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GEOG 80 Transport Geography Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography Topic 6 – Urban Transportation.

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Presentation on theme: "GEOG 80 Transport Geography Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography Topic 6 – Urban Transportation."— Presentation transcript:

1 GEOG 80 Transport Geography Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography Topic 6 – Urban Transportation A.Transportation and Urban Form B.Urban Land Use and Transportation C.Urban Mobility D.Urban Transport Problems

2 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue A – TRANSPORTATION AND URBAN FORM 1. Global Urbanization 2. The Urban Form 3. Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form 4. Transportation and the Urban Structure

3 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Global Urbanization ■Urbanization Dominant trend of economic and social change. Especially in the developing world. Growing size of cities. Increasing proportion of the urbanized population: More than doubled since 1950. 3.16 billion in 2005, about 49% of the global population. 50 million urbanites each year, roughly a million a week. By 2050, 6.2 billion people, about two thirds of humanity, will be urban residents. Due to demographic growth and rural to urban migration. ■Urban mobility issues Increased proportionally with urbanization.

4 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue World Urban Population, 1950-2005 with Projections to 2020 (in billions)

5 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Cities of More than 10 Million Inhabitants, 2007

6 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue World at Night

7 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. The Urban Form: Components of Urban Transportation Urban transport modes Collective, individual and freight transportation. May complementary to one another or competing. Transit is an urban form of transportation (high ridership and short distances). Urban transport infrastructures Physical form used by modes. Consume space and structure the city. Urban transport users Wide variety of socioeconomic conditions. Variety of spatial conditions. Urban transport as a choice or a constraint.

8 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Cities and Connectivity FunctionMain ModeNexus Trade city Water transport (maritime and fluvial). Waterfront. Heavy industries. Intermodal terminals. Industrial city RailwayCentral stations. Rail terminals and railyards. Mobile city HighwaysShopping districts. Distribution clusters. Network city TelecommunicationsFinancial districts. High technology clusters.

9 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Nodes, Linkages and Urban Form Accessibility node Economic node Built area Road / transit linkage Rail linkage Maritime linkage Air linkage CBD Port District Manufacturing District

10 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. The Urban Form ■Collective Transportation (public transit) Provide publicly accessible mobility over specific parts of a city. Benefiting from economies of scale. Tramways, buses, trains, subways and ferryboats. ■Individual Transportation Includes the car, walking, cycling and the motorcycle. People walk to satisfy their basic mobility. ■Freight Transportation Cities are dominant production and consumption centers. Activities are accompanied by large movements of freight. Delivery trucks converging to industries, warehouses and retail activities. Major terminals.

11 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. The Urban Form ■Density issues Modern cities: Inherited an urban form created in the past. Can be monocentric or polycentric (more common). Movements are organized or disorganized. European, Japanese and Chinese: Tend to be monocentric. Movements tend to be organized. 30 to 60% of all trips by walking and cycling. Australian and American cities: Built recently and encourages automobile dependency. Tend to be polycentric. Movements tend to be disorganized.

12 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Possible Urban Movement Patterns Monocentric Polycentric Organized Disorganized

13 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form ■Evolution of transportation Led to a change in most urban forms. New central areas expressing new urban activities (suburbs). Central business district (CBD): Once the primary destination of commuters and serviced by public transportation. Challenged by changing manufacturing, retailing and management practices. Emergence of sub-centers in the periphery. Manufacturing: Traditional manufacturing depended on centralized workplaces and transportation. Technology has rendered modern industry more flexible.

14 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue One Hour Commuting According to Different Urban Transportation Modes Streetcar line Freeway Walking Streetcar Cycling Automobile Automobile with freeways 10 km

15 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form ■Contemporary changes Dispersed urban land development patterns: Abundant land, low transportation costs, tertiary industries. Strong relationship between urban density and car use. Faster growth rate of built areas than population growth. Decentralization of activities: Commuter journeys have remained relatively similar in duration. Commuting tends to be longer and made by privately owned cars rather than by public transportation. Most transit and road systems were developed to facilitate suburb-to-city, rather than suburb-to-suburb, commuting. Suburban highways are often as congested as urban highways.

16 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue A BC Core activities Central activities Peripheral activities Evolution of the Spatial Structure of a City Central area Major transport axis

17 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Railways Centers Roads Suburb Towns Suburb New suburb Main roads Highways CBD ABC D E Transportation and the Constitution of Urban Landscapes WalkingHorsecar

18 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Evolution of Transportation and Urban Form ■Constance in commuting time Most people travel less than 30 minutes in order to get to work. People are spending about 1.2 hours per day commuting. Different transport technologies are associated with different travel speeds and capacity. Cities that rely primarily on non-motorized transport tend to be different than auto-dependent cities. United States: Lowest average commuting time in the world, around 25 minutes in 1990.

