Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

T210X E-Lecture Series: Teachers by Meira Levinson and Rebecca B. Miller.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "T210X E-Lecture Series: Teachers by Meira Levinson and Rebecca B. Miller."— Presentation transcript:

1 T210X E-Lecture Series: Teachers by Meira Levinson and Rebecca B. Miller

2 How does teacher quality in urban district schools compare to teacher quality in other settings? What does teacher quality even mean, and how does one measure it? Assuming it can be measured, should low teacher quality in urban schools be addressed by changing who teaches, or how they learn to teach, or by making schooling teacher-proof? How do institutions such as unions, charters, education schools, and district bureaucracies promote or impede the recruitment, training, and retention of high-quality teachers in urban areas? Framing Questions:

3 How does teacher quality in urban district schools compare to teacher quality in other settings?

4 Urban Teacher Quality: The Standard Dire View “From a policy perspective, urban schools confront an enormous challenge… [U]rban schools systematically receive less qualified teachers than their suburban counterparts and many of the dynamics work to the disadvantage urban students. Not coincidentally, these schools are most in need of teachers who are able to increase the performance of students achieving at the lowest levels…. Throughout the United States, nonurban students are 50% more likely to perform at a basic proficiency level than their urban peers. In high poverty settings, urban students reach basic proficiency half as often as their nonurban peers.” - Lankford, Loeb, & Wyckoff, 2002

5 Lay of the Land 3.9 million teachers in U.S. 3.4 million public; 0.5 million private # of teachers City1,085,780 Suburb1,380,360 Town504,870 Rural927,410 About 1/4 of all teachers teach in urban schools. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/2009324/tables/sass0708_2009324_t12n_01.asp

6 Degree Attainment http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/2009324/tables/sass0708_2009324_t12n_05.asp Percentage distribution of school teachers by highest degree earned & school type, 2007-2008 School type Less than bachelor’s Bachelor’s degree Master’s degree Higher than master’s degree All public schools0.847.445.57.3 City0.846.045.57.7 Suburban0.742.648.28.5 Town1.051.841.26.0 Rural0.953.040.35.8

7 Hiring Criteria http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006313.pdf Percent of public school districts that required selected criteria when considering teaching applicants School type Full standard state certification for field to be taught At least emergency or temporary state certification or endorse-ment for field to be taught Graduation from a state- approved teacher education program College major or minor in field to be taught Passing score on the Praxis Series Core Battery Test of Professional Knowledge Passing scores on the Praxis II: Subject Assessment in a specific content area All public school districts 77.470.966.462.629.126.9 Central city66.265.159.859.322.522.8 Urban fringe/ Large town 77.774.964.560.033.129.7 Rural/Town79.268.268.765.726.725.2

8 Hiring Outcomes (Degree in Field) http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/files/publications/files/Not%20Prepared%20for%20Class.pdf

9 Hiring Outcomes (Degree in Field) http://www.edtrust.org/sites/edtrust.org/files/publications/files/Not%20Prepared%20for%20Class.pdf

10 Percentage of public high school teachers with neither a college major nor standard certification in the subject that is their main teaching assignment, by race/ethnicity concentration of schools and subject: 2007–08 http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010015/figures/figure_9_1.asp Hiring Outcomes (Degree in Field)

11 http://www.urban.org/uploadedpdf/1001268_narowinggapinnewyork.pdf Hiring Outcomes (Certification Test)

12 http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006313.pdf Teaching Experience 2003-04 Full-time teaching experience Years teaching at current school School type 3 or fewer years 4 or more years 3 or fewer years 4 or more years All public schools 17.882.242.857.2 Central city20.379.747.652.4 Urban fringe/large town 17.682.442.957.1 Rural/small town 14.685.435.364.7

13 Teacher Mobility http://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/education%20 and%20society%20program/Ed_AspenTeacherWorkforceDatasheet.pdf

14 Responses to Teacher Vacancies http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006313.pdf 2003-2004 School type Percent of schools with teaching vacancies Hired a fully qualified teacher Hired a less than fully qualified teacher Used long- term or short-term substitutes Cancelled planned course offerings Expanded some class sizes Added sections to other teachers’ normal teaching loads Assigned a teacher of another subject or grade level to cover vacancy Assigned an administrator or counselor to teach those classes All public schools 73.792.716.430.33.112.99.69.82.1 Central city 75.490.719.242.43.415.810.812.12.1 Urban fringe/ large town 76.994.214.430.02.512.08.98.71.5 Rural/smal l town 66.691.517.618.44.111.79.99.63.4

