Presentation on theme: "Impacts of Integrating EVs into Electric Power Grids P2030"— Presentation transcript:
1Impacts of Integrating EVs into Electric Power Grids P2030 Impacts of Integrating EVs into Electric Power Grids P TF2 Draft ReportIEVC Conference, Greenville, SCMarch 8, 2012ML Chan, PhD, ML Consulting Group (TF2 Lead)Jim Hall, AKF Group (Subgroup Lead)Laura Manning , OPPD (Subgroup Lead)Mike Henderson, ISO-NE (Subgroup Lead)Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos, Cardiff University (Subgroup Lead)
2Overview of IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Report ML Chan, PhDSr. Vice PresidentML Consulting Group
3Objectives of TF2 Report IEEE Standard Association activities; to provide guidelines for development standards for integrating EVs into electric gridTF1 – EV Technology; TF3 - Cybersecurity & IT Infrastructure; TF4 – Communications & Cybersecurity; TF5 – Battery Technology; TF6 – Chargers & Charging;TF2: Impacts on Energy Supply, Transmission, Distribution and Customer Sectors; part of P reportEVs includePlug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs,)Extended Range Electric Vehicles ( EREVs)Battery-powered Electric Vehicles ( BEVs)Fleet Electric Vehicles
4Impacts Considered Long term system resource planning case Capacity issuesSystem reliabilityPower system operations caseEach case with 2 scenariosEVs acting as a loadEVs acting a source (V2H or V2G)Each scenario with 2 vehicle charging casesUncontrolled chargingControlled charging (e.g., electricity TOD rates)
5EV Charging Load Shapes The most critical driver to understand and predict EV impacts on grids that vary byElectrical subsystem (substation/distribution transformers)Weather region (lifestyles)Urban/suburb/rural areasIncome levelRoaming patternFurther complicated by EVs serving as source, in addition to serving as load
6Detailed Grid Impacts Customer grid impacts (Jim Hall, AKF Group) Distribution system impacts (Laura Manning, OPPD)Transmission system impacts (Mike Henderson, ISO-NE)Generation system impacts (Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos, Cardiff University)Format of discussion on each sector’s impactsPresentation by each Subgroup LeadComments/Inputs at the end of each presentation
7IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Contributors Henry Chao, New York ISO Liana Cipcigan, Cardiff University, UKThomas Domitrovich, Eaton Corporation, PA, USADr Fainan Hassan, Alstom T&DAoife Foley, University College Cork & Queen's College, BelfastIñaki Grau, Cardiff University, UKRao Konidena, MISOJeremy Landt ,TranscoreDon Marabell, GE Energy
8IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Contributors Tony McGrail, US National Grid Brian McMillan, Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc., ON, CanadaPatti Metro, NRECADale Osborn, MISOPanagiotis Papadopoulos, Cardiff University, UKBob Saint, NRECA, VA, USAJose Salazar, Southern California Edison, CA, USASteve Widergren, PNLMulu T. Woldeyohannes, Baker Hughes, TX, USA
9IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Contributors John Bzura, ISO-NE Robert Leavy, Gannett Fleming Transit & Rail Systems
10Impacts on Customer Side of the Grid ByJames Hall, AKF Group
11Impacts on Customer’s Service Overview Modes of OperationCharging Only – EVs acting purely as a loadSource V2H – No Net-MeteringSource V2G – With Net-MeteringImpact of Smart Meter IntegrationInformation will have to be conveyed between customer’s charging equipment, meter, and grid operations.May have a significant impact on today’s IT grid.
12Impacts on Customer’s Service Overview Specific ImpactsResidentialCharacterized by single phase services consisting of equipment and capacities largely dictated by building codes.Many customers served by a single distribution transformer and feeder.Currently utility rates are flat with little use of time-of-use rates.CommercialLarger generally 3-phase distribution systems.Rates are generally complex time-of-use with seasonal ratcheting.Impacts are minimal for other than large fleet operations.WorkUsing this term to define the special situation where employees plug-in and charge their EVs on their employer’s property.Mass TransitEVs as busses plugged in and charging during evening hours.
