inc. bonds previously described sell at 102 rather than at 98. The entry to record the sale is: SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Jan. 1Cash 102,000 Bonds payable100,000 Premium on bonds payable2,000 Illustration Computation of total cost of borrowing—bonds issued at premium Issuing Bonds at a Premium

40 10-40 Statement Presentation SO 5 Prepare the entries for the issuance of bonds and interest expense. Illustration Statement presentation of premium on bonds payable Issuing Bonds at a Premium

41 10-41 Redeeming Bonds at Maturity SO 6 Describe the entries when bonds are redeemed. Candlestick records the redemption of its bonds at maturity as follows: Accounting for Bond Retirements Bonds payable 100,000 Cash100,000

42 10-42 When a company retires bonds before maturity, it is necessary to: 1.eliminate the carrying value of the bonds at the redemption date; 2.record the cash paid; and 3.recognize the gain or loss on redemption. The carrying value of the bonds is the face value of the bonds less unamortized bond discount or plus unamortized bond premium at the redemption date. Accounting for Bond Retirements SO 6 Describe the entries when bonds are redeemed. Redeeming Bonds at Maturity

43 10-43 When bonds are redeemed before maturity, the gain or loss on redemption is the difference between the cash paid and the: a.carrying value of the bonds. b.face value of the bonds. c.original selling price of the bonds. d.maturity value of the bonds. Question Accounting for Bond Retirements SO 6 Describe the entries when bonds are redeemed.

44 10-44 Cash103,000 Loss on bond redemption 2,600 Illustration: Assume at the end of the fourth period, Candlestick Inc., having sold its bonds at a premium, retires the bonds at 103 after paying the annual interest. Assume that the carrying value of the bonds at the redemption date is $100,400 (principal $100,000 and premium $400). Candlestick records the redemption at the end of the fourth interest period (January 1, 2016) as: Accounting for Bond Retirements Bonds payable 100,000 Premium on bonds payable400 SO 6 Describe the entries when bonds are redeemed.

45 10-45 When bonds are converted into common stock: a.a gain or loss is recognized. b.the carrying value of the bonds is transferred to paid- in capital accounts. c.the market price of the stock is considered in the entry. d.the market price of the bonds is transferred to paid-in capital. Question Accounting for Bond Retirements SO 6 Describe the entries when bonds are redeemed.

46 10-46 Balance Sheet Presentation SO 7 Financial Statement Analysis and Presentation Illustration 10-15

47 10-47 Analysis Financial Statement Analysis and Presentation Illustration SO 7

48 10-48 Liquidity Financial Statement Analysis and Presentation Liquidity ratios measure the short-term ability of a company to pay its maturing obligations and to meet unexpected needs for cash. SO 7 Identify the requirements for the financial statement presentation and analysis of liabilities. Illustration 10-17

49 10-49 Solvency Financial Statement Analysis and Presentation Solvency ratios measure the ability of a company to survive over a long period of time. SO 7

50 10-50

51 10-51 Off-Balance-Sheet Financing  Contingencies  Leasing ► Operating lease ► Capital lease Financial Statement Analysis and Presentation SO 7 Identify the requirements for the financial statement presentation and analysis of liabilities.

52 10-52

53 10-53 To follow the matching principle, companies allocate bond discount to expense in each period in which the bonds are outstanding. Illustration 10A-1 Amortizing Bond Discount SO 8 Apply the straight-line method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium. appendix 10A Straight-Line Amortization

54 10-54 Illustration: Candlestick, Inc., sold $100,000, five-year, 10% bonds on January 1, 2012, for $98,000 (discount of $2,000). Interest is payable on January 1 of each year. Prepare the entry to accrue interest at Dec. 31, Discount on bonds payable400 Interest expense 10,400Dec. 31 Interest payable10,000 SO 8 Apply the straight-line method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium. Amortizing Bond Discount appendix 10A Straight-Line Amortization

