Presentation on theme: "Everything you need to know to excel on the EOCT"— Presentation transcript:
1Everything you need to know to excel on the EOCT EOCT Review U.S. HistoryEverything you need to know to excel on the EOCT
2Colonial AmericaTwo major reasons for British settlement of North America.1. Economic Opportunities2. Religious Freedom
3Virginia Jamestown founded by the Virginia Company Wanted to make $$$$ Led by Captain John SmithTenuous relationship with Chief Powhatan of the Algonquian IndiansCreated the House of Burgesses– 1st representative bodyNathaniel Bacon revolts because of the “Indian Problem” (Bacon’s Rebellion)The colony was saved by TOBACCO!!!This led to the development of slavery
4New England Colonies Massachusetts , Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island Created for religious freedom. (The Puritans)Settlements destroyed by Indians – led to King Phillips War (Chief Metacom)Mayflower Compact = 1st form of self government.Roger Williams founded Rhode Island on the principle of “separation of church and state”The Half-Way Covenant provided partial church membership. (Needed more followers)Twenty people hung during Salem Witch Trials
5Middle Colonies – New York, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey Centered around tradeDutch named New AmsterdamRenamed New York after English takeoverWilliam Penn founded Pennsylvania as home for the Quakers
6French SettlementWanted to find a Northwest Passage = water route to Asia.Settled mostly in CanadaBased on FUR tradeQuebec founded by Samuel de Champlain.
7Mercantilism Gold and Silver = wealth Establish colonies for resources Resources brought back to EnglandResources sold for gold and silver.**** shifted the BALANCE of TRADE in England’s favor
8Trans-Atlantic Trade (Tri-angular Trade) Trade route established between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.Africa to the Americas: slavesThe Americas to Europe: raw materialsEurope to Africa: manufactured goods
9African-Americans Brought by way of the Middle Passage More colonist = more slavesNew culture: language, singing, gospel, oral history, basket weaving
10Benjamin Franklin Renaissance Man (inspired by Enlightenment ideas) Author, scientist, inventor, and statesmen. (lightening rod and bifocal eyeglasses)One of our founding fathers.
11The Great Awakening (1720’s-1760’s) spiritual movement led by George WhitfieldRejected ideas of the EnlightenmentImportant because1. Led to the formation of many new churches2. People became more tolerant of one anotherThe Great Awakening
12The French/Indian War (the 7 years War) French fight British for control of the America’sIndians fight on French sideStarts when George Washington attacks a French fortEnds with 1763 Treaty of ParisImportanceBritish in control of AmericasColonist will be taxed to pay for the warNative Americans weakened
13The American Revolution CausesProclamation of 1763 – colonists can’t move west of Appalachians – (no more conflict w/Indians)Taxes – Stamp Act, Quartering Act, Sugar Act, Intolerable Acts (colonies could no longer self-govern)Colonial ResponseIgnore Proclamation of 1763Boycott, Protests, Riots in response to taxesSons and Daughters of Liberty formedThomas Paine writes Common Sense – calls for independence from Britain.
14Declaration of Independence Written on July 4, 1776 by Thomas JeffersonInspired by Baron de Montesquieu of France and John Locke of EnglandBasic principles = natural rights to life, liberty, and property.Good governments protect these rights.Could overthrow government if it violated these rights.
15French Alliance – join after Battle of Saratoga French Alliance – join after Battle of Saratoga. Supported the “American Cause” and wanted to weaken BritainBen FranklinLeading American negotiator in ParisConvinced France to join the Americans.Marquis de LafayetteFrench general who provided military expertise to the Americans.Key strategist in Battle of Yorktown
16George Washington – as a military leader General of the Continental ArmyCrossing the Delaware – Defeats the Hessians in the Battle of TrentonValley Forge – Soldiers have little food or supplies during winter of Washington keeps them together and soldiers become more disciplined.Led by example and inspiration
17End of the WarBattle of Yorktown – British surrender after being surrounded (U.S. forces by land, French by sea).Treaty of Paris – (Ben Franklin negotiates)America recognized as an independent nation.Gain more landFrench left outLord CornwallisGeneral of the British Army – (Red Coats)Forced to surrender at Yorktown
18Articles of Confederation – 1st constitution of U.S. To WEAK because it created a government that had NO power to tax, regulate commerce, or establish a national currency.States had MORE power than the federal government.