15 District vs. Charter: Responses to Teacher Vacancies http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006313.pdf School type Percent of schools with teaching vacancies Hired a fully qualified teacher Hired a less than fully qualified teacher Used long- term or short-term substitutes Cancelled planned course offerings Expanded some class sizes Added sections to other teachers’ normal teaching loads Assigned a teacher of another subject or grade level to cover vacancy Assigned an administrator or counselor to teach those classes All public schools 73.792.716.430.33.112.99.69.82.1 Central city 75.490.719.242.43.415.810.812.12.1 Tradition al public schools 73.892.716.230.33.113.09.69.81.9 Charter schools 70.690.123.428.54.69.79.811.312.5 2003-2004

16 District vs. Charter: Degree Attainment http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2009/2009324/tables/sass0708_2009324_t12n_05.asp Percentage distribution of school teachers by highest degree earned & school type, 2007-2008 School type Less than bachelor’s Bachelor’s degreeMaster’s degree Higher than master’s degree City0.846.045.57.7 Traditional public schools (all) 1.150.840.97.2 Charter schools3.264.227.45.2

17 http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006313.pdf District vs. Charter: Teacher Experience 2003-04 Full-time teaching experience Years teaching at current school School type 3 or fewer years 4 or more years 3 or fewer years 4 or more years All public schools 17.882.242.857.2 Central city20.379.747.652.4 Traditional public schools 17.582.542.457.6 Charter schools 43.456.675.324.7

18 How does teacher quality in urban district schools compare to teacher quality in non- urban district schools, and in charter schools? Do these findings surprise you? How do these findings compare to the readings for today? What measures have we used to draw these comparisons of teacher quality? Do these seem like the right measures? Why or why not? Pause and think:

19 What does teacher quality even mean, and how does one measure it?

20 http://edpro.stanford.edu/hanushek/admin/pages/files/uploads/Teacher%20quality.Evers-Izumi.pdf “Inputs” and Teacher Quality

21 http://motherjones.com/files/images/Blog_NAEP_2008.jpg

22 “The simple position taken here is: if one is concerned about student performance, one should gear policy to student performance.” – Hanushek, 2002 http://edpro.stanford.edu/hanushek/admin/pages/files/uploads/Teacher%20quality.Evers-Izumi.pdf “Inputs” and Teacher Quality

23 Administrator evaluations Peer evaluations Time-Honored, Output-Oriented Teacher Assessments http://widgeteffect.org/downloads/TheWidgetEffect.pdf

24 Compare measured changes in test scores over time with predicted changes in test scores Change that exceeds prediction indicates the “value added” to student learning by a teacher “Output” Measures: Value-Added

25 “If student test achievement is the desired outcome, value-added is superior to other existing methods of classifying teachers. Classification that relies on other measurable characteristics of teachers (e.g., scores on licensing tests, routes into teaching, the path to certification, National Board for Professional Teaching Standards certification, teaching experience, quality of undergraduate institution, relevance of undergraduate coursework, extent and nature of professional development), considered singly or in aggregate, is not in the same league in predicting future performance as evaluation based on value-added.” Glazerman, Goldhaber, Loeb, Staiger, Raudenbush, & Whitehurst, 2010 “Output” Measures: Value-Added

26 Statistical methods are limited (defining and measuring variables, built-in error, varied findings across studies and time points) Students are not randomly assigned to teachers Tests are not given in all years and subjects Studies don’t capture the effects of the school and other adults on student learning Little indication of why teachers are effective Critiques of Value-Added Measures

27 Comparative Teacher Quality: Low vs. High SES (Reading) http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/200604hamilton_3_pb.pdf School Year Gains, by Socioeconomic Status, Beginning School Study

28 http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/200604hamilton_3_pb.pdf Comparative Teacher Quality: Low vs. High SES (Math) School Year Gains, by Socioeconomic Status, Beginning School Study

29 Comparative Summer Learning: Low vs. High SES (Reading) http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/200604hamilton_3_pb.pdf Summer Gains, by Socioeconomic Status, Beginning School Study

30 http://www.brookings.edu/views/papers/200604hamilton_3_pb.pdf Comparative Summer Learning: Low vs. High SES (Math) Summer Gains, by Socioeconomic Status, Beginning School Study

31 What do you make of this data about school year versus summer learning? What conclusions do you draw, if any, about comparative teacher effectiveness? What else would you want to know? Pause and think:

32 Social-emotional learning Classroom safety Physical development and health Mentoring students and colleagues Cultural competence Coaching, advising, field trips Is There More to Teacher Quality than Academics?