55 10-55 Illustration 10A-2 SO 8 Apply the straight-line method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium. Amortizing Bond Discount appendix 10A Straight-Line Amortization

56 10-56 Amortizing Bond Premium Illustration: Candlestick, Inc., sold $100,000, five-year, 10% bonds on January 1, 2012, for $102,000 (premium of $2,000). Interest is payable on January 1 of each year. Prepare the entry to accrue interest at Dec. 31, Premium on bonds payable400 Interest expense 9,600Dec. 31 Interest payable10,000 SO 8 Apply the straight-line method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium. appendix 10A Straight-Line Amortization

57 10-57 Illustration 10A-4 SO 8 Apply the straight-line method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium. Amortizing Bond Premium appendix 10A Straight-Line Amortization

58 10-58 Illustration 10B-1 Under the effective-interest method, the amortization of the discount or premium results in interest expense equal to a constant percentage of the carrying value. Required steps: 1.Compute the bond interest expense. 2.Compute the bond interest paid or accrued. 3.Compute the amortization amount. appendix 10B Effective Interest Amortization

59 10-59 SO 9 Apply the effective-interest method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium. Illustration: Candlestick, Inc., sold $100,000, five-year, 10% bonds on January 1, 2012, for $98,000. The effective-interest rate is 10.53% and interest is payable on Jan. 1 of each year. Prepare the bond discount amortization schedule. appendix 10B Effective Interest Amortization Amortizing Bond Discount

60 10-60 Illustration 10B-2 SO 9 Apply the effective-interest method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium. appendix 10B Effective Interest Amortization Amortizing Bond Discount

61 10-61 Illustration: Candlestick, Inc. records the accrual of interest and amortization of bond discount on Dec. 31, as follows: SO 9 Apply the effective-interest method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium. Discount on bonds payable319 Interest expense 10,319Dec. 31 Interest payable10,000 appendix 10B Effective Interest Amortization Amortizing Bond Discount

62 10-62 Illustration: Candlestick, Inc., sold $100,000, five-year, 10% bonds on January 1, 2012, for $102,000. The effective-interest rate is 9.48% and interest is payable on Jan. 1 of each year. Prepare the bond premium amortization schedule. appendix 10B Effective Interest Amortization Amortizing Bond Premium SO 9 Apply the effective-interest method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium.

63 10-63 Illustration 10B-4 appendix 10B Effective Interest Amortization Amortizing Bond Premium SO 9 Apply the effective-interest method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium.

64 10-64 Illustration: Candlestick, Inc. records the accrual of interest and amortization of premium discount on Dec. 31, as follows: Premium on bonds payable330 Interest expense 9,670Dec. 31 Interest payable10,000 appendix 10B Effective Interest Amortization Amortizing Bond Premium SO 9 Apply the effective-interest method of amortizing bond discount and bond premium.

65 10-65  May be secured by a mortgage that pledges title to specific assets as security for a loan.  Typically, the terms require the borrower to make installment payments over the term of the loan. Each payment consists of 1.interest on the unpaid balance of the loan and 2.a reduction of loan principal.  Companies initially record mortgage notes payable at face value. SO 10 Describe the accounting for long-term notes payable. appendix 10C Long-Term Notes Payable

66 10-66 Illustration 10C-1 Illustration: Porter Technology Inc. issues a $500,000, 12%, 20-year mortgage note on December 31, The terms provide for semiannual installment payments of $33,231. SO 10 Describe the accounting for long-term notes payable. appendix 10C Long-Term Notes Payable

67 10-67 Illustration: Porter Technology records the mortgage loan and first installment payment as follows: SO 10 Describe the accounting for long-term notes payable. Mortgage payable500,000 Cash 500,000Dec. 31 Mortgage payable3,231 Interest expense 30,000Jun. 30 Cash33,231 appendix 10C Long-Term Notes Payable

