Presentation on theme: "FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE"— Presentation transcript:
1FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE CHAPTER 4FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE
2WHAT IS CULTURE?Describe, in as much detail as possible, a typical Friday (from the time you get out of bed until you go to bed)
3CULTURE….…The body of customary beliefs, social forms and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct traditions (uggghhh)basically it is the way of life of a group of people (their collection of customs)
4CULTURE COMBINES…. VALUES MATERIAL*** POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS ARTIFACTS visible objects a group possesses and leaves behind for the future- survival and leisure activities????POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
5TYPES OF MATERIAL CULTURE FOLKPOPULARFound in small, homogenous, isolated groupstends to be more isolated and ruralMore likely to vary from place to place at a given timeFound in large, heterogeneous societiesPracticed by more people over a larger portion of the Earth’s surfaceMore likely to vary from time to time at a given place
6Where do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse? ISSUE #1Where do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse?
7Origins of Folk & Popular Cultures Hearths of folk culture may be anonymous and multipleex. Folk music and agricultural connections in VietnamHearths of popular culture tend to be located in MDCsex. Popular music and production for sale to mass audience (hip hop music, fast food/McDonalds)
8Type 1How would a folk song about agriculture in Southeast Asia spread/diffuse?How would Justin Bieber’s music spread/diffuse?
9Diffusion of Folk & Popular Cultures Diffuses more slowly and on a smaller scalePrimarily through migration/relocation diffusionAlso through word of mouth (orally)Ex - AmishDiffuses faster and to more placesPattern of hierarchical diffusion from node on downSpreads through modern communications and transportationEX – Organized Sports/Soccer
12Amish Settlements in the U.S. Fig. 4-3: Amish settlements are distributed through the northeast U.S.
13LIST…2 examples of folk culture2 examples of popular culture
14Tin Pan Alley & Popular Music Fig. 4-1: Writers and publishers of popular music were clustered in Tin Pan Alley in New York in the early 20th c. The area later moved north from 28th St to Times Square.
15A Mental Map of Hip HopFig. 4-2: This mental map places major hip hop performers near other similar performers and in the portion of the country where they performed.
16We destroy the sport with our boring style of play!!! World Cup FansFrench, German, and Italian fans at 2006 World Cup (eventually won by Italy, which broke Mr. Oswald’s heart!).We destroy the sport with our boring style of play!!!
17Why is Folk Culture Clustered? ISSUE #2Why is Folk Culture Clustered?
18ISOLATION PROMOTES CULTURAL DIVERSITY Unique folk customs are a result of a group’s long-term isolation from other groups (even those close to them)This is why folk customs are clustered vary from place to place at the same timeRead the Himalayan art section on your own
19Himalayan Folk Cultural Regions Fig. 4-4: Cultural geographers have identified four distinct culture regions based on predominant religions in the Himalaya Mountains.- Shows how folk custom are influenced by both cultural institutions (religion) and by environmental processes (climate, landforms, vegetation…)
20TYPE 1List as many ways you can think of that the physical environment/climate affect culture. You can give specific examples if that helps.
21INFLUENCE OF THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT Environment is one, not the only, factor that influences culture !!!!!!!(cultural values also play a part)Due to lack of technology, folk societies are even more influenced by the environmentEnvironment and cultural values have a strong impact on food and shelter in folk culturesEnviron-ment
22DISTINCTIVE FOOD PREFERENCES Folk food habits derive from the environment (why? – people eat mostly plants and animals)People adapt their diets based on their environmentex. abundant wood supply leads to slow stewing in NE)- know terroir – pp
24Traditional Vegetable Garden, Istanbul Fig. 4-5: The bostan, or traditional vegetable garden, provides fresh vegetables in a large city such as Istanbul
25Food habits are also affected by cultural traditions…. Different groups with different traditions will have unique diets that are not solely a result of the environment (soups in Transylvania, seating patterns at tables…)Food attractions and taboos will also play a major role in dieta kitchen is often a BIG clue to the family’s ethnicity
26FOOD ATTRACTIONS and TABOOS Some foods are eaten based on appearance or qualities (real or perceived)Exs. Abipone Indians eat jaguars and bullsMandrake root in Mediterranean associated with sexual prowessSome foods are avoided due to negative forces, characteristics, or associations- Muslims don’t eat pork- Hindus don’t eat cows- Mbum Kpau women in Chad avoid goats and chicken before getting pregnant
28Hog Production & Food Cultures Fig. 4-6: Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.