13Impacts on Customer’s Service Overview Unique Characteristics of Customer’s Impacts.Impacts are building code driven.Infrastructure upgrades may be required to satisfy codes while actual impact to the grid is minimal.Impacts are a function of the level of charging. Faster charging rate equates to a larger connected load.In the case of a bi-directional charger the size of the connection to a main panel is limited by code to 20% of the size of the existing main (Assuming the size of the main is matched to the bus).Consideration should be given to minimize the impact on existing facility’s service and equipment.
14EVs acting as a Load Load Issues Available Fault Currents Additional load – entire charger load impacts equipment – No DiversityAvailable Fault CurrentsOn-Vehicle chargers will be subject to varying range of available fault currents.Power Quality IssuesNon-Linear LoadsChargers will have to be single phase resulting in voltage balance issues.
15EVs acting as a Load Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) HEMS may be used to coordinate household electric appliance loads with vehicle charging.The EV charger may be added to the HEMS as another appliance to be controlled.The HEMS may control the starting, stopping, and rate of charging to coordinate with the cycling of air conditioning compressors and hot water heaters.Cycling these loads to maintain an existing domestic load profile may delay the loading of distribution system components.Without Time-of-Use rates the customer will not have the incentive to coordinate his demand.
16EVs Acting as a Load Specific Issues Residential CustomersVery easy to provide an on-board charger that will require infrastructure upgradesCommercial CustomersSmall impact except in the case of large fleet operationsWorkImpact on existing facilities service may be large – May require a dedicated service for vehicle charging stations.Mass TransportationCharging load may be significant relative to transit hub facility load.
17EVs Acting as a Source V2H Connection IssuesParallel sources connected to a common bus. Sum of sources cannot exceed bus rating.Source of additional fault currentCoordination and Protection IssuesIslandingSynchronization – assurances required to prevent closing an intermediate switch while discharging.Power Quality IssuesDC InjectionHarmonics
18EVs Acting as a Source V2H Specific Issues Residential IssuesChargers should be limited in size to preclude the requirement for service upgrades.Typical residential panel (100A or 200A) will be limited to a 20A or 40A (4.8 or 9.8 kVA) inverter connection.Commercial IssuesMay have connection point issues as utilities require parallel sources to be connected at the PCC.May only be practical when operating schedules coordinate with utility time-of-use rates.WorkMay only be practical by installing dedicated single phase services directly to charging stations equipped with smart metering technology.
19EVs Acting as a Source V2G Special Net-Meters are RequiredMetering ConfigurationsSingle meter location – Not good for V2G. No special rates can be applied for ancillary services.Series Meter – meter downstream of service main in dedicated charger circuit. Measures only chargers imported/exported power.Parallel Metering – A second service to a facility dedicated to charging equipment.
20EVs Acting as a Source V2G Specific Issues Residential CustomersWill require serial or parallel meteringOf little benefit without AMICommercial CustomersAgain, only practical for special situations where coordinate well with utility rates.WorkWill require a dedicated charging service from the utility since single phase sources cannot be connected to three phase systems.May impact commercial facilities IT infrastructure.Mass TransportationThe large batteries will provide a large centralized source to the grid.This source will only be available during off-peak hours.
