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Enriching understandings of the contribution of language background and time-on-task to school achievement in Asian languages Presenters Angela Scarino,

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Presentation on theme: "Enriching understandings of the contribution of language background and time-on-task to school achievement in Asian languages Presenters Angela Scarino,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enriching understandings of the contribution of language background and time-on-task to school achievement in Asian languages Presenters Angela Scarino, Catherine Elder, Michelle Kohler, Noriko Iwashita, Sun Hee Ok Kim, Andrew Scrimgeour Slide 1SAALE

2 Acknowledgements Other members of project team Dr Anne-Marie Morgan –Project officer Dr Ute Knoch and Hyejeong Kim – Research data managers Ms Jamie Mazraeh- Systems developer Ms Anna Dinys – Administrative officer Mr Ari Bickley – Web developer Dr Robyn-Spence-Brown – Consultant Languages and Asian Studies section, National Curriculum Branch, DEEWR Amanda Day – Director Josephine Holzner – Project officer Project Advisory Group Ms Connie Andreana, Ms Gillian Cordy Ms Kylie Farmer Dr Antonio Mercurio SAALE2

3 The need for contextualised descriptions of learner achievement in Asian languages Angela Scarino Slide 3SAALE

4 Context - 1 Variability in: languages learners (learner background in the TL) program conditions (time-on-task), intensity, pathways) orientation of programs (program-type, view of language and culture) teaching, learning and assessment practices (local and state) Slide 4SAALE

5 Context Competing discourses Assessment of learning through generic curriculum and assessment frameworks  improvement through standardisation Assessment for learning  improvement through sensitivity to variability Role of teachers and their understandings of (1) assessment and learning to assess (2) learner achievements – all of which are viewed through existing professional and cultural ways of knowing and doing. 2.… and with the development of the Australian Curriculum we have entered another phase in curriculum and assessment framework development. Slide 5SAALE

6 Different conceptions of ‘achievement’, K-12 - (1) Relates to the nature of the construct (i.e. communicative language ability/communicative language use) Influences the dimensions of language use/performance that are considered:  language  language use in context/diverse contexts  language use in context for diverse purposes  language and literacy  language and content  language and culture  language and learning Slide 6SAALE

7 Different conceptions of ‘achievement’, K-12 -(2) A ‘proficiency’ view (e.g. Common European Framework of Reference)  a focus on what students can do in the target language irrespective of the context in which it is acquired  foregrounds the scaling process An ‘achievement’ view  a focus on what students can do in the target language based on the context of the program: conditions, curricula  sensitivity to language and learning  foregrounds sensitivity to context: especially time-on-task and learner background as major variables that structure teaching, learning and assessment Slide 7SAALE

8 The SAALE Project Two studies: Conceptualising, gathering and analysing data to provide the basis for establishing an initial baseline through descriptions of achievement. Investigating the impact of two particular variables on student achievement: learner background and time-on-task. Slide 8SAALE

9 Process of research and development Establishing a network of contributors Consultations and reviews:  consultation workshop  literature review on -time-on-task and learner background -research available in specific languages (Chinese, Japanese, Indonesian, Korean) -national and international assessment systems -issues in language assessment especially young learners Analysis of state and territory systems for grouping learners (at senior secondary level) Slide 9SAALE

10 Considerations Assessment at 3 assessment points (Year 6/7 / 10 / 12) 4 specific languages: Chinese, Japanese, Indonesian, Korean Curriculum and assessment based descriptions Research based Catering for the span of achievement Dimensions of achievement Documenting time-on-task and language background (self report) Quantitative and qualitative data analysis Slide 10SAALE

11 Assessment instruments: development and implementation Learner background and program profile questionnaire Test specifications and assessment instruments: reading, writing and oral Sampling Marking procedures Analyses – of reliability, of program profile data, of test score data according to language background and time-on-task variables Development of descriptions of student achievement and exemplars.  for each group identified as meaningful for each language at the three assessment points Slide 11SAALE

12 Contextualised descriptions of achievement Student groupings provide the structure of the descriptions at a macro level – derived from statistical analysis Curriculum-based descriptions – derived from qualitative analyses of student responses and teacher expertise Exemplars Slide 12SAALE

