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Impacts of Integrating EVs into Electric Power Grids P2030

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1 Impacts of Integrating EVs into Electric Power Grids P2030
Impacts of Integrating EVs into Electric Power Grids P TF2 Draft Report IEVC Conference, Greenville, SC March 8, 2012 ML Chan, PhD, ML Consulting Group (TF2 Lead) Jim Hall, AKF Group (Subgroup Lead) Laura Manning , OPPD (Subgroup Lead) Mike Henderson, ISO-NE (Subgroup Lead) Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos, Cardiff University (Subgroup Lead)

2 Overview of IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Report
ML Chan, PhD Sr. Vice President ML Consulting Group

3 Objectives of TF2 Report
IEEE Standard Association activities; to provide guidelines for development standards for integrating EVs into electric grid TF1 – EV Technology; TF3 - Cybersecurity & IT Infrastructure; TF4 – Communications & Cybersecurity; TF5 – Battery Technology; TF6 – Chargers & Charging; TF2: Impacts on Energy Supply, Transmission, Distribution and Customer Sectors; part of P report EVs include Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs,) Extended Range Electric Vehicles ( EREVs) Battery-powered Electric Vehicles ( BEVs) Fleet Electric Vehicles

4 Impacts Considered Long term system resource planning case
Capacity issues System reliability Power system operations case Each case with 2 scenarios EVs acting as a load EVs acting a source (V2H or V2G) Each scenario with 2 vehicle charging cases Uncontrolled charging Controlled charging (e.g., electricity TOD rates)

5 EV Charging Load Shapes
The most critical driver to understand and predict EV impacts on grids that vary by Electrical subsystem (substation/distribution transformers) Weather region (lifestyles) Urban/suburb/rural areas Income level Roaming pattern Further complicated by EVs serving as source, in addition to serving as load

6 Detailed Grid Impacts Customer grid impacts (Jim Hall, AKF Group)
Distribution system impacts (Laura Manning, OPPD) Transmission system impacts (Mike Henderson, ISO-NE) Generation system impacts (Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos, Cardiff University) Format of discussion on each sector’s impacts Presentation by each Subgroup Lead Comments/Inputs at the end of each presentation

7 IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Contributors Henry Chao, New York ISO
Liana Cipcigan, Cardiff University, UK Thomas Domitrovich,  Eaton Corporation, PA, USA Dr Fainan Hassan, Alstom T&D Aoife Foley, University College Cork & Queen's College, Belfast Iñaki Grau, Cardiff University, UK Rao Konidena, MISO Jeremy Landt ,Transcore Don Marabell, GE Energy

8 IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Contributors Tony McGrail, US National Grid
Brian McMillan, Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc., ON, Canada Patti Metro, NRECA Dale Osborn, MISO Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Cardiff University, UK Bob Saint, NRECA, VA, USA Jose Salazar, Southern California Edison, CA, USA Steve Widergren, PNL Mulu T. Woldeyohannes, Baker Hughes, TX, USA

9 IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Contributors John Bzura, ISO-NE
Robert Leavy, Gannett Fleming Transit & Rail Systems

10 Impacts on Customer Side of the Grid
By James Hall, AKF Group

11 Impacts on Customer’s Service Overview
Modes of Operation Charging Only – EVs acting purely as a load Source V2H – No Net-Metering Source V2G – With Net-Metering Impact of Smart Meter Integration Information will have to be conveyed between customer’s charging equipment, meter, and grid operations. May have a significant impact on today’s IT grid.

12 Impacts on Customer’s Service Overview
Specific Impacts Residential Characterized by single phase services consisting of equipment and capacities largely dictated by building codes. Many customers served by a single distribution transformer and feeder. Currently utility rates are flat with little use of time-of-use rates. Commercial Larger generally 3-phase distribution systems. Rates are generally complex time-of-use with seasonal ratcheting. Impacts are minimal for other than large fleet operations. Work Using this term to define the special situation where employees plug-in and charge their EVs on their employer’s property. Mass Transit EVs as busses plugged in and charging during evening hours.