22Impacts on Distribution Systems ByLaura Manning, OPPD
23Distribution System Section Impacts CoveredFrom Distribution SubstationTo Distribution TransformerSecondaryStep Down to Customer VoltageExisting &Future Distributed GenerationMicro-gridIndividual DG
24Distribution System Impacts Overview Long-term Planning EffectsLoads or Sources: Thermal Loading, Reactive losses and/or Inductive additions, Phase Imbalance, Asset Upgrade & Optimization, Advanced MeteringLoads: Greater magnitude than traditional incremental additionsSources: Resemble Distributed Generation, Vehicle sourcing considerations and limitationsSystem Operations EffectsLoads or Sources: System Protection, Power Quality, Power Conditioning, Grid Stability/Reliability, Frequency Regulation/Synchronism, Phasing, Interactive Voltage Control/Phased Switching, Reactive Power Management, Demand Side Management, Controlled Import/Export from/to Grid, Cyber SecurityLoads: Greater magnitude than traditional incremental additions, Grid Stability/ReliabilitySources: Resemble Distributed Generation, System Protection, Power Conditioning, Grid Stability/Reliability, Utility Personnel and Public Safety
25Long-term / Planning Effects Uncontrolled ChargingHigher PeaksLower ValleysHigher CostsControlled Charging/DischargingVoltage SupportCharging Stations Voltage Source Converters (VSCs)Voltage Support & ControlRapid Real Power TransferFrequency RegulationLoad Following
26Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources Thermal Loading (United States)Plug-in vehicle type and range ( V for 60 Hz freq.)SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle Conductive Charge CouplerChargingLevelsChargerTypeVoltageAmpsDemandFullChargeAC Level 1on-board120 VAC16 A1.92 kWhoursAC Level 2208 – 240 V AC12 – 80 A2.5 – 19.2 kWfewerDC Level 3off-board300 – 600 V DC250, 350 & 400 A75 – 240 kWminutesDistribution System Impacts
27Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources Thermal Loading (Europe)Plug-in vehicle type and range ( V for 50 Hz freq.)IEC Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 1: General requirementsChargingModesVoltageAmpsMode 1max. 250 V ACor 480 V AC, 3-phasemax. 16 AMode 2max. 32 AMode 3max. 690 V AC, 3-phasemax. 250 AMode 4max. 600 V DCmax. 400 ADistribution System Impacts
28Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources Thermal LoadingPEV market share and distributionPenetrationPossibleDefinitionPossible ModificationsSystemImpactSmallIndividual residence adds an EV or V2G EVAdd proper receptacle to vehicle parking area.Older homes in older areas may require service, secondary or transformer upgrade.Many locations may not require any changes.LocalizedanddiverseMedium2nd EV is added to a secondary that serves the 1st EV or V2G EVMight require larger conductors, additional conductors or a new pedestal.May need to replace transformers to meet peak load and design for lower overload capacity due to extended loading time.Services fed directly from transformers may require replacement of secondary and pedestals.Consider design changes for new installations in anticipation of further market penetration.Distribution System Impacts
29Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources Thermal LoadingPEV market share and distributionDistribution System Impacts
30Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources Thermal LoadingTypical charging/discharging profiles and peak demand/reverse power levelsSpatial vs. roaming load distributionMass electric transit systemsReactive losses and/or Inductive additionsPhase ImbalanceDistribution System Impacts
32Distribution System Impacts Long-term Planning Effects EVs Acting as Loads vs. EVs Acting as SourcesEVs Acting as LoadsForward power flow perspectiveMagnitude > Traditional Incremental LoadChallenging to modelEVs Acting as SourcesReverse power flow on unidirectional assetsResemble distributed generation during dischargeEquipment capable of bi-directional operationVehicle sourcing considerations and limitationsDistribution System Impacts
33System Operations Effects EVs Acting as Loads or Sources System Protection – Relay AdaptabilityOperation caused by poor power qualityOperation due to variations in AC frequencyMisoperation due to Harmonic distortion/heatingPower QualityHarmonics impact to connected componentsFlickerEMC/EMIPower ConditioningVoltage RegulatorsCapacitor BanksDistribution System Impacts
34System Operations Effects EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources Grid Stability / ReliabilityService Interruption & RestorationFrequency Regulation / SynchronismPhasingInteractive Voltage Control / Phased SwitchingReactive Power ManagementDemand Side Management (DSM)Controlled Charge/Import & Discharge/ExportCyber SecurityDistribution System Impacts
35Distribution System Impacts System Operations Effects EVs Acting as Loads vs. EVs Acting as SourcesEVs Acting as LoadsForward power flow perspectiveMagnitude > Traditional incremental additionsChallenging to model for grid stability/reliabilityEVs Acting as SourcesReverse power flow on unidirectional assetsResemble distributed generation during dischargeEquipment capable of bi-directional operationSystem ProtectionIslanding DetectionBi-directional Power FlowDistribution System Impacts