13 Quantitative analyses and key findings Catherine Elder Slide 13SAALE

14 Aim of quantitative analysis To determine any differences in level of achievement according to language background and time-on-task variables To aid decisions on groupings and selection of “high” and “average” samples for profiling purposes Slide 14SAALE

15 Data set 1 Program profiles years of instruction years of compulsory study other languages offered at the school availability of a study abroad program availability of transition arrangements with other schools practices for streaming or grouping students specific information about the program at 3 year levels: number of students, learner background, number of lessons per week, duration of lessons, and at Year 12 the actual course offered (Beginners, Continuers/Second Language, and Background Speakers/First Language). Slide 15SAALE

16 Data set 2 Background information from participating learners country of birth parents’ country of birth time spent in country where target language is spoken year of arrival in Australia, if born overseas, e age on arrival, actual years of study completed overseas, language of instruction of the overseas education, study of the target language overseas years of studying target language in Australia target language learning at community school learning school subjects through the target language in Australia learning of other languages at school, in addition to the target language languages used at home and domains of use. Slide 16SAALE

17 Criteria for grouping learners First language learner Born in a country where target language (or a variety of it) is official medium AND arrived in Australia at age 8 or more AND The target language was the first language used before starting school AND/OR uses the target language at home. Slide 17SAALE

18 Background language learner Born in Australia but with one or more parents born in country where target language is official medium AND target language was first language used before starting school AND/OR uses the target language at home OR Born in a country where target language (or a variety of it) is official medium BUT arrived in Australia before the age 8 (and therefore has limited experience of target language medium instruction). Slide 18SAALE

19 Second language learner Born in a country where the target language (or a variety of it) is NOT the official medium AND No more than one parent born in the country where the target language is official medium AND First language before school AND/OR language used at home is NOT the target language or a variety of it. Slide 19SAALE

20 Data set 3 Scores on custom-designed assessment tasks or school examinations at relevant year levels Years 6/7 and Year 10 Reading Writing Oral (for a subset of Yr 10 learners only) Year 12 Writing Oral (for a subset only) Slide 20SAALE

21 Assessment criteria Writing Content Vocabulary Forms/structures Discourse Scripts and/or characters (except for Indonesian) Speaking Content Vocabulary Forms/structures Fluency Intelligibility Comprehension Discourse Slide 21SAALE

22 Procedure Divide into language background groups for each language Compare mean scores for Reading, Writing and Oral for each language background group (t-test/ANOVA) Calculate effect of other variables where relevant L1 (English vs. other) Study of another language (apart from TL) Participation in community schooling Years of instruction (years) Intensity of instruction (minutes per week) In-country/ study abroad experience Slide 22SAALE

23 Some key findings: language background Statistical analysis supports language background groupings used for descriptions of achievement First language learners consistently achieve at higher levels than second language learners Highly variable levels of performance among background language learners, not always statistically distinct from first and second language learner groups Some L1 groups do better than others (e.g. learners with Chinese & Korean as L1 achieve better in Japanese than those with English as L1) Studying multiple languages may aid achievement Slide 23SAALE

24 Some key findings: time-on-task Difficult to disentangle time variables from language background Studying for longer at primary school yields high levels of achievement at Year 6/7 Early starters do not necessarily do better at Year 10 (Indonesian and Japanese) Intensity of instruction (via bilingual education or study abroad) yields higher levels of achievement (in Japanese and Chinese respectively) Slide 24SAALE

25 Issues in describing achievement in primary (Indonesian) language programs Michelle Kohler Slide 25SAALE

26 Capturing achievement in primary language programs Designing and eliciting: a suitable protocol Reading and Writing - pen and paper ‘test’ Oral - recording of interaction/lesson AND focus group ‘interview’ A protocol that: recognises achievement is program, task & text dependent captures evidence of learning with and without support enables a range of performance across learner sample Challenge of capturing achievement that is context dependent in a way that can be generalised across the learner sample Culture of assessment in primary – characterised by short term, single tasks, high level of support Slide 26SAALE

27 Time on task matters- primary Indonesian Mean Indonesian Writing & Reading by years of instruction *First year of junior secondary (i.e. Year 7 in some states) Sustained language study at primary results in higher levels of achievement than what is attained in a single year of study at secondary Years of studying Indonesian NMeanMin.Max. Writing /20 1 year* to 5 years to 7 years Reading /25 1 year* to 5 years to 7 years Slide 27SAALE

