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Social Context of Computing Chapter 7. Digital Divide  Technological inequalities  Impact of communication technologies  Radio  Television  Press.

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Presentation on theme: "Social Context of Computing Chapter 7. Digital Divide  Technological inequalities  Impact of communication technologies  Radio  Television  Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 Social Context of Computing Chapter 7

2 Digital Divide  Technological inequalities  Impact of communication technologies  Radio  Television  Press  Post offices  Cell phones  Computers  Connectivity to internet  Society’s social, economical, political and cultural institutions

3 Digital Divide  Debatable Issues  Is there such a thing as a digital divide  What indicators measure it  How to close the divide  Five indicators of the digital divide.

4 Indicators of Digital Divide  Access  Technology  HumanWare  Infrastructure  Enabling Environment

5 Access  Geography – statistics tell the story  88% Internet users in 1-2 dozen wealthy countries  4% in developing world  40% of developed world  90% of worlds population in undeveloped countries  Within US  Urban vs suburb  Income  People with income > 75K  4 times more likely to have online and computer access  People earning < 15K  19% have computer access and 12.7% have online access  People earning < 25K  32% of population of US  9.7% online

6 Access  Ethnicity  In U.S. African Americans and Hispanics are ½ as likely to have Internet access  Age  Highest use year olds  Lowest use for those 50  Direct relationship between higher education and Internet usage

7 Technology  Hardware  Quantity, quality, maintenance big challenges  Unreliable power supplies  Most hardware for underdevelopment countries comes from donations  Replacement parts hampered by cost  Software  Humanware limited for local development  Outsourcing very costly  Software generally donated and doesn’t meet needs

8 Humanware  Humanware (Human Capacity)  Providing equipment not always the answer  Need technical knowledge  Lack for trained workers for maintenance  Lack of teachers and institutions to train  Technology needs to meet and serve the local need  Issues  Creating awareness of potential of IT to meet needs  Creating, developing and strengthening capacity to use local inputs  Creating, developing and strengthening capacity to add local value  Provide knowledge and information sharing  Prevent local capacity from being drained

9 Infrastructures  Infrastructure related to access  Infrastructure not directly related  Electricity  Telephones  Good roads  Airports  Basic communication infrastructures

10 Enabling Environments  Politics  Good political environment ensures  A climate of democratic rights and civil liberties  Respect for the rule of law and security of property rights  Investment in human capacity  Low levels of government distortions  Public policy and management styles  Streamlined regulatory policies  Uniform enforcement of laws  Competitive policies for telecommunication and energy  Regulatory policies efficient, predictable and easily understood  Licensing bodies need to be efficient and staffed with professionals

11 ICT in the Workplace  Electronic Office  Mobility of the Modern Office  Virtual Office  Home Worker

12 Management Styles  Theory X  Autocratic  Control from top  Theory Y  More fait and empowerment in the hands of employees  Fear Management

13 Workplace Privacy and Surveillance  Those who see monitoring as good  Increase productivity  More accurate assessment of employee performance  Greater organizational control over employees  Immediate feedback on individual employee  More flexibility in work location  Those opposed  Invasion of employee privacy  No national right to privacy

14 Is Electronic Monitoring in Workplace OK?

15 Electronic Monitoring  Measure quality and usually the quality of work  Measures effectiveness of worker  Measures workers’ habits on and off the work premises

16 Effects of Electronic Monitoring  Effect measure of performance  Amount of useful feedback  Relationship between employees  Relationship between employees and managment

17 Consequences of Electronic Monitoring  Reduced task variety  Lack of individual initiatives  Reduced or no peer social support  Lack of self-esteem  Lack of interest in the job  Lack of trust  Alienation


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