36System Operations Effects EVs Acting as Sources Power ConditioningVoltage RegulatorsMitigate IntermittencyAdditional Reactive PowerGrid Stability / ReliabilityService Interruption and RestorationPotential HuntingSubtransient voltage and current dynamicsUtility Personnel and Public SafetyAnti-Islanding (IEEE 1547)Distribution System Impacts
37Distribution System Impacts SummaryDesign power charge/discharge to high standardsUncontrolled operation:Lower load factors & higher peaksRequired distribution infrastructure upgradesPlanning and Operations challenge to model the systemControlled operation:Load leveling = peak shaving + valley fillingDelay distribution infrastructure upgradesPlanning and Operations less challenging to modelIntermittent/renewable/local Distribution supportDistribution System Impacts
38Distribution System Impacts Comments please!IEEE TF2 Draft WebinarDistribution System Impacts
39Impacts on Transmission Systems Michael I. Henderson, ISO-NEDirector, Regional Planning and Coordination
40Disclaimer Properly Presented Information Accurately represents the positions of ISO New EnglandInaccurate Information or Opinions that May Not Fully Agree with ISO New EnglandMy private views and are not meant to represent any organization with which I am affiliated
41About ISO New England Major responsibilities: Not-for-profit corporation created in to oversee New England’s restructured electric power systemRegulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC)Regional Transmission OrganizationIndependent of companies doing business in the marketNo financial interest in companies participating in the marketMajor responsibilities:Reliable operation of the electric gridAdminister wholesale electricity marketsPlan for future system needs
42New England’s Electric Power Grid 6.5 million customer meters350+ generators8,000+ miles of high voltage transmission lines6 local control centers13 interconnections with approximately 5,000 MW capability to three neighboring systems:New YorkNew BrunswickHydro Quebec32,000 MW of installed generating capacityPeak load:Summer: 28,130 MW (8/06)Winter: 22,818 MW (1/04)More than 450 participants in the marketplaceOver $9 billion total market valueISO and Local Control Centers320 mi.400 mi.650 km520 km
43Reliability Guides Regional Planning North American Electric Reliability CorporationReliability Standards for the Bulk Power System in North AmericaNortheast Power Coordinating CouncilBasic Criteria for the Design and Operation of Interconnected Power SystemsISO New EnglandReliability requirements for the regional power systemNPCCStandards are used to ensure that the regional transmission system can reliably deliver power to consumers under a wide range of future system conditions.
44System Expansion Planning and Operations System adequacy and securityResources develop/operate in amounts, location, and types when neededTransmission expansion/maintenance needed for reliability and economic performanceDrivers are the amounts, locations, and characteristics of system loads and resources, transmission system configuration, and control system interactionsMajor considerations include:Future and current operability of the systemEconomic performance
45Planning Is Complex Markets and bid strategies increase variability Market power issuesIndependent owners make decisions for capital investmentTechnology and physical changesUnit dispatchAncillary servicesUnit commitmentNetwork flowsLoad pocketsDependency on generating units affect transfer limitsResourcesLoad serving entitiesTransmission ownersWind and solarEnvironmental constraintsDistributed resourcesTransmission
46Technical Studies Needed Transmission Planning studies identify system needs and show how a proposed project meets those needsStudies must address power flow and stability covering:Power flow performance, control and line utilizationReactive supply and voltage control requirementsDynamic and transient stability concerns and control system responsesReliable system performance must be demonstrated during normal and contingency conditionsShort circuit availability and transient and harmonic performance must be satisfied
47Growth of Smart Grid Technologies Smart grid technologies can affect energy useExamples: Load management and Flexible Alternating Current Transmission SystemsEnergy storage is getting increased focus as a benefit to system operations and to mitigate impact of variable resourcesPlug-in electric vehicles (EVs) can act as loads, sources, or dynamic voltage sourcesThe large scale integration of EVs will affect the planning and operation of the electric power system grid
48Effects of EV on the Transmission System Economics of EVs dependent on many factors which affect their penetration and useCapital and operating costsPerformance and rangeAvailability of charging stationsPrice of electricity and competing transportation fuelsEVs canMitigate or defer transmission system needsAdvance transmission system improvements