13 Impacts on Customer’s Service Overview
Unique Characteristics of Customer’s Impacts. Impacts are building code driven. Infrastructure upgrades may be required to satisfy codes while actual impact to the grid is minimal. Impacts are a function of the level of charging. Faster charging rate equates to a larger connected load. In the case of a bi-directional charger the size of the connection to a main panel is limited by code to 20% of the size of the existing main (Assuming the size of the main is matched to the bus). Consideration should be given to minimize the impact on existing facility’s service and equipment.

14 EVs acting as a Load Load Issues Available Fault Currents
Additional load – entire charger load impacts equipment – No Diversity Available Fault Currents On-Vehicle chargers will be subject to varying range of available fault currents. Power Quality Issues Non-Linear Loads Chargers will have to be single phase resulting in voltage balance issues.

15 EVs acting as a Load Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS)
HEMS may be used to coordinate household electric appliance loads with vehicle charging. The EV charger may be added to the HEMS as another appliance to be controlled. The HEMS may control the starting, stopping, and rate of charging to coordinate with the cycling of air conditioning compressors and hot water heaters. Cycling these loads to maintain an existing domestic load profile may delay the loading of distribution system components. Without Time-of-Use rates the customer will not have the incentive to coordinate his demand.

16 EVs Acting as a Load Specific Issues
Residential Customers Very easy to provide an on-board charger that will require infrastructure upgrades Commercial Customers Small impact except in the case of large fleet operations Work Impact on existing facilities service may be large – May require a dedicated service for vehicle charging stations. Mass Transportation Charging load may be significant relative to transit hub facility load.

17 EVs Acting as a Source V2H
Connection Issues Parallel sources connected to a common bus. Sum of sources cannot exceed bus rating. Source of additional fault current Coordination and Protection Issues Islanding Synchronization – assurances required to prevent closing an intermediate switch while discharging. Power Quality Issues DC Injection Harmonics

18 EVs Acting as a Source V2H Specific Issues
Residential Issues Chargers should be limited in size to preclude the requirement for service upgrades. Typical residential panel (100A or 200A) will be limited to a 20A or 40A (4.8 or 9.8 kVA) inverter connection. Commercial Issues May have connection point issues as utilities require parallel sources to be connected at the PCC. May only be practical when operating schedules coordinate with utility time-of-use rates. Work May only be practical by installing dedicated single phase services directly to charging stations equipped with smart metering technology.

19 EVs Acting as a Source V2G
Special Net-Meters are Required Metering Configurations Single meter location – Not good for V2G. No special rates can be applied for ancillary services. Series Meter – meter downstream of service main in dedicated charger circuit. Measures only chargers imported/exported power. Parallel Metering – A second service to a facility dedicated to charging equipment.

20 EVs Acting as a Source V2G Specific Issues
Residential Customers Will require serial or parallel metering Of little benefit without AMI Commercial Customers Again, only practical for special situations where coordinate well with utility rates. Work Will require a dedicated charging service from the utility since single phase sources cannot be connected to three phase systems. May impact commercial facilities IT infrastructure. Mass Transportation The large batteries will provide a large centralized source to the grid. This source will only be available during off-peak hours.

21 Comments please!

22 Impacts on Distribution Systems
By Laura Manning, OPPD

23 Distribution System Section
Impacts Covered From Distribution Substation To Distribution Transformer Secondary Step Down to Customer Voltage Existing &Future Distributed Generation Micro-grid Individual DG

24 Distribution System Impacts Overview
Long-term Planning Effects Loads or Sources: Thermal Loading, Reactive losses and/or Inductive additions, Phase Imbalance, Asset Upgrade & Optimization, Advanced Metering Loads: Greater magnitude than traditional incremental additions Sources: Resemble Distributed Generation, Vehicle sourcing considerations and limitations System Operations Effects Loads or Sources: System Protection, Power Quality, Power Conditioning, Grid Stability/Reliability, Frequency Regulation/Synchronism, Phasing, Interactive Voltage Control/Phased Switching, Reactive Power Management, Demand Side Management, Controlled Import/Export from/to Grid, Cyber Security Loads: Greater magnitude than traditional incremental additions, Grid Stability/Reliability Sources: Resemble Distributed Generation, System Protection, Power Conditioning, Grid Stability/Reliability, Utility Personnel and Public Safety

