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Examining linkages between Women, Land Governance and Corruption Mary –Jane Ncube, Farai Mutondoro, Padde Auk, Annette Jainter, Rachel Wyant, Sadie – Evelyn.

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Presentation on theme: "Examining linkages between Women, Land Governance and Corruption Mary –Jane Ncube, Farai Mutondoro, Padde Auk, Annette Jainter, Rachel Wyant, Sadie – Evelyn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Examining linkages between Women, Land Governance and Corruption Mary –Jane Ncube, Farai Mutondoro, Padde Auk, Annette Jainter, Rachel Wyant, Sadie – Evelyn Gillis

2 Introduction Women in Africa suffer from corruption that exists in land administration and governance in specific gendered ways as a consequence of pre-existing gender inequalities that limit women’s ownership, use, access and control of land. In rural land 70 – 80 % of women in Africa depend on the land, making up 5% of agricultural landholders in North Africa and 15% in Sub- Sahara Africa. In urban land it is estimated that women in the developing world own between 1% and 2% of titled land, whether commercial or residential. Women in Africa suffer from corruption that exists in land administration and governance in specific gendered ways as a consequence of pre-existing gender inequalities that limit women’s ownership, use, access and control of land. In rural land 70 – 80 % of women in Africa depend on the land, making up 5% of agricultural landholders in North Africa and 15% in Sub- Sahara Africa. In urban land it is estimated that women in the developing world own between 1% and 2% of titled land, whether commercial or residential. 2 linking Land Tenure and Use for Shared Prosperity – Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, March

3 Context setting Transparency International holds that corruption worsens the disempowerment of women because it deepens poverty by driving skewed growth patterns that in turn increase inequalities between men and women. More so when legal systems, customary practices and policy frameworks seem to conspire to deepen the feminization of poverty for women dependent on rural or urban land for survival and security. Transparency International holds that corruption worsens the disempowerment of women because it deepens poverty by driving skewed growth patterns that in turn increase inequalities between men and women. More so when legal systems, customary practices and policy frameworks seem to conspire to deepen the feminization of poverty for women dependent on rural or urban land for survival and security. 3 linking Land Tenure and Use for Shared Prosperity – Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, March

4 Land Governance Corruption and its direct link to women’s disempowerment Gendered corruption occurs because of gaps between law and practice in land governance in the public and private sectors. Gendered corruption often takes advantage of weak accountability and transparency in land governance. Conflicts between women’s rights contained in customary law and traditions and statutory law are often manipulated by corrupt administrators and traditional leaders to suit their own ends in either urban or rural land use, access and ownership. Gendered corruption occurs because of gaps between law and practice in land governance in the public and private sectors. Gendered corruption often takes advantage of weak accountability and transparency in land governance. Conflicts between women’s rights contained in customary law and traditions and statutory law are often manipulated by corrupt administrators and traditional leaders to suit their own ends in either urban or rural land use, access and ownership. 4 linking Land Tenure and Use for Shared Prosperity – Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, March

5 Examples of Corruption women face in land governance: Zimbabwe Case 1 Widowed women lost their land as result of abuse of office and function of city council officials. This group of women lost up to US$ 4,000 each after being fraudulently sold stands that had already been sold to two or three other people. Perpetrators were male, and were not held accountable. Case 1 Widowed women lost their land as result of abuse of office and function of city council officials. This group of women lost up to US$ 4,000 each after being fraudulently sold stands that had already been sold to two or three other people. Perpetrators were male, and were not held accountable. 5 linking Land Tenure and Use for Shared Prosperity – Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, March

6 Examples of Corruption women face in land governance: Zimbabwe Case 2 In a densely populated suburb of Harare (poor to low income) council housing being transferred for for individual ownership. Council housing director of the area extorting women by demanding sexual favors in lieu of US$700 payment Council resolved the issue by transferring offending director and others directly involved. Case 2 In a densely populated suburb of Harare (poor to low income) council housing being transferred for for individual ownership. Council housing director of the area extorting women by demanding sexual favors in lieu of US$700 payment Council resolved the issue by transferring offending director and others directly involved. 6 linking Land Tenure and Use for Shared Prosperity – Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, March

7 Examples of How women have responded to land governance corruption: Uganda Case 1 SWID used campaign for land titling to increase demand for accountability and transparency by demanding dialogue between government and women in communities with SWID acting as the channel of information. Improving on accountability and transparency also required creating partnerships and synergies between grassroots women and government officials Case 1 SWID used campaign for land titling to increase demand for accountability and transparency by demanding dialogue between government and women in communities with SWID acting as the channel of information. Improving on accountability and transparency also required creating partnerships and synergies between grassroots women and government officials 7 linking Land Tenure and Use for Shared Prosperity – Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, March

8 Lessons learnt and Best Uganda Case 1 Sensitized the community on the need for transparency and accountability mechanisms in processes for securing land tenure. Improved access to information in order to equip women to push back corruption despite high levels of illiteracy and other impediments. Case 1 Sensitized the community on the need for transparency and accountability mechanisms in processes for securing land tenure. Improved access to information in order to equip women to push back corruption despite high levels of illiteracy and other impediments. 8 linking Land Tenure and Use for Shared Prosperity – Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, March

9 Recommendations Improve harmonization of statutory law with traditional or customary law and land policies so that no gaps exist for corrupt individuals, institutions or practices that persist in undermining women’s rights to land use, access, control and ownership. Promote social inclusion of the marginalised in decision making processes especially women to avoid corruption perpetrated through trading of influence, abuse of office that further discriminates against women hence perpetuating women’s poverty. Improve harmonization of statutory law with traditional or customary law and land policies so that no gaps exist for corrupt individuals, institutions or practices that persist in undermining women’s rights to land use, access, control and ownership. Promote social inclusion of the marginalised in decision making processes especially women to avoid corruption perpetrated through trading of influence, abuse of office that further discriminates against women hence perpetuating women’s poverty. 9 linking Land Tenure and Use for Shared Prosperity – Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, March

10 Recommendations conduct research on the connection of corruption and land governance to women’s inequality and disempowerment. Ensure women’s access to justice by addressing corruption in the justice system. Guarantee women’s participation in land administration, management and governance to improve on accountability and transparency conduct research on the connection of corruption and land governance to women’s inequality and disempowerment. Ensure women’s access to justice by addressing corruption in the justice system. Guarantee women’s participation in land administration, management and governance to improve on accountability and transparency 10 linking Land Tenure and Use for Shared Prosperity – Annual World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty, Washington DC, March


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