19 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Average Journey to Work Travel Time, 1990

20 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. The Spatial Imprint of Urban Transportation ■Land for transportation Pre-automobile era: About 10% of the land of a city was devoted to transportation. A growing share of urban areas is allocated to circulation. Variations of the spatial imprint of urban transportation: Between different cities. Between different parts of a city (central and peripheral areas). Private car: Requires space to move around (roads). Spends 98% of its existence stationary in a parking space. Consumes a significant amount of urban space. 10% of the arable land of the United States allocated for the car.

21 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. The Spatial Imprint of Urban Transportation Pedestrian areas Often shared with roads. In central areas, pedestrian areas tend to use a greater share of the right of way (whole areas may be reserved only for pedestrians). Most of pedestrian areas are servicing access to parked automobiles. Roads and parking areas On average 30% of the urban surface is devoted to roads. Another 20% is required for off-street parking. For each car there is about 2 off-street and 2 on-street parking spaces. Roads and parking lots: between 30 to 60% of the total urban surface. Cycling areas Cycling mainly share road space. Attempts to create a space specific to the circulation of bicycles; reserved lanes and parking facilities. Transit systems Buses and tramways are sharing road areas, which often impairs their efficiency. Subways and rail have their own infrastructures. Creation of road lanes reserved to buses. Transport terminals Terminal facilities such as ports, airports, railyards and distribution centers.

22 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Dedicated Bicycle Parking Lot, Amsterdam, Netherlands

23 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Type I - Completely Motorized Network Main Road Highway Activity center Los Angeles, Phoenix, Denver and Dallas

24 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Type II - Weak Center Main Road HighwayActivity centerTransit line Melbourne, San Francisco, Boston, Chicago and Montreal

25 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Type III - Strong Center Main RoadHighwayActivity centerTransit line Paris, New York, Shanghai, Toronto, Sydney and Hamburg

26 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Type IV - Traffic Limitation Main RoadHighwayActivity centerTransit line London, Singapore, Hong Kong, Vienna and Stockholm

27 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue The Rationale of a Ring Road Secondary Center City Center Avoiding the congested central area Structuring Suburban development Spatial StructureAccessibility 5 10 5 5 5 AB A to B = 30 AB 5 10 5 5 5 A to B = 20

28 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue B – URBAN LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION 1. The Land Use - Transport System 2. Urban Land Use Models

29 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. The Land Use - Transport System ■Urban land use Nature and level of spatial accumulation of activities. Human activities imply a multitude of functions: Production, consumption and distribution. Activity system: Locations and spatial accumulation form land uses. The behavioral patterns of individuals, institutions and firms will have an imprint on land use. ■Land use relationships Land use implies a set of relationships with other land uses. Commercial land use: Relationships with its supplier and customers. Relationships with suppliers: related with movements of freight. Relationships with customers: movements of passengers.

30 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue The Transport / Land Use System Land Use Transport System Spatial Interactions Accessibility Traffic assignment models Transport capacity Accessibility Traffic assignment models Transport capacity Economic base theory Location theory Traffic generation and attraction models Economic base theory Location theory Traffic generation and attraction models Spatial interaction models Distance decay parameters Modal split Spatial interaction models Distance decay parameters Modal split Infrastructures (Supply) Friction of Space (Impendence) Spatial Accumulation (Demand)

31 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. Urban Land Use Models Concentric paradigm Land use of function of distance from a nucleus. The nucleus is the main force shaping land use. Sector and nuclei paradigm Influences of a transport axis and several nuclei on land use Hybrid paradigm Try to integrate the strengths of each representation Land rent paradigm Land use as a market where different urban activities are competing for land usage at a location.

32 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Burgess’ Urban Land Use Model IV - Working class zone V - Residential zone VI - Commuter zone I - Loop (downtown) II - Factory zone III - Zone of transition LOOP Little Sicily Apartment Houses Bungalow Section Single Family Dwellings Residential District Ghetto Two Plan Area Second Immigrant Settlement Model Chicago, 1920s Black Belt

33 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2 3 4 4 5 3 3 1 3 3 3 1 CBD 2 Wholesale and light manufacturing 3 Low-class residential 4 Middle-class residential 5 High-class residential 1 2 3 4 5 3 3 6 7 8 9 6 Heavy manufacturing 7 Sub business district 8 Residential suburb 9 Industrial suburb Sector Nuclei Sector and Nuclei Urban Land Use Models 2

34 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hybrid Land Use Model Center Industrial / Manufacturing Commercial Residential Transport axis

35 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Rent Distance A- Retailing B- Industry/ commercial C - ApartmentsD - Single houses 1 – Bid rent curves Land Rent and Land Use 2 – Overlay of bid rent curves City limits

36 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Population Density by Distance from City Center, Selected Cities

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