49EVs Change Load Shapes & Performance EV uses vary:Community type - urban/suburb/rural areasTrip purpose- commute/errands/pleasureDay –weekdays/weekend/holidayWeather region – driving patterns vary with hot and cold weatherRoaming pattern – charging station operation at different locationsUnderstanding and predicting EV impacts on the grid depends on their useFurther complicated by EVs acting as a load, real power source, and/or reactive power source
51EVs Affect Transmission System Planning Load patterns and implementation of demand responseLarge EV penetration and use patterns affect markets, planning, and operationsLoad shapesDemand responseLoad aggregatorsPrice signalsEconomic and environmental system performanceEVs can provide ancillary servicesBalancing and regulationOperating reservesVoltage regulation and support
52EVs Impacts on System Planning & Operations Variability of load amounts, locations, and characteristics affect transmission planningThermal studiesVoltage studiesStability studiesHarmonics, transients and system protectionCould facilitate integration of variable resourcesObservability and controllability are requiredRequires accurate projections of loadSmart chips can provide frequency and voltage control
54Need for New Tools and Modeling EVs introduce additional uncertainties to load levels, characteristics, and demand responseEV modeling needs to be reflected in transmission need and solution studies ofResource adequacyEconomic performanceEnvironmental emissionsTransmission system performanceForecasts of EVs and new study tools will be requiredEV locations and use patterns depend on consumer behaviorEnd use modelsStochastic modelsCharging and discharging
55Summary EVs can act as a load, source, or dynamic voltage source Affect the system in different waysEVs introduce additional opportunities and uncertainties into system planningResource planningEconomic and environmental performanceTransmission PlanningTools may be needed to forecast future EV penetration and use patterns
56Distribution System Impacts Comments please!IEEE TF2 Draft WebinarDistribution System Impacts
57Impacts on Generation Systems ByDr. Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos
58Generation System Impacts Overview Long-term planning effectsGeneration CapacityEnergy StorageRegional AspectsUnit DispatchElectricity MarketsMass TransitOperational effectsGenerator EfficiencyIntermittent Stochastic Generation (Renewable)Micro-GenerationGeneration System Impacts
59Long-Term Planning Effects More Generation CapacityBase load plants: for demand increasePeaking plants: for unpredictable EV chargingEnergy StorageLarge and small scaleMore energy storage needs for load balancingRegional AspectsEV regional distribution (urban/rural)Existing installations variabilityGeneration System Impacts
60Long-Term Planning Effects Unit Dispatch (depends on EV operation)Uncontrolled:Wider difference between demand valleys and peaksInefficient operation at low loading for spinning reserveControlled/V2G:More efficient dispatchValley fillingGeneration System Impacts
61Long-Term Planning Effects Electricity MarketsImpact depends on tariff incentivesFlat rate: peak increaseDynamic tariff: valley fillingMass TransitTwo contrasting effects: overnight depot charging – mid-day fast chargingImpact depends on the level of adoptionGeneration System Impacts
62Generation System Impacts Operational EffectsGenerator EfficiencyUncontrolled:More balancing services –> higher fuel consumption –> more emissionsRamping of units, reducing efficiency and increasing fatigueControlled/V2G:Load leveling –> avoid part-loaded, inefficient operationBase-load generation more cost-effectiveGeneration System Impacts
64Generation: All-time Peak Distances to Boston, from:Bismarck, ND: 1,800 mi. (proxy for resources in JCSP)Salisbury, New Brunswick: 520 mi. (proxy for NB energy hub)Des Cantons substation in Quebec: 260 mi. (assumes HQ will build transmission from renewable resources in the north to their load center in the south)Source: Rand McNally mileage calculatorMap: MapQuestGeneration System Impacts
65Emissions: All-time Peak Distances to Boston, from:Bismarck, ND: 1,800 mi. (proxy for resources in JCSP)Salisbury, New Brunswick: 520 mi. (proxy for NB energy hub)Des Cantons substation in Quebec: 260 mi. (assumes HQ will build transmission from renewable resources in the north to their load center in the south)Source: Rand McNally mileage calculatorMap: MapQuestGeneration System Impacts
66Generation System Impacts SummaryNeed for more generation capacity(base & peak plants)Uncontrolled operation: reduced plant efficiency, increased cost and emissionsControlled/V2G operation: load leveling, intermittent/renewable/local generation supportTotal emissions due to generators may increase or decrease depending on the amount and pattern of EV use and mode of operationGeneration System Impacts
67Generation System Impacts Comments please!IEEE TF2 Draft WebinarGeneration System Impacts