25 Long-term / Planning Effects
Uncontrolled Charging Higher Peaks Lower Valleys Higher Costs Controlled Charging/Discharging Voltage Support Charging Stations Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) Voltage Support & Control Rapid Real Power Transfer Frequency Regulation Load Following

26 Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
Thermal Loading (United States) Plug-in vehicle type and range ( V for 60 Hz freq.) SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge Coupler Charging Levels Charger Type Voltage Amps Demand Full Charge AC Level 1 on-board 120 VAC 16 A 1.92 kW hours AC Level 2 208 – 240 V AC 12 – 80 A 2.5 – 19.2 kW fewer DC Level 3 off-board 300 – 600 V DC 250, 350 & 400 A 75 – 240 kW minutes Distribution System Impacts

27 Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
Thermal Loading (Europe) Plug-in vehicle type and range ( V for 50 Hz freq.) IEC Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 1: General requirements Charging Modes Voltage Amps Mode 1 max. 250 V AC or 480 V AC, 3-phase max. 16 A Mode 2 max. 32 A Mode 3 max. 690 V AC, 3-phase max. 250 A Mode 4 max. 600 V DC max. 400 A Distribution System Impacts

28 Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
Thermal Loading PEV market share and distribution Penetration Possible Definition Possible Modifications System Impact Small Individual residence adds an EV or V2G EV Add proper receptacle to vehicle parking area. Older homes in older areas may require service, secondary or transformer upgrade. Many locations may not require any changes. Localized and diverse Medium 2nd EV is added to a secondary that serves the 1st EV or V2G EV Might require larger conductors, additional conductors or a new pedestal. May need to replace transformers to meet peak load and design for lower overload capacity due to extended loading time. Services fed directly from transformers may require replacement of secondary and pedestals. Consider design changes for new installations in anticipation of further market penetration. Distribution System Impacts

29 Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
Thermal Loading PEV market share and distribution Distribution System Impacts

30 Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
Thermal Loading Typical charging/discharging profiles and peak demand/reverse power levels Spatial vs. roaming load distribution Mass electric transit systems Reactive losses and/or Inductive additions Phase Imbalance Distribution System Impacts

31 Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
Asset Upgrade & Optimization Distribution Transformer Primary Lateral Three Phase Feeder Substation Equipment Advanced Metering Transmit Demand & Supply Management Receive VIN, Demand & Supply Management Distribution System Impacts

32 Distribution System Impacts
Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads vs. EVs Acting as Sources EVs Acting as Loads Forward power flow perspective Magnitude > Traditional Incremental Load Challenging to model EVs Acting as Sources Reverse power flow on unidirectional assets Resemble distributed generation during discharge Equipment capable of bi-directional operation Vehicle sourcing considerations and limitations Distribution System Impacts

33 System Operations Effects EVs Acting as Loads or Sources
System Protection – Relay Adaptability Operation caused by poor power quality Operation due to variations in AC frequency Misoperation due to Harmonic distortion/heating Power Quality Harmonics impact to connected components Flicker EMC/EMI Power Conditioning Voltage Regulators Capacitor Banks Distribution System Impacts

34 System Operations Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
Grid Stability / Reliability Service Interruption & Restoration Frequency Regulation / Synchronism Phasing Interactive Voltage Control / Phased Switching Reactive Power Management Demand Side Management (DSM) Controlled Charge/Import & Discharge/Export Cyber Security Distribution System Impacts

35 Distribution System Impacts
System Operations Effects EVs Acting as Loads vs. EVs Acting as Sources EVs Acting as Loads Forward power flow perspective Magnitude > Traditional incremental additions Challenging to model for grid stability/reliability EVs Acting as Sources Reverse power flow on unidirectional assets Resemble distributed generation during discharge Equipment capable of bi-directional operation System Protection Islanding Detection Bi-directional Power Flow Distribution System Impacts

36 System Operations Effects EVs Acting as Sources
Power Conditioning Voltage Regulators Mitigate Intermittency Additional Reactive Power Grid Stability / Reliability Service Interruption and Restoration Potential Hunting Subtransient voltage and current dynamics Utility Personnel and Public Safety Anti-Islanding (IEEE 1547) Distribution System Impacts