33 Administrator evaluations Peer evaluations Teaching materials and student work Student feedback Self-assessment Time-Honored, Output-Oriented Teacher Assessments Standardized assessment measures of classroom instructional quality based on videotaped observations scored by trained evaluators. See Measures of Effective Teaching (MET); Mathematical Quality of Instruction (MQI); Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). ^ New-fangled

34 http://www.doe.mass.edu/edeval/101511Overview.pdf Massachusetts Educator Evaluation Framework

35 What do you now know about methods and uses of teacher quality assessments? What seems appropriate? What seems fair? Think about the role(s) you do or plan to play in urban schools (teacher, administrator, parent, policy maker, non-profit partner, counselor, critic…). What measures of teacher quality would you find most desirable, reliable, and/or useful? Why? Pause and think:

36 Assuming it can be accurately and meaningfully measured, how should low teacher quality in urban schools be addressed? By changing who teaches, changing how they learn to teach, or making schooling teacher-proof?

37 Recruitment & hiring Compensation Retention & promotion Working conditions Changing Who Teaches: Pipeline Strategies

38 Left, dated 1933: http://www.vaschools.history.vt.edu/education/?q=node/39 Right: Temin, 2002 Recruitment & Hiring: Women Ratio of Wages for Females with College Education to Female Teachers, 35-44, 1979-1999

39 http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006313.pdf Recruitment & Hiring: Race/Ethnicity Percentage distribution of school teachers by race/ethnicity, percentage minority, school type, and selected school characteristics: 2003-04 School type Hispanic, single or multiple racesWhiteBlack Native or Pacific IslanderAsianMultiracialMinority All public schools6.283.17.90.71.30.716.9 Central City10.470.515.10.72.21.129.5 Urban fringe/ large town 5.287.45.10.61.10.612.6 Rural/small town3.090.24.91.00.50.49.8 Traditional public schools 6.283.37.80.71.30.716.7 Charter schools10.170.215.21.31.91.429.8 All private schools4.888.04.00.61.80.612.0 City private schools5.983.76.10.92.60.816.3

40 Photo, dated 1932: http://www.njwomenshistory.org/Period_5/TeachersColoredb.htmhttp://www.njwomenshistory.org/Period_5/TeachersColoredb.htm Hiring and Firing of Black Educators

41 http://eps.education.wisc.edu/reference/displacement.brownconf.pdf Hiring and Firing of Black Educators

42 Cheaper Faster progress & certification Academic and social supports Mixed results on effectiveness vs. traditionally trained teachers Recruitment and Training via Alternative Programs

43 Compensation Strategies Signing bonuses Tax abatements Bonuses for National Board certification Incentive pay for –student test results –teaching understaffed subjects –working in high-turnover schools Top-up pay for additional roles such as instructional coach or extracurricular duties

44 http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2006/2006313.pdf Percentage of public school districts and private schools that used pay incentives for various reasons, by selected public school characteristics: 2003-04 School type To reward teachers who have attained Natl. Board for Profl. Teaching Standards certification To reward excellence in teaching To reward completion of in-service professional development To recruit or retain teachers to teach in a less desirable location To recruit or retain teachers to teach in fields of shortage All public schools 18.47.924.24.611.9 Central City27.819.130.59.020.9 Urban fringe/ large town 19.29.326.54.812.1 Rural/small town 15.74.520.73.89.9 Compensation Strategies

45 Retention: Working Conditions Hanushek & Rivkin, 2007

46 Improving Working Conditions Teacher teaming Paid professional development Streamlined personnel systems Shared governance

47 Partner with urban districts Create “residency” programs based on a medical training model Add coursework addressing multicultural competencies, diverse populations Focus on high-leverage, practical “teacher moves” rather than on more abstract theory or concepts Promote data-driven instruction, both by student teachers and by the teacher prep programs themselves Share best practices across networks Create university-alternative program partnerships Pre-service Teacher Prep Reform

