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Elizabeth Kneebone Brookings Institution. 1 The geography of poverty and opportunity has changed Current policies are not aligned to this new geography.

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Presentation on theme: "Elizabeth Kneebone Brookings Institution. 1 The geography of poverty and opportunity has changed Current policies are not aligned to this new geography."— Presentation transcript:

1 Elizabeth Kneebone Brookings Institution

2 1 The geography of poverty and opportunity has changed Current policies are not aligned to this new geography 2 3 We need a new agenda for metropolitan opportunity

3 The geography of poverty and opportunity has changed 1

4 Much of our work focuses on the country’s 100 largest metropolitan statistical areas, which house two-thirds of the nation’s population Source: U.S. Census Bureau

5 Metropolitan areas are statistical representations of “commuter sheds” and, by extension, labor markets Source: Brookings Institution analysis of Census 2000 data PRIMARY CITY in the 100 largest metro areas: First city in the MSA name; Any other named city with a population over 100,000 SUBURBS in the 100 largest metro areas: Remainder of the MSA outside the primary city or cities SMALL METRO AREA: Any other MSA not in the top 100 RURAL: Any county not in an official MSA

6 Today, suburbs are home to the largest and fastest growing poor population Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data NOTE: The federal poverty threshold for a family of four was $23,834 in 2013

7 This shift was well under way before the Great Recession Percent change in poor population, central cities versus suburbs, 1970 to Source: Brookings analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data

8 Between 2000 and 2013, the suburban poor population increased in 92 of the top 97 metros Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS and decennial census data Change in the Suburban Poor Population, 2000 to 2013 Under 50%50% to 75% 75% to 100%100% to 150%Above 150%

9 By 2013, 65 of the top 97 metros found the majority of their region’s poor located in the suburbs Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS data Share of 2013 Poor Population Living in Suburbs Under 50% Above 50%

10 Poverty has grown beyond dense, inner-ring suburbs Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS and decennial census data

11 Even as it has spread, poverty has become more concentrated Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS and decennial census data

12 Poor residents of color in the suburbs are more likely to live in higher poverty neighborhoods Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS and decennial census data Share of Suburban Poor in High-Poverty Tracts by Race,

13 Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS data Some differences exist between urban and suburban poor residents

14 But in many ways, the suburban and urban poor are strikingly similar Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS data

15 Many factors drive suburbanizing poverty Population Change Immigration Housing Job Location Regional Economy

16 CitiesSuburbs Population Growth, 2000 to 2013 Population Change Many factors drive suburbanizing poverty Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS and Decennial Census data

17 Many factors drive suburbanizing poverty Contribution to Growth in Suburban Poor Population, 2000 to 2013 Immigration Source: Brookings Institution analysis of ACS and Decennial Census data

18 Housing Voucher Recipients in Suburbs Housing Many factors drive suburbanizing poverty Source: Brookings Institution analysis of HUD “Picture of Subsidized Housing” data

19 Share of Loans in Suburbs Housing Many factors drive suburbanizing poverty Source: Chris Shildt, Naomi Cytron, Elizabeth Kneebone and Carolina Reid, “The Subprime Crisis in Suburbia: Exploring the Links between Foreclosures and Suburban Poverty”

20 Share of Jobs Located 10 to 35 Miles from Downtown Job Location Many factors drive suburbanizing poverty Source: Elizabeth Kneebone, “Job Sprawl Stalls: The Great Recession and Metropolitan Employment Location”

21 