28 Descriptions: Year 6/7, L2, Writing-high Forms and Structures Students create simple sentences using the subject-verb-object construction. Students use the structure of the adjective following the noun at the clause level when modelled (e.g. Tempat favorit saya rumah teman). They use a possessive pronoun following the object if modelled (e.g. Nama teman baik saya Alice) and the possessive form –nya (e.g. Teman saya namanya James, rupanya tinggi). Students use the simple verb suka to express their preferences (e.g. Saya suka…). They negate verbs by using tidak (e.g. Saya tidak suka…) and use compound verbs (e.g. Saya tidak suka membaca buka, Saya suka main tenis). Activities are typically described using ber- verbs (e.g. belajar, berbelanja, berjalan) and a small range of formulaic me- verbs (e.g. membeli, menonton, mendengarkan). Verbs are used at times with auxiliaries and adjectives extending the idea (e.g. Saya suka sekali… Saya mau ke sekolah naik bis). Students use prepositions of place di, dari, and ke to refer to where events are located (e.g. Saya mau ke sekolah naik bis, Saya tinggal di … Saya berasal dari Australia). Students use cardinal numbers following the noun (i.e. as an adjective) to refer to quantities, including when describing people (e.g. Kakak saya satu. Adik saya dua, Saya ada dua kakak). Occasionally preferences or opinions are attempted using comparatives and superlatives, for example, Saya suka sekali futbal, … lebih kecil (daripada) kamar saya. Opinions are occasionally expressed using colloquial terms that reflect a judgment (e.g. asyik). Slide 28SAALE

29 Examples: Year 6, L2, Writing-high (Task: Self-introduction) Learner Background and Program Context This student is a second language learner at school. Her first language is English. She and her parents were born in Australia. The student has studied Indonesian at school for 6 years. The Indonesian program has two 50-minute lessons per week. name place Slide 29SAALE

30 Features of achievement in this example The student provides a range of information, including personal details such as name and age, family, pets, likes and dislikes, and future career. The response is sequenced logically, moving from personal details to family, hobbies, preferences, and friends. The student refers to quantity using the numbers and the nouns for animals (anjing, kucing) to describe her pets. She uses several adjectives to describe her own character (i.e. jujur, ramah, rajin). She uses the personal pronoun saya and its possessive form accurately (e.g. keluarga saya, teman saya). She uses a range of simple verbs such as suka, makan, minum, tinggal as well as formulaic ber- and me- words (e.g. berenang, membaca, mempunyai, menonton). She uses the formulaic phrase saya mau menjadi to state her preferred occupation. Spelling is accurate throughout including less familiar words such as dokter hewan. The student creates cohesion using the simple conjunction dan. The response is structured using a series of sentences starting with saya, with occasional variation of subject (e.g. teman saya, keluarga saya). Slide 30SAALE

31 What is important for Indonesian? Evidence of the cohort - majority L2 learners (some Malay, varied degrees of ‘background’) Achievement is context dependent e.g. more time on task = higher achievement in primary The data reflects current orientation in programs e.g. language and cultural awareness, communicative competence, continuous/supported assessment Challenge of defining achievement for (primary) school language learning A suitable construct e.g. macro skills, communication strategies, higher order thinking, use of ICTs, intercultural understanding (NB student survey data yet to be analysed) Ways of attending to context (learners, time, and…) Slide 31SAALE

32 Variation in performance on a communicative writing task (Japanese) Noriko Iwashita, University of Queensland Slide 32SAALE

33 Aim variation in Year 12 writing task performance focusing on discourse feature To present a snapshot of variation in Year 12 writing task performance focusing on discourse feature Slide 33SAALE

34 Japanese learners in Australia Mainly second language (L2) learners Mainly second language (L2) learners A substantial number of students are native speakers of a Chinese or Korean language. A substantial number of students are native speakers of a Chinese or Korean language. In-country experience at senior level In-country experience at senior level Some background speakers Some background speakers Some first language (L1) speakers Some first language (L1) speakers Slide 34SAALE

35 Assessment Criteria - Writing Content – amount/quality of information to fulfill the task requirement Content – amount/quality of information to fulfill the task requirement Vocabulary – choice of words Vocabulary – choice of words Forms/structures – choice and accuracy Forms/structures – choice and accuracy Discourse - cohesion, coherence, genre, awareness of the reader, register, structure - e.g., use of pronouns, connectives, sentence final particles, plain form Discourse - cohesion, coherence, genre, awareness of the reader, register, structure - e.g., use of pronouns, connectives, sentence final particles, plain form Scripts and/or characters – accurate choice of scripts and a variety of characters Slide 35SAALE