48 In-Service Teacher Professional Development Reform Induction and mentoring support for new teachers lasting 2+ years Coaching Instructional rounds Teaming Data-driven instruction and professional development Teacher career ladder: differentiated roles based on experience, expertise, goals

49 Teacher-proof curricula Practices of effective teachers Effective micro-moves Teacher-Proofing Teaching: Practice-Focused Strategies

50 Systemic Change Address recruitment, preparation, working conditions, and professional development Consider teacher attitudes and beliefs in recruitment Increase the status of teaching as a profession

51 What do you now know about approaches to improving teacher quality in urban schools? How do these approaches stack up against one another? Do some seem more effective, practical, politically viable, or just than others? Think about the role(s) you have played or plan to play in urban schools. What approaches to improving teacher quality have been or will be most desirable, reliable, and/or useful? Why? How has your own experience at HGSE reflected, complemented, or contradicted the strategies outlined in this section of the e-lecture? Pause and think:

52 How do institutions such as unions, charters, education schools, and district bureaucracies promote or impede the recruitment, training, and retention of high-quality teachers in urban areas?

53 Unions http://a100educationalpolicy.pbworks.com/w/page/3764852/The%20Firing%20Squad%3A%20History Albert Shanker, speaking to UFT teachers at the 1968 Ocean Hill- Brownsville strike, Brooklyn

54 http://educationnext.org/deindustrialization/ Teacher Professionalism & Agency

55 Charter Schools Brewer & Ahn, 2010

56 Education Schools Concerns Low quality of teacher prep students Disconnect between theory and practice Lack of clinical expertise among faculty Lack of accountability Proposed Reforms Partnerships with districts and innovative alternative programs Rigorous accountability for results

57 District Bureaucracies Rigid and fragmented structures can impede recruitment and hiring Limited capacity to innovate Growing reporting demands require more personnel Budget shortfalls impose trade-offs between administrative and teaching positions May be designed to alleviate teachers’ organizational responsibilities so they can focus on instruction

58 What have you learned that really surprised you? How does this change your thinking about teachers in urban schools? What practical insights do you want to hold onto? How does this e-lecture jive with or complement the assigned readings? What are you still confused or wondering about? What do you want to explore in more detail during class? Pause and think:

59 Sources Alexander, Karl L., Doris R. Entwisle, and Linda S. Olson (2001). “Schools, Achievement, and Inequality: A Seasonal Perspective.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 23: 171-191.Schools, Achievement, and Inequality: A Seasonal Perspective Alexander, Karl L., Doris R. Entwisle, and Linda Steffel Olson (2007). “Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap.” American Sociological Review 72: 167-180.Lasting Consequences of the Summer Learning Gap Almy, Sarah & Christina Theokas (2010). “Not Prepared for Class: High-Poverty Schools Continue to Have Fewer In-Field Teachers.” The Education Trust.Not Prepared for Class: High-Poverty Schools Continue to Have Fewer In-Field Teachers Angus, David L. (2001). “Professionalism and the Public Good: A Brief History of Teacher Certification.” Jeffrey Mirel, ed. Washington, DC: Thomas B. Fordham Foundation.Professionalism and the Public Good: A Brief History of Teacher Certification Aud, Susan, Mary Ann Fox, & Angelina KewalRamani (2010). Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups, Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences.Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups Bohte, John (2001). “School Bureaucracy and Student Performance at the Local Level.” Public Administration Review 61(1): 92-99.School Bureaucracy and Student Performance at the Local Level Boyd, Don, Erin Dunlop, Hamp Lankford, Susanna Loeb, Patten Mahler, Rachel O'Brien, & Jim Wyckoff (2010). “Alternative Certification in the Long Run: Student Achievement, Teacher Retention and the Distribution of Teacher Quality in New York City.” Columbia, MO: The Association for Education Finance and Policy.Alternative Certification in the Long Run: Student Achievement, Teacher Retention and the Distribution of Teacher Quality in New York City Boyd, Donald, Hamilton Lankford, Susanna Loeb, Jonah Rockoff, & James Wyckoff (2008). “The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and its Implications for Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 27(4): 793–818.The Narrowing Gap in New York City Teacher Qualifications and its Implications for Student Achievement in High-Poverty Schools Brewer, Dominic J. and June Ahn (2010). “Taking Measure: What do we know about teachers in charter schools?” In Julian R. Betts & Paul T. Hill, eds., Taking Measure of Charter Schools: Better Assessments, Better Policymaking, Better Schools, Lanham MD: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 129-154. Center for Urban and Multicultural Education, Indiana University (n.d.). “Teacher Licensure (Certification). Research Brief.”Teacher Licensure (Certification). Research Brief Cooper, Harris, Barbara Nye, Kelly Charlton, James Lindsay, and Scott Greathouse (1996). “The Effects of Summer Vacation on Achievement Test Scores: A Narrative and Meta-Analytic Review.” Review of Educational Research 66: 227-268.The Effects of Summer Vacation on Achievement Test Scores: A Narrative and Meta-Analytic Review