19Daniel Shays Rebellion Farmers in debt tried to secure weapons from a Federal Armory.States wanted federal help to put down the rebellion, but government did not have the $$$ to raise an army.****Rebellion illustrated the NEED for a STRONGER federal government.
20Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist Strong central governmentFavored the constitutionIncluded George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and James MadisonWanted a Bill of RightsConstitution would give the government too much power.Included Samuel Adams and John Hancock
21The Federalist Papers Written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison Argued FOR the ratification of the ConstitutionNeed for a strong central governmentBenefits of a union between the statesProblems with the Confederation as it stood
22George Washington – the President 1st president of the U.S.Non-Intervention in EuropeDON’T make alliances, they lead to warDid NOT want to side with France against Great BritainEngland forgives pre-revolutionary debts and drops trade restrictionsImposed the Whiskey Tax to help pay for the Revolutionary WarWarned of the dangers of political partiesWould divide the nation
23The Whiskey Rebellion Opposed Washington’s whiskey tax Farmers frightened and attacked tax collectorsWashington sends a large militia to put down the rebellionImportant because it illustrates the power of the federal government under the new constitution.
24Formation of Political Parties FederalistDemocratic RepublicansLed by Alexander Hamilton and John AdamsFavored by northernersSupported use of force to end whisky rebellionInstrumental is ratifying the constitution1st two presidents (Washington and Adams) were federalistLed by Thomas Jefferson and James MadisonFavored by southerners, especially farmersOpposed the overuse of force to end whisky rebellionOpposed the constitution and big government
25John Adam’s Presidency Marked by controversyXYZ Affair – French were seizing American ships. Sends diplomats to negotiate peace. Met by three men code named X,Y, and Z who demanded $250,000 in bribes. Angers AmericansImposes unpopular taxes to expand the militaryAlien Act – could arrest and deport immigrants who criticized the federal governmentSedition Act – Made it a crime for citizens to discredit the governmentBoth acts violated the constitution (freedom of speech and right to due process).
26The Louisiana Purchase Thomas Jefferson buys New Orleans and the Louisiana territory from France for $15 million.James Monroe negotiates the purchaseFrance needs $$$ for war (Napoleon)Doubles the size of the U.S.This Leads to the Louis and Clark expeditionChart trails, map rivers, document new plants and animals, studied Native Americans
27War of 1812CausesResultsBritish forces capturing American sailors and forcing them to serve in British navy (Impressments)British trying to prevent U.S. from trading with FranceAmericans want British out of North AmericaAmericans become more nationalistic (patriotism)End of American/British hostilitiesAmerica viewed as a military forceAndrew Jackson becomes a war hero after Battle of New Orleans
28Industrialization Eli Whitey introduces the cotton gin Reduces the cost of processing cottonNeed for more slavesNew technologies speed up productionAssembly LineInterchangeable Parts = could be replaced without disposing of the entire machine
29Westward Growth 3 Major Reasons for moving west 1. The desire to own land2. Discovery of gold and other resources3. Manifest Destiny – Belief that it was America’s destiny to occupy the land from the Atlantic to the Pacific (“sea to shining sea”)
30The Abolitionist Movement William Lloyd Garrison – published the “Liberator” an anti-slavery newspaperFrederick Douglass – escaped slave who wrote and gave speeches on behalf of equality for African-Americans, women, Native Americans, and immigrants. (“Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass”)The Grimke Sisters – Sarah and Angelina Grimke worked to arouse moral outrage against slaveryNat Turner’s Rebellion – leads a slave revolt in which nearly 60 people are killed. South enforces stricter rules on slaves
31The Mexican-American War U.S. decides to annex TexasU.S. wins the war and is given Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for leaving Mexico (Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo)The Wilmot ProvisoProposed that New Mexico and California would enter as free statesNever passed in the SenateIncreased tensions between North and South
32Events leading up to the Civil War Kansas-Nebraska ActRepealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820– states above 36⁰30’ N would be free, below would be slavePeople would decide if they would be a free or slave state (popular sovereignty)Dred Scott DecisionSued for his freedom and lost. Supreme Court ruled no African-American could ever be a citizenJohn BrownFought slavery with violence. Led a raid on pro-slavery settlers in Kansas, killing five menLed the Harpers Ferry Raid – seized ammunitions and planned to deliver them to slaves. Eventually hung
33Major Battles of the Civil War Antietam (Maryland)– Robert E. Lee goes on the attack. Deadliest one-day battle in the war (26,000 casualties). Afterwards, Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation freeing the slavesGettysburg (Pennsylvania) – Deadliest battle of the war (51,000 dead). Union could have ended the war but chose not to pursue. Four months later Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg AddressVicksburg (Mississippi) – Ulysses S. Grant gains control of the Mississippi River. It is a 7 week siege that becomes the turning point of the war.Atlanta – William T Sherman burns Atlanta to the ground then continues to Savannah on his March to the SeaAppomattox – Lee surrenders his army to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.