36 Why discourse? Rich content Rich content Correct use and choice of forms and words Correct use and choice of forms and words Accurate use of scripts and use of characters Accurate use of scripts and use of characters  DOES NOT guarantee the text has a communicative value Analysis beyond sentence level analysis is required. Analysis beyond sentence level analysis is required. Slide 36SAALE

37 Analysis Statistical analysis → L1 > L2 Statistical analysis → L1 > L2 Qualitative analysis of discourse features Qualitative analysis of discourse features Compare L1 vs. L2 speakers Compare L1 vs. L2 speakers Compare Average vs. High L2 learners Compare Average vs. High L2 learners Descriptors Descriptors Slide 37SAALE

38 Excerpt from Descriptors – L1 Cohesive devices are used less often than is the case with L2 learners. Students refer to relevant information in context using あ の (that) while L2 users tend to use その (that) この (this) more often than あの (e.g. あのオリンピックがアジア最大の都市東 京で再び開かれる なんてすばらしいではないか. ) Appropriate use of register for the text type and audience (e.g. students select correct vocabulary items to differentiate slight nuances in meaning 経験する、体験する,学ぶ、身につける and use words of Chinese origin in expository writing 増える 減少する instead of 減る 悪化する instead of 悪くなる ). Slide 38SAALE

39 (Cont’d) Engage with the reader involving them in the composition (e.g. みな さんこんにちは。きっと皆さんもすぐにご存知でしょうが、今、 東京は 2016 年のオリンピック開催地の一つとして選ばれています。そこで、本当 に東京でオリンピックをするべきなのかということについて、私なりの意見 を皆さんに聞いていただくて、 今日はお手紙を書きます。 ) but also remove themselves by using indirect expressions to express their own opinions (e.g. 非常にこん難を極めるのではないだろうか。 ). Deliberate use of tense shifts to make an impact in their writing (e.g. 残念ながら北京オリンピックに私は行くことができなかった。 北京に 行くだけの時間も経済力もない。今日はとにかく体力を付けるために走るこ とにしていた。外は大雨で5メートル先も見えないような天気だ。だけど、 そんなことで休むことなんて許されない。朝ゴハンを食べて全身ぼう水のカ ッパを着て準備ができた。 ). Slide 39SAALE

40 Excerpt from Descriptors - L2 High Structure of the text conforms to the chosen text type (e.g. Introduction, body, conclusion as per example in Content). According to text type, students use appropriate opening and closing (e.g. opening – みなさん、私はオーストラリアから来た です 。 closing – (1) では、トレーニングがんばって下さい。よろしくおね がいします。 (2) 僕は日本にいた時を永遠にわすれません。この一年間 本当にありがとうございました。 ) and show engagement with audience explicitly and implicitly (e.g. (1) みなさんは、僕がこの高 校をはじめて来たときを覚えていますか。 (2) えみさんの聞く事は私と 同じ事でした。だから、今その事について教えてあげます。 ). An extensive range of cohesive devices (e.g. この、その referring to what has come before in the text; discourse markers — conjunctions 例えば、だから、はじめに、このように、 けれども、そ して、なぜなら、それに、それから, つまり ). Slide 40SAALE

41 (Cont’d) Use of appropriate register for the text type and audience (e.g. use of plain form for personal essay, , すうじつかん e メールを見てい なかったから、知らなかった。 元気? NT はどう? ), use of polite form when addressing the general audience (e.g. 私は東京マラソンを走りは じめて前にたくさんのことを考えなければなりませんでした。 ). Awareness of different words/phrases/endings according to gender, but tend to mix them up (e.g. (1) ぼくが 4 月に日本に行くとき、しんが 、むかえに来てくれたらうれしいけれど、 むりはしないでね。ぼくははや くしんと日本の高校でべんきょうしたい。 (2) へん事をするこはおくれてご めなさいね。ぼくのコンピューターはウィルスをもらった。 わるいね。 ). Slide 41SAALE