68 10-68 Each payment on a mortgage note payable consists of: a.interest on the original balance of the loan. b.reduction of loan principal only. c.interest on the original balance of the loan and reduction of loan principal. d.interest on the unpaid balance of the loan and reduction of loan principal. Question SO 10 Describe the accounting for long-term notes payable. appendix 10C Long-Term Notes Payable

69 10-69 Key Points  The basic definition of a liability under GAAP and IFRS is very similar. In a more technical way, liabilities are defined by the IASB as a present obligation of the entity arising from past events, the settlement of which is expected to result in an outflow from the entity of resources embodying economic benefits.  IFRS requires that companies classify liabilities as current or non-current on the face of the statement of financial position (balance sheet), except in industries where a presentation based on liquidity would be considered to provide more useful information (such as financial institutions).

70 10-70 Key Points  Under IFRS, liabilities are classified as current if they are expected to be paid within 12 months.  Similar to GAAP, items are normally reported in order of liquidity. Companies sometimes show liabilities before assets. Also, they will sometimes show non-current (long-term) liabilities before current liabilities.  Under both GAAP and IFRS, preferred stock that is required to be redeemed at a specific point in time in the future must be reported as debt, rather than being presented as either equity or in a “ mezzanine ” area between debt and equity.

71 10-71 Key Points  Under IFRS, companies sometimes will net current liabilities against current assets to show working capital on the face of the statement of financial position.  IFRS requires use of the effective-interest method for amortization of bond discounts and premiums. GAAP allows use of the straight-line method where the difference is not material. Under IFRS, companies do not use a premium or discount account but instead show the bond at its net amount.  Unlike GAAP, IFRS splits the proceeds from the convertible bond between an equity component and a debt component. The equity conversion rights are reported in equity.

72 10-72 Key Points  The IFRS leasing standard is IAS 17. Both Boards share the same objective of recording leases by lessees and lessors according to their economic substance — that is, according to the definitions of assets and liabilities. However, GAAP for leases is much more “ rules-based, ” with specific bright-line criteria (such as the “ 90% of fair value ” test) to determine if a lease arrangement transfers the risks and rewards of ownership; IFRS is more conceptual in its provisions. Rather than a 90% cut-off, it asks whether the agreement transfers substantially all of the risks and rewards associated with ownership.

73 10-73 Key Points  Under GAAP, some contingent liabilities are recorded in the financial statements, others are disclosed, and in some cases no disclosure is required. Unlike GAAP, IFRS reserves the use of the term contingent liability to refer only to possible obligations that are not recognized in the financial statements but may be disclosed if certain criteria are met.  For those items that GAAP would treat as recordable contingent liabilities, IFRS instead uses the term provisions. Provisions are defined as liabilities of uncertain timing or amount. Examples of provisions would be provisions for warranties, employee vacation pay, or anticipated losses.

74 10-74 Looking into the Future The FASB and IASB are currently involved in two projects. One project is investigating approaches to differentiate between debt and equity instruments. The other project, the elements phase of the conceptual framework project, will evaluate the definitions of the fundamental building blocks of accounting. The results of these projects could change the classification of many debt and equity securities. In addition to these projects, the FASB and IASB have also identified leasing as one of the most problematic areas of accounting. A joint project will initially focus primarily on lessee accounting.

75 10-75 Which of the following is false? a)Under IFRS, current liabilities must always be presented before non-current liabilities. b)Under IFRS, an item is a current liability if it will be paid within the next 12 months. c)Under IFRS, current liabilities are shown in order of liquidity. d)Under IFRS, a liability is only recognized if it is a present obligation.

76 10-76 Under IFRS, a contingent liability is: a)disclosed in the notes if certain criteria are met. b)reported on the face of the financial statements if certain criteria are met. c)the same as a provision. d)not covered by IFRS.

77 10-77 The joint projects of the FASB and IASB could potentially: a)change the definition of liabilities. b)change the definition of equity. c)change the definition of assets. d)All of the above.

78 10-78 “Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.” CopyrightCopyright


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