29FOLK HOUSING Folk housing will display the following: - distinctive building materials- distinctive form and orientation- influence of the environment
30Home Locations in Southeast Asia Fig. 4-7: Houses and sleeping positions are oriented according to local customs among the Lao in northern Laos (left) and the Yuan and Shan in northern Thailand (right).
31House Types in Western China Fig. 4-8: Four communities in western China all have distinctive house types.
32Kashgar House, western China Kashgar houses have second floor open-air patios
33Turpan House, western China Turpan is located in a deep valley with little open land. Second stories are avoided because of strong winds
34Dunhuang House, western China Dunhuang houses have walled central courtyards, covered with an open air grape arbor.
35Yinchuan House, China Liz Lewis: …from outsiders Yinchuan houses are built around large open courtyards which provide seclusion from ousi
36U.S. FOLK HOUSE FORMSOlder houses display local folk-culture traditions (why?)Much more difficult to detect distinctions in modern homes (why?)Kniffen’s nodes of U.S. folk homes:New England2. Middle Atlantic3. Lower Chesapeake
37U.S. FOLK HOUSE FORMS cont. Know the different types for each:4 types of NE home“I” house in MA1-story w/ chimney in LC
38Diffusion of House Types in U.S. Fig. 4-9: Distinct house types originated in three main source areas in the U.S. and then diffused into the interior as migrants moved west.
39Diffusion of New England House Types Fig. 4-10: Four main New England house types of the 18th & 19th centuries diffused westward as settlers migrated.
40Why is Popular Culture Widely Distributed? ISSUE #3Why is Popular Culture Widely Distributed?
41POP CULTURE IS WIDELY DISTRIBUTED BECAUSE… It diffuses very quickly across Earth, unlike folk culture- this diffusion relies on people having high economic development to acquire the material aspects of pop culture (what does this mean?)- Remember: pop culture varies from time to time at the same place‘50stoday
42DIFFUSION OF POPULAR HOUSING, CLOTHING & FOOD Differences in these categories vary much less now in MDCs than they used to (why?)List 5-7 characteristics of a suburb (what do people wear, eat, types of buildings, types of activities, forms of transportation……)
43POPULAR HOUSING STYLES Newer homes reflect how customs vary more in time than placeYears right after WWII = modern styleSince 1960s = neo-eclecticSee “popular housing” graphic organizer and page 128
44U.S. House Types,Fig. 4-11: Several variations of the “modern style” were dominant from the 1940s into the 1970s. Since then, “neo-eclectic” styles have become the dominant type of house construction in the U.S.
45Write the first thing that comes to mind in terms of clothing for a …..
50CLOTHING STYLES Rapid communication/technology spreads fashion Clothing habits reflect:IncomeSocial forms (job characteristics)MDCs of NA/WEClothing usually reflects occupation rather than environmentHigher incomes greatly influence clothing and changing styles (especially for women – why?)Rapid communication/technology spreads fashionIronically, has led to more awareness of folk clothing (can be used to preserve memories/promote tourism – p.128)
54POPULAR FOOD CUSTOMSHigh consumption of alcohol and snack foods are indicative of popular food customsConsumption does vary regionally within MDCs :local production(ex. Whiskey consumption in the U.S.)Cultural background (Mexican food in Texas)Generally speaking, consumption of alcohol and snack foods depends on :High incomeNational advertisingThe environment can also play a role in the distribution of pop. Culture food customs (read section on wine – pp )
55Alcohol Preferences in the U.S. Fig. 4-12: Per capita consumption of Canadian whiskey (left) and tequila (right) show different source areas and histories of diffusion.
56Wine Production per year Fig. 4-13: The distribution of wine production shows the joint impact of the physical environment and social customs.
57DIFFUSION OF POP CULTURE THROUGH… internettelevision
58USING PP. 131 and 134…Explain the trend of TV usage around the world fromExplain “ “ internet usage “ “ fromList 2 similarities between the evolution of TV and Internet usage around the globe“ “ differences “ “5. True/False: The diffusion of Internet service/usage is following a similar pattern to that of TV diffusion
66Distribution of Internet Users, 1995 - 2003 Fig. 4-15: Internet users per 1000 population. Diffusion of internet service is following the pattern of TV diffusion in the 20th century, but at a much faster rate.
67Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems? ISSUE #4Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems?
68TYPE 1List as many reasons you can think of as to why the spread of popular culture causes problems
69MAJOR PROBLEMS IT CAUSES… THREAT TO FOLK CULTURENEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTPOP CULTUREFOLK CULTURE
70THREAT TO FOLK CULTUREWhen people turn away from folk culture in favor of pop. culture they may also turn away from their traditional values (= great tension)May lead to dominance of Western culture (can lead to anger towards the West)Wearing of Western style clothes as opposed to traditional local clothing can cause great rifts in a society (Muslim clothing v. “skimpy” clothing like bikinis)-article about bikini in DubaiRight to wear or disrespectful???????
71THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE cont… Diffusion of pop. Culture can have positive benefits for women in LDCsex. Women under the Taliban in AfghanistanCan also have negative impact on them- International prostitution
72THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE cont… Leaders of LDCs often fear the role of foreign media in their countriesSome see it as a threat to their independenceU.S., UK, and Japan dominate TV in LDCs (new form of imperialism???)Programming may be adjusted to deal with these concernsNo Porky Pig in Muslim countries
73Examples of media and spread of PC in China Nobel PrizeTwitterHigh School StudentsChina’s biggest search engine
74THREAT TO FOLK CULTURE cont… Diffusion of information on a global scale is dominated by U.S. and UKNews media in most LDCs is dominated by the gov’t (not the case in MDCs)Many African and Asian nations criticize Western concept of freedom of the press as promoting Western values and have unbalanced reportsinterceptionNobel prizetwitter
75ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTPop. Culture spreads with less consideration for environment than folk cultureSpatial organization of PC reflects distribution of social/economic featuresDue to globalization, pop. Culture is increasingly uniform and creates more uniform landscapes
76MODIFYING NATUREFolk Culture springs from the environment, PC modifies itEx. Golf courses are aspects of PC that modify the environment
77Golf Courses in Metropolitan Areas Fig. 4-16: The 50 best-served and worst-served metropolitan areas in terms of golf holes per capita, and areas that are above and below average.
78UNIFORM LANDSCAPES Spread of PC leads to uniform landscapes Spatial expression of PC in one area will be very similar to anotherFast food restaurantsThis spread of common landscapes has diffused from NA to rest of the world
80NEGATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT DEPLETION OF NATURAL RESOURCESPOLLUTIONDemand for resources such as:PetroleumAnimal skinsAnimal meatPC generates incredible amounts of waste that strain the environment:LiquidGasSolids (cans, bottles…)
8204.01 An act repeatedly performed by an individual is a(n) 1. Cultural characteristic2. Habit3. Custom4. Trait5. Annoyance
8304.01 An act repeatedly performed by an individual is a(n) 1. Cultural characteristic2. Habit3. Custom4. Trait5. Annoyance
8404.02 Popular culture is practiced 1. Only where folk culture is absent2. By large heterogeneous groups3. By individuals only4. Only in the more developed countries5. At specific places
8504.02 Popular culture is practiced 1. Only where folk culture is absent2. By large heterogeneous groups3. By individuals only4. Only in the more developed countries5. At specific places
8604.03 Folk culture is most likely to spread by 1. Hierarchical diffusion2. Contagious diffusion3. Stimulus diffusion4. Copycat diffusion5. Relocation diffusion
8704.03 Folk culture is most likely to spread by 1. Hierarchical diffusion2. Contagious diffusion3. Stimulus diffusion4. Copycat diffusion5. Relocation diffusion
8804.04 Modern communications methods have _________ of social customs. 1. Slowed the dissemination2. Had little effect on the spread3. Increased the global uniformity4. Led to the fragmentation5. None of these
8904.04 Modern communications methods have _________ of social customs. 1. Slowed the dissemination2. Had little effect on the spread3. Increased the global uniformity4. Led to the fragmentation5. None of these
9004.05 Folk songs 1. Focus on daily activities 2. Cannot become part of popular culture3. Are inseparable from the acoustic guitar4. Have so far been of little cultural significance in the United States5. Are often difficult to interpret
9104.05 Folk songs 1. Focus on daily activities 2. Cannot become part of popular culture3. Are inseparable from the acoustic guitar4. Have so far been of little cultural significance in the United States5. Are often difficult to interpret
9204.06 Hog production is lowest in 1. North Africa2. Europe3. South America4. East Asia5. North America
9304.06 Hog production is lowest in 1. North Africa2. Europe3. South America4. East Asia5. North America
10404.10 Similar restaurants, gas stations, and stores throughout the United States 1. Illustrate how popular culture can create a uniform landscape2. Show how folk culture can diffuse3. Are a prime example of globalization4. Increase cultural awareness5. None of these
10504.10 Similar restaurants, gas stations, and stores throughout the United States 1. Illustrate how popular culture can create a uniform landscape2. Show how folk culture can diffuse3. Are a prime example of globalization4. Increase cultural awareness5. None of these