42 Excerpt from Descriptors – L2 average The structure of the text conforms to the chosen text type (e.g. introduction, body, conclusion). There is appropriate use of cohesive devices (e.g. そして、なぜ なら、でも、じゃ、たとえば、 いっぽうで、最後に ) and use of references for a report (e.g. 新聞によると ). Cohesive devices この、その, referring to what has come before in the text, are observed. Occasionally students use register inappropriately for the text type and audience (e.g. じゃ、去年オーストラリアに行った時、メ ルボルンだけおとずれましたね。 お会いできる (honorifics), use of あなた, きみにアドバイスを上げるよ。 They use plain form in writing an to a friend 日本に行きたい。しんは会いたいよ。 ). Slide 42SAALE

43 Sample - L2 High (1)

44 Sample - L2 High (2) 44

45 Sample - L2 Average Slide 45SAALE

46 Summary Effective use of cohesive device (e.g., あの) appropriate choice of words, forms etc. for the text are important as well as control of linguistics items (e.g., forms/structures and vocabulary) Effective use of cohesive device (e.g., あの) appropriate choice of words, forms etc. for the text are important as well as control of linguistics items (e.g., forms/structures and vocabulary) Teaching implications Teaching implications Exposure to everyday language use in different types of texts and contexts e.g., In-country experience and use of multimedia and online materials Exposure to everyday language use in different types of texts and contexts e.g., In-country experience and use of multimedia and online materials Strategic competence Strategic competence Slide 46SAALE

47 Korean learners: Similarities and differences in achievement across different learner groups Sun Hee Ok Kim Slide 47SAALE

48 Korean as a LOTE in Australia: Current context Small enrolment overall All three types of learners present across year levels Primary Both L1 and L2 backgrounds Junior secondary Mostly L2 beginners in a few programs Learners from a L1 background tend not to study Korean. Senior secondary The majority of the few students from both backgrounds who were enrolled at the junior secondary level discontinue studying. The majority: Recent arrivals from Korea Not all jurisdictions have learners in all three year levels. (Shin, 2010) Slide 48SAALE

49 3 groups of Year 10 learners of Korean L1 learners (5 students): Age of arrival: 9-15 years of age Korean-medium education: 2-6 years Background language learners (3 students) 2 born in Australia; 1 arrived in Australia at 5 years of age First language(s) before school: Korean (1); both Korean and English (2) L2 learners (12 students) All were studying Korean since Year 9. None had experience of living in Korea. Chinese speaking background (4); L1s not related to Korean (8) Slide 49SAALE

50 Overview of achievement: Writing Figure 1: Comparison of overall achievement among learner groups Slide 50SAALE

51 Features and examples of performance: High- achieving students (1) L1 learner Sophisticated and flexible Extensive elaboration Wide range of topics, vocabulary and forms/structures. Accurate and appropriate use of vocabulary, forms/structures and scripts/characters Awareness of the context Coherent text A number of cohesive devices name suburb Slide 51SAALE

52 Features and examples of performance: High-achieving students (2) name BL learner Variable performance across criteria and within each criterion Some degree of elaboration and expansion Occasional errors in vocabulary, forms/structures and scripts/characters Evidence of influence from English and colloquially oriented L1 use Coherence of the text: reasonably maintained but reduced due to the above variability. Slide 52SAALE

53 Features and examples of performance: High-achieving students (3) name suburb city name L2 Learner Accurate use of well-rehearsed structures and known forms and vocabulary Attempts to expand topics within limited resources risking accuracy/appropriateness Draws on his knowledge in other languages for forms, vocabulary and discourse devices which have not yet been learned in the classroom. Evidence of favourable attitudes towards the target language and culture Slide 53SAALE

54 Implications L1 learners and BL learners have different needs: L1 learners need to maintain and further develop their already acquired skills. BL learners need to fill the gap in their skills (which is diverse to the extent to which their TL experience is diverse) for their balanced development across criteria. L2 learners’ learning may be enhanced by utilising their resources from their L1 backgrounds (in the case of those related to Korean) and reinforcing their favourable attitudes toward Korean and the Korean culture. Slide 54SAALE

55 The impact of learner background on performance in writing tasks at Year 10 level Andrew Scrimgeour Slide 55SAALE

56 Chinese issues The impact of learner background on performance in speaking and writing tasks at year 10 level. Immense variation and complexity of learner background, and The distinctive nature of learner achievement in Chinese in each cohort, in both oral language and written language performance as evidenced in descriptions and commentaries. The implications for teaching and learning Chinese in years F-10 56SAALE