60 Sources Hanushek, Eric A. and Steven G. Rivkin (2007). “Pay, Working Conditions, and Teacher Quality.” Future of Children 17(1): 69-86.Pay, Working Conditions, and Teacher Quality Hudson, Mildred J. and Barbara J. Holmes (1994). “Missing Teachers, Impaired Communities: The Unanticipated Consequences of Brown v. Board of Education on the African American Teaching Force at the Precollegiate Level.” The Journal of Negro Education 63(3): 388-393.Missing Teachers, Impaired Communities: The Unanticipated Consequences of Brown v. Board of Education on the African American Teaching Force at the Precollegiate Level Coopersmith, Jared (2009). “Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results from the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey.” Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences.Characteristics of Public, Private, and Bureau of Indian Education Elementary and Secondary School Teachers in the United States: Results from the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey Dee, Thomas S. “Teachers, Race and Student Achievement in a Randomized Experiment." The Review of Economics and Statistics 86, 1 (February 2004): 195-210.Teachers, Race and Student Achievement in a Randomized Experiment Downey, Maureen (2011, June 5). “School districts ‘dying from the increased bureaucracy.’” The Atlanta Journal- Constitution, “Get Schooled” Blog.School districts ‘dying from the increased bureaucracy Fairclough, Adam (2004). “The Costs of Brown: Black Teachers and School Integration.” The Journal of American History 91(1): 43-55.The Costs of Brown: Black Teachers and School Integration Fifer, Molly E. and Alan B. Krueger (2006). “Advancing Opportunity, Prosperity and Growth.” Policy Brief No. 2006- 03, The Hamilton Project, The Brookings Institution.Advancing Opportunity, Prosperity and Growth Fultz, Michael (2004). "Overcoming Historical Amnesia: The Displacement of Black Educators Post-Brown.” Paper presented at “Fifty Years After Brown v. Board of Education: Race and Equal Educational Opportunity in the United States,” February 4-6, 2004, University of Wisconsin-Madison.Overcoming Historical Amnesia: The Displacement of Black Educators Post-Brown Glazerman, Steven, Dan Goldhaber, Susanna Loeb, Douglas Staiger, Stephen Raudenbush, & Grover Whitehurst. "Value-Added: It's Not Perfect, But It Makes Sense.” Education Week 30(15)."Value-Added: It's Not Perfect, But It Makes Sense Green, Elizabeth (2010). “Building a better teacher.” The New York Times. March, 2, 2010.Building a better teacher Haberman, Martin (2010). “Selecting and Preparing Urban Teachers.” Education News.Selecting and Preparing Urban Teachers Hanushek, Eric A. (2002). “Teacher Quality.” In Lance T. Izumi and Williamson M. Evers, eds., Teacher Quality. Palo Alto: Hoover Press.Teacher Quality

61 Sources Hanushek, Eric A., John F. Kain, Steven G. Rivkin, and Gregory F. Branch (2007). “Charter school quality and parental decision making with school choice,” Journal of Public Economics 91(5-6): 823-848.Charter school quality and parental decision making with school choice Jacob, Brian A. (2007). “The Challenges of Staffing Urban Schools with Effective Teachers.” Future of Children 17(1): 129-153.The Challenges of Staffing Urban Schools with Effective Teachers Jacob, Brian A., Thomas J. Kane, Jonah E. Rockoff, Douglas O. Staiger (2009). “Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One?” CLOSUP Working Paper Series Number 11.Can You Recognize an Effective Teacher When You Recruit One? Johnson, Susan Moore (2005). “Working in Schools.” In Susan Fuhrman & Marvin Lazerson, eds., The Public Schools, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 160-187. Kane, Thomas J., Eric S. Taylor, John H. Tyler, and Amy L. Wooten (2010). “Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data.” NBER Working Paper 15803.Identifying Effective Classroom Practices Using Student Achievement Data Kerchner, Charles Taylor (2001). “Deindustrialization.” Education Next 1(3): 46-50.Deindustrialization Kim, Jimmy (2004). “Summer Reading and the Ethnic Achievement Gap.” Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR) 9:2, 169-188.Summer Reading and the Ethnic Achievement Gap Lankford, Hamilton, Susanna Loeb, and James Wyckoff (2002). “Teacher Sorting and the Plight of Urban Schools: A Descriptive Analysis.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 24(1): 37-62.Teacher Sorting and the Plight of Urban Schools: A Descriptive Analysis Lemov, Doug (2010). Teach Like A Champion. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Levine, Arthur (2006). Educating School Teachers. New York: The Education Schools Project.Educating School Teachers Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (2011, October). “Overview of the New Massachusetts Educator Evaluation FrameworkOverview of the New Massachusetts Educator Evaluation Framework Massachusetts Working Group on Teacher Evaluation of the National Center for Fair & Open Testing (2011). “Flawed Massachusetts Teacher Evaluation Proposal Risks Further Damage to Teaching and Learning.”Flawed Massachusetts Teacher Evaluation Proposal Risks Further Damage to Teaching and Learning Ng, Jennifer C. (2003). “Teacher Shortages in Urban Schools: The Role of Traditional and Alternative Certification Routes in Filling the Voids.” Education and Urban Society 35(4): 380-398.“Teacher Shortages in Urban Schools: The Role of Traditional and Alternative Certification Routes in Filling the Voids Papay, John (2007). Aspen Institute Datasheet: The Teaching Workforce. Washington, D.C.: The Aspen Institute.Aspen Institute Datasheet: The Teaching Workforce

62 Sources Pelayo, Icela and D.J. Brewer (2010). “Teacher Quality in Education Production.” In Penelope Peterson, Eva Baker and Barry McGaw, eds., International Encyclopedia of Education (Third Edition), Oxford: Elsevier, pp. 438- 442. Policy Studies Associates (2005). “Teacher quality and student achievement: Research review.” Washington, DC: The Center for Public Education.Teacher quality and student achievement: Research review Ravitch, Diane (2002), "A Brief History of Teacher Professionalism," White House Conference on Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers, Washington, DC.A Brief History of Teacher Professionalism Rothman, Robert and Patte Barth (2009). “Does highly qualified mean highly effective?” Center for Public Education.Does highly qualified mean highly effective? Rothman, Robert and Linda Darling-Hammond (2001). “Teacher and School Leader Effectiveness: Lessons Learned from High-Performing Systems.” Washington DC: Alliance For Excellent Education.Teacher and School Leader Effectiveness: Lessons Learned from High-Performing Systems Rothstein, Jesse (2009). “Teacher Quality in Educational Production: Tracking, Decay, and Student Achievement.”Teacher Quality in Educational Production: Tracking, Decay, and Student Achievement Strizek, Gregory A., Jayme L. Pittsonberger, Kate E. Riordan, Deanna M. Lyter, and Greg F. Orlofsky (2006). “Characteristics of Schools, Districts, Teachers, Principals, and School Libraries in the United States: 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey.” Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences.Characteristics of Schools, Districts, Teachers, Principals, and School Libraries in the United States: 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey Temin, Peter (2002). "Teacher Quality And The Future Of America," Eastern Economic Journal 28(3): 285-300.Teacher Quality And The Future Of America Vasquez Heilig, Julian and Su Jin Jez, (2010). “Teach For America: A Review of the Evidence.” East Lansing, MI: The Great Lakes Center for Education Research & Practice.Teach For America: A Review of the Evidence Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., & Keeling, D. (2009). The Widget Effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness.The Widget Effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness. Winerip, Michael (2011, November 28). “Principals Protest Increased Use of Test Scores to Evaluate Educators.” New York Times.Principals Protest Increased Use of Test Scores to Evaluate Educators Zins, Joseph E., Michelle R. Bloodworth, Roger P. Weissberg & Herbert J. Walberg (2007). “The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learning to School Success.” Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 17(2-3): 191-210.The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learning to School Success


Download ppt "T210X E-Lecture Series: Teachers by Meira Levinson and Rebecca B. Miller."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google