37 Distribution System Impacts
Summary Design power charge/discharge to high standards Uncontrolled operation: Lower load factors & higher peaks Required distribution infrastructure upgrades Planning and Operations challenge to model the system Controlled operation: Load leveling = peak shaving + valley filling Delay distribution infrastructure upgrades Planning and Operations less challenging to model Intermittent/renewable/local Distribution support Distribution System Impacts

38 Distribution System Impacts
Comments please! IEEE TF2 Draft Webinar Distribution System Impacts

39 Impacts on Transmission Systems
Michael I. Henderson, ISO-NE Director, Regional Planning and Coordination

40 Disclaimer Properly Presented Information
Accurately represents the positions of ISO New England Inaccurate Information or Opinions that May Not Fully Agree with ISO New England My private views and are not meant to represent any organization with which I am affiliated

41 About ISO New England Major responsibilities:
Not-for-profit corporation created in to oversee New England’s restructured electric power system Regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regional Transmission Organization Independent of companies doing business in the market No financial interest in companies participating in the market Major responsibilities: Reliable operation of the electric grid Administer wholesale electricity markets Plan for future system needs

42 New England’s Electric Power Grid
6.5 million customer meters 350+ generators 8,000+ miles of high voltage transmission lines 6 local control centers 13 interconnections with approximately 5,000 MW capability to three neighboring systems: New York New Brunswick Hydro Quebec 32,000 MW of installed generating capacity Peak load: Summer: 28,130 MW (8/06) Winter: 22,818 MW (1/04) More than 450 participants in the marketplace Over $9 billion total market value ISO and Local Control Centers 320 mi. 400 mi. 650 km 520 km

43 Reliability Guides Regional Planning
North American Electric Reliability Corporation Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System in North America Northeast Power Coordinating Council Basic Criteria for the Design and Operation of Interconnected Power Systems ISO New England Reliability requirements for the regional power system NPCC Standards are used to ensure that the regional transmission system can reliably deliver power to consumers under a wide range of future system conditions.

44 System Expansion Planning and Operations
System adequacy and security Resources develop/operate in amounts, location, and types when needed Transmission expansion/maintenance needed for reliability and economic performance Drivers are the amounts, locations, and characteristics of system loads and resources, transmission system configuration, and control system interactions Major considerations include: Future and current operability of the system Economic performance

45 Planning Is Complex Markets and bid strategies increase variability
Market power issues Independent owners make decisions for capital investment Technology and physical changes Unit dispatch Ancillary services Unit commitment Network flows Load pockets Dependency on generating units affect transfer limits Resources Load serving entities Transmission owners Wind and solar Environmental constraints Distributed resources Transmission

46 Technical Studies Needed
Transmission Planning studies identify system needs and show how a proposed project meets those needs Studies must address power flow and stability covering: Power flow performance, control and line utilization Reactive supply and voltage control requirements Dynamic and transient stability concerns and control system responses Reliable system performance must be demonstrated during normal and contingency conditions Short circuit availability and transient and harmonic performance must be satisfied

47 Growth of Smart Grid Technologies
Smart grid technologies can affect energy use Examples: Load management and Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems Energy storage is getting increased focus as a benefit to system operations and to mitigate impact of variable resources Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) can act as loads, sources, or dynamic voltage sources The large scale integration of EVs will affect the planning and operation of the electric power system grid

48 Effects of EV on the Transmission System
Economics of EVs dependent on many factors which affect their penetration and use Capital and operating costs Performance and range Availability of charging stations Price of electricity and competing transportation fuels EVs can Mitigate or defer transmission system needs Advance transmission system improvements

49 EVs Change Load Shapes & Performance
EV uses vary: Community type - urban/suburb/rural areas Trip purpose- commute/errands/pleasure Day –weekdays/weekend/holiday Weather region – driving patterns vary with hot and cold weather Roaming pattern – charging station operation at different locations Understanding and predicting EV impacts on the grid depends on their use Further complicated by EVs acting as a load, real power source, and/or reactive power source

50 Summer vs. Winter Peak Demand

51 EVs Affect Transmission System Planning
Load patterns and implementation of demand response Large EV penetration and use patterns affect markets, planning, and operations Load shapes Demand response Load aggregators Price signals Economic and environmental system performance EVs can provide ancillary services Balancing and regulation Operating reserves Voltage regulation and support

52 EVs Impacts on System Planning & Operations
Variability of load amounts, locations, and characteristics affect transmission planning Thermal studies Voltage studies Stability studies Harmonics, transients and system protection Could facilitate integration of variable resources Observability and controllability are required Requires accurate projections of load Smart chips can provide frequency and voltage control

53 Demand-Resource Dispatch Zones

54 Need for New Tools and Modeling
EVs introduce additional uncertainties to load levels, characteristics, and demand response EV modeling needs to be reflected in transmission need and solution studies of Resource adequacy Economic performance Environmental emissions Transmission system performance Forecasts of EVs and new study tools will be required EV locations and use patterns depend on consumer behavior End use models Stochastic models Charging and discharging

55 Summary EVs can act as a load, source, or dynamic voltage source
Affect the system in different ways EVs introduce additional opportunities and uncertainties into system planning Resource planning Economic and environmental performance Transmission Planning Tools may be needed to forecast future EV penetration and use patterns

56 Distribution System Impacts
Comments please! IEEE TF2 Draft Webinar Distribution System Impacts

57 Impacts on Generation Systems
By Dr. Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos

58 Generation System Impacts Overview
Long-term planning effects Generation Capacity Energy Storage Regional Aspects Unit Dispatch Electricity Markets Mass Transit Operational effects Generator Efficiency Intermittent Stochastic Generation (Renewable) Micro-Generation Generation System Impacts

59 Long-Term Planning Effects
More Generation Capacity Base load plants: for demand increase Peaking plants: for unpredictable EV charging Energy Storage Large and small scale More energy storage needs for load balancing Regional Aspects EV regional distribution (urban/rural) Existing installations variability Generation System Impacts

60 Long-Term Planning Effects
Unit Dispatch (depends on EV operation) Uncontrolled: Wider difference between demand valleys and peaks Inefficient operation at low loading for spinning reserve Controlled/V2G: More efficient dispatch Valley filling Generation System Impacts

61 Long-Term Planning Effects
Electricity Markets Impact depends on tariff incentives Flat rate: peak increase Dynamic tariff: valley filling Mass Transit Two contrasting effects: overnight depot charging – mid-day fast charging Impact depends on the level of adoption Generation System Impacts

62 Generation System Impacts
Operational Effects Generator Efficiency Uncontrolled: More balancing services –> higher fuel consumption –> more emissions Ramping of units, reducing efficiency and increasing fatigue Controlled/V2G: Load leveling –> avoid part-loaded, inefficient operation Base-load generation more cost-effective Generation System Impacts

63 Generation System Impacts
Operational Effects Intermittent Stochastic Generation (Renewable) Controlled: avoid curtailment V2G: complement intermittent, non-controllable sources (e.g. wind) Micro-Generation Local micro-generator support Local load peak shaving Generation System Impacts

64 Generation: All-time Peak
Distances to Boston, from: Bismarck, ND: 1,800 mi. (proxy for resources in JCSP) Salisbury, New Brunswick: 520 mi. (proxy for NB energy hub) Des Cantons substation in Quebec: 260 mi. (assumes HQ will build transmission from renewable resources in the north to their load center in the south) Source: Rand McNally mileage calculator Map: MapQuest Generation System Impacts

65 Emissions: All-time Peak
Distances to Boston, from: Bismarck, ND: 1,800 mi. (proxy for resources in JCSP) Salisbury, New Brunswick: 520 mi. (proxy for NB energy hub) Des Cantons substation in Quebec: 260 mi. (assumes HQ will build transmission from renewable resources in the north to their load center in the south) Source: Rand McNally mileage calculator Map: MapQuest Generation System Impacts

66 Generation System Impacts
Summary Need for more generation capacity (base & peak plants) Uncontrolled operation: reduced plant efficiency, increased cost and emissions Controlled/V2G operation: load leveling, intermittent/renewable/local generation support Total emissions due to generators may increase or decrease depending on the amount and pattern of EV use and mode of operation Generation System Impacts

67 Generation System Impacts
Comments please! IEEE TF2 Draft Webinar Generation System Impacts

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