57 Findings for Chinese Learner diversity - cohorts Program profiles – diversity Learner background data – complexity Influence of background on performance – in general Nature of commentaries & descriptors Language-specific achievement Second language – background language Oral – writing 57SAALE

58 Year 10 Mean Chinese Reading & Writing scores by language background Number Reading /30Writing /50 overall mean First Language Background comm school (31) no comm. school (9) Second Language SAALE

59 Example 59SAALE

60 Second Language Writing — High (1) Commentary Learner Background and Program Context The student was born in Australia and speaks English and some German at home. The student has studied Chinese since Year 7 (4 years).The Chinese program has three 60-minute lessons per week (approximately 120 hours per year). Features of Achievement in this Example Information is provided on a range of topics: personal information, family members and interests, with considerable detail on film, music, and TV interests, including film types, and TV programs; her impressions of horror movies and reasons for these views, using the adverb 又.. 又..to link adjectives. She uses the preposition 对 when expressing interest in, for example, music. Vocabulary includes a range of specific terms including 刺激 (exciting) and 连续剧 (TV series). Few reasons are given for opinions or preferences. Characters are legible but with many stroke errors. Information is presented in a single paragraph without indents or punctuation spacing. Length 100 characters 60SAALE

61 Background Language Writing High 61SAALE

62 Reflections on SAALE Chinese Achievement Oral and written – distinctiveness of each mode Two points – what distance between them Capturing the distinctiveness of performance (not relative performance) each group Looking beyond performance in language 62SAALE

63 Commentary Learner Background and Program Context The student was born in Australia of Vietnamese-born parents and speaks Cantonese at home. The student is currently in Year 10 and attends Year 11 at community school. The Chinese program has five 45-minute lessons per week (approximately 150 hours per year). Features of Achievement in this Example Information is provided on a range of topics, including self and family, school, leisure time, and interests. When referring to school life the student uses specific measure words, for example, relating to subjects, and expresses a personal view on difficult subjects using the conjunction 但 是 and the verb 觉得 (to think, feel). A range of adverbs are used to express frequency of events, and time phrases and complements of result are used to sequence events in time (e.g. 回家以后我 通常做作业。做完的时候我喜欢 …). Prepositions and adverbs of scope are used together to identify participants in events. She uses the conjunction 如果 to express conditionality and uses the indefinite 没有什么 to describe a possible scenario, linking with the adverb 就 to express concurrent activities using the adverbs 一边... 一边 … Information is presented with accuracy and a clear sequence of ideas. Characters are written neatly and accurately. Information is presented in paragraphs with indenting and punctuation spacing. Length 180 characters. 63SAALE

64 Implications The quantity and quality of input will largely determine what knowledge and awareness of language; vocabulary learning, & reading efficiency emerges (Nagy, 2007) Learner efficiency in word recognition is essential for effective reading (vocabulary acquisition) Is an important predictor of later reading ability & language learning (Grabe, 2009) 64SAALE

65 Input and experience…. The ability to analyse and manipulate the written language – assists vocabulary learning and meaning making – is a reliable predictor of future reading & Language learning achievement – evolves as a result of the specific properties of the language and its writing system, – is based on substantial input and experience with the language in print( Koda, 2007). 65SAALE

66 Conclusion Chinese is a deep orthography Time and attention are critical Input and exposure/experience MATTER First Language learners DO Home users CAN Second language learners NEED … 66SAALE

67 Intensity Regular & sustained opportunities to engage with the issues apply their learning in meaningful contexts Resources appropriate to the language and to learners needs (background and experience) Learning experiences that provide the foundation for sustained and increasingly autonomous language learning and use 67SAALE

68 Lessons learned Complexity of describing learner achievement in a way that takes account of learner diversity across and within languages across and within different levels of schooling according to time-on task and language background Limitations of Single iteration with a limited sample Self-report data for subset of learners only Single set of assessment tasks with limited piloting SAALE68

69 Next steps? Further cycle of data gathering, trialling and verification of descriptions Further teasing out of descriptions by teachers to inform ongoing work in languages education Expansion of range of languages for which student achievement is researched and described SAALE69

70 Thank-you! Questions, comments, proposals? SAALE70


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