34Reconstruction – the rebuilding of America after the war Black Codes – laws written to control the lives of freed slaves and make them feel inferior to whitesDeprived voting rightsLegal discriminationKKKFight against reconstructionUsed violence, lynching's, and angry protests
35Railroads and Westward Expansion Needed to connect the east and west (transcontinental railroad)Used Chinese laborersAccepted lower payMany died due to explosive blast or rock slidesHomestead Act – gave up to 160 acres of free land to help develop the westMoved in wagon trains
36Impact on Native Americans Often forced from homesTrail of Tears – Many died on journey to Oklahoma due to starvation, disease, and exposureThe SiouxGold discovered in the DakotasHad singed a treaty that no white persons would settle thereSitting Bull takes on the U.S. army, eventually flees to Canada then surrendersWounded Knee – Many Native Americans slaughtered while trying to surrender
37U.S. in Latin AmericaRoosevelt Corollary – President “Teddy” Roosevelt announces that only the U.S. has the right to intervene in Latin America (extension of the Monroe Doctrine)Panama CanalFaster sea route from Atlanta to PacificaBiggest engineering project of its time
38Important Supreme Court Cases Marbury v. Madison – establishment of judical reviewPlessy v. Ferguson – “Separate but Equal” legalBrown v. Board of Education – Overturns separate but equalRoe v. Wade – Makes abortion legalMiranda v. Arizona – Self-incrimination/due process. (Miranda rights)Bush v. Gore – resolves 2000 election
39The Great Depression Causes Results Reduced regulation of corporations Buying on Margin (credit)Stock Market CrashBanks go bankruptResults25% unemployment rateHoovervilles - shanty towns built by homeless people during the Great Depression. Named after Herbert Hoover, the President of the UnitedFDR and the New Deal
40The New DealTennessee Valley Authority (T.V.A.) – new deal program intended to create jobs and provide electricity, dams, and flood control to rural southern regions.The Wagner Act – protected workers rights such as collective bargaining rights, the right to strike, and the right to join a union.Social Security Act- purpose to create a retirement program for elderly, offer disability insurance, and health insurance to needy and elderly (Medicare/Medicade) (part of 2nd New Deal)
41Opposition to the New Deal Court Packing BillWhat was it? An attempt by FDR to add more justices to the supreme courtPurpose: to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that had been previously ruled unconstitutional.Outcome: Failed, people thought it gave the President too much power.Huey Long – Louisiana senator who strongly opposed many New Deal programs and the court packing bill – Believed they were unconstitutional
42The Dust Bowl ( )Severe dust storms caused by drought and poor farming practices.Devastated southern farmersMany families known as “Okies” were forced to migrate to California and other states.Added to an already terrible economic climate during the Great Depression.
43Eleanor Roosevelt 1st lady to Franklin Roosevelt Played a critical role in the women’s movementEncouraged women to play an active role in politicsWas instrumental in shaping the White House’s domestic policy during FDR’s tenure.
44Phillip Randolph's Almost March on Washington Randolph organizes an African-American march on Washington to protest discrimination in defense industries.FDR issues Executive Order 8802, barring discrimination in defense industries. (March is cancelled)Later urges Harry Truman to issue Executive Order 9981, ending segregation in the armed forces.
45Pearl HarborDecember 7, 1941Japanese surprise attacks U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, HawaiiAmerica is drawn into WWIIJapanese Americans on the west coast are placed in internment camps
46Major Events of WWII (1939-1945) Lend-Lease Act – Supplied allies (British and French) with military supplies and aid.Battle of Midway – Turning point of war in the Pacific. Stop Japanese advance.D-Day- Massive allied invasion headed by Dwight Eisenhower. Storm the beaches of Normandy.Battle of the Bulge – Last gasp by Hitler, cripples German army.Battle of Berlin – Last major battle in Europe, leads to V.E. Day (Victory in Europe)
47The War at Home War BONDS were sold to raise $$$ for the war Women and minorities worked in the factories to produce war goods.The public was asked to conserve or RATION food and resources.The war effort encompassed every aspect of American societyWorkHomeConversationsSports – (many players were drafted or volunteered for the war).
48The Manhattan Project Purpose: to develop the Atomic Bomb Overseen by Robert OppenheimerLos Alamos: site where the bomb was built (New Mexico)Dropping the bomb: Harry Truman gives the order1st bomb dropped on Hiroshima2nd bomb on NagasakiBrings an end to WWII (V.J. Day – Victory in Japan)
49The Cold WarMarshall Plan – provided economic aid and supplies to worn-torn Europe (helped rebuild Europe)Truman Doctrine – established the policy of containment (to keep communism from spreading)The Red Scare – Aimed at finding communist trying to infiltrate America – (namely in the government)Led by Senator Joseph McCarthy (McCarthyism)
50Communism Spreads China has a revolution led by Mao Zedong China becomes a communist countryThis intensifies Americans fear of communismGovernment willing to engage in war to stop communism from spreading furtherExample – Korean War ( ) – Side with South Korea to keep it from falling to communist North Korea.
51The Cuban RevolutionFidel Castro leads an uprising and Cuba becomes communistCuba is supported by the Soviet UnionBay of Pigs – CIA led mission to help Cuban revolutionaries overthrow CastroJFK backs out and revolutionaries are crushedCuban Missile Crisis – occurs when Soviet Union begins placing nuclear missile sites in CubaEnds after a 13 day standoff between the U.S. and Russia
52The Vietnam WarU.S. first becomes involved during Eisenhower’s administration (1950’s)Goal: to keep South Vietnam from falling to communist North VietnamEscalates to an all-out war during Lyndon Johnson’s (LBJ) presidencyTet Offensive: North Vietnam ignores a cease fire and goes on the attack in South VietnamAnti-War Movement: protests, songs, marches (more and more people turn against the war as it drags on)Last U.S. troops pull out in 1973 during Richard Nixon’s presidency.1975 – North Vietnam captures South Vietnam
53The Space Race 1957- Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1 into space. Satellites could be used to spy on other countriesEisenhower and the rest of America realize they are behind technologically to Soviet Union.Schools quickly adapt instruction to meet demands in science and mathNational Defense Education Act created to provide $$$ for scholarships and scientific equipment in schools1969- Neil Armstrong becomes the 1st man to walk on the moon
54The Baby BoomAfter WWII, the U.S. saw a spike in the # of babies being born.Became known as baby boomersLevittown- the 1st mass-produced suburbFounded by William LevittSet the standard for post war suburbs (Quick and cheap)Interstate Highway Act – intended to connect urban areas with suburban areasLargest public works program of its time
55The Role of Television Played a critical role in the election of 1960 Kennedy came off much better than Nixon on televisionPlayed a critical role in the Civil Rights MovementPeople saw first hand how African Americans were beating treatedBecame sympathetic to the cause
56New TechnologyNew technology such as computers and cell phones made it easier to stay connected to the worldInternet – Instant access to informationCell phones – get in touch of anyone, anytimeRecord, take pictures, text, music
57Martin Luther King Jr. Letter from Birmingham Jail written to convince 8 Alabama clergymen of the need to use non-violent protest as a means to achieve civil rights - "Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere”I have a Dream SpeechGiven in 1963 during the March on Washington (Lincoln Memorial)Defining moment in the Civil Rights movement – (widely considered the greatest speech of all time)
58The Civil Rights Movement Harry Truman issues Executive Order 9981Ends segregation in the armed forces1954 – Brown v. Board of Educationends segregation in schoolsOpposition to the rulingGovernor Orval Faubus of Arkansas - Little Rock Nine – National guard called in by EisenhowerGovernor George Wallace of Alabama – “Stand in the Schoolhouse Door”Riots, protests, unwillingness to comply
59Civil Rights Legislation Civil Rights Act of 1964Initiated by JFK, passed by LBJoutlawed major forms of discrimination against blacks and women, including racial segregation.ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general publicVoting Rights Act of 1965outlawed discriminatory voting practices against African-AmericansProvided federal guidelines for setting up voting procedures
60The Warren Court Supreme Court led by justice Earl Warren (1953-1969) Expanded civil right and civil libertiesHelped bring an end to racial discriminationExpansion of individual rightsExample – Miranda v Arizona
61Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society TWO main goals = elimination of poverty and racial injustice.Created new major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, urban problems, and transportationMedicare/Medicade
62Turmoil in 1968 MLK is assassinated by James Earl Ray Robert Kennedy is assassinated by Sirhan SirhanDemocratic National Convention – outraged by the assassinations protesters show up at the convention being held in Chicago.“The Police Riot” – violence erupts between the Chicago Police Department and the protesters
63Civil Rights Organizations Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)Created on the campus of Shaw universityMajor form of protest was sit-insOrganized Freedom Rides to check if the south was following civil rights legislationOften met with violence, further aided the civil rights causeFounded by MLK in response to the Montgomery Bus BoycottPlayed a large role in the civil rights movementWorked closely with churchesUsed boycotts, organized marches, and other forms of non-violent protestEstablished Citizen Schools to help adults learn to read
64National Organization for Women (NOW) Organized in 1966 as a women’s rights organizationEqual rights for allEmployment opportunitiesSex discriminationGay and lesbian rights
65Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Union Chavez was a Mexican-American who founded the United Farm Workers UnionFought for the rights of immigrant workersUsed strikes and boycottsFocused on grape pickers and lettuce growersWanted legal immigrationBetter education for immigrants
66The Environmentalist Movement Rachel Carson – wrote “Silent Spring” – a book about the environmental problems associated with chemicals being dumped into the water.Earth Day – created to inspire awareness and appreciation in the earth’s natural environment.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Government agency created to monitor and enforce environmental laws. Also working for a cleaner, healthier environment for the American people.
67The Conservative Movement Began in the 1950’s in opposition to the liberal movement.Must attack communism NOT contain it.Smaller governmentLess laws, less taxes, less government intervention in businessBarry Goldwater – Up and coming Senator who brings light to the Conservative cause. Defeated by Lyndon Johnson in 1964 election.Ronald Regan – Wins the 1980 election. Conservatism is here to stay.Reaganomics1. Reduce Growth of Government spending.2. Reduce Income Tax and Capital Gains Tax.3. Reduce Government regulation.4. Control the money supply to reduce inflation
68Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Wins election of 1968 Ends war in Vietnam 1972 – Becomes the 1st President to visit the People’s Republic of China (communist China)Opens up dialogue between the two countries, which eventually leads to trade1973 – Forced to resign because of the Watergate ScandalGerald Ford takes over as President. Pardons Nixon. Helps guide the nation through a recession.
69Affirmative Action The Bakke Decision Regents of the University of California v. BakkeRuled that affirmative action is legal, however, invalidated the use of racial quotas in college admissions and hiring practices. (reverse discrimination)Affirmative action – policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, gender , or national origin into account in programs ranging from employment and education to public contracting and health programs
70Jimmy Carter (1977-1981) Camp David Accords - 1978 Iranian Revolution Carter negotiates a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.Iranian RevolutionThe Shah (who is backed by the U.S.) is thrown out a power and replaced by the Ayatollah. Flees to the U.S.Iran-hostage Crisis1981- The U.S. embassy in Iran is overthrownClaims U.S. has been trying to stop the revolutionWanted the U.S. to return the Shah to Iran and be placed on trial52 U.S. citizens are held captive for 444 daysAfter a failed rescue attempt in 1980, they are finally released in 1981
71Iran-Contra Scandal Occurs during Ronald Regan’s presidency U.S. is secretly selling weapons to IranThere is an arms embargo against IranHoping to receive hostages in returnMoney from weapons sales was going to fund a controversial revolutionary group in Nicaragua known as the Contras.
72Bill Clinton ( )Creates the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)Positive - Opens up trade between the U.S., Canada, and MexicoNegative – Many companies send jobs to Canada or Mexico because it is cheaperClinton is impeached by House of Representatives for lying under oath about his relationship with Monica LewinskiIs acquitted by the Senate
732000 Election George Bush (republican) vs. Al Gore (democrat) The news initially projects Al Gore as the winner, but Florida is won by Bush (not Gore).Gore ask for a hand recount of four major counties in FloridaVoting machines had rejected many of the ballotsSupreme court eventually rules a hand recount is unconstitutional and Bush wins the election.
749/11 September 11, 2001 4 planes are hijacked by Al-Qaeda terrorist 2 crash into the twin towers, 1 into the pentagon, the last one is brought down by the passengersPlan is masterminded by Osama Bin LadenWar is declared on AfghanistanLeads to the War on Terror and the Iraqi War (Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD’s)The Patriot ActReduced restrictions on law enforcement agencies' ability to search telephone, communications, medical, financial, and other records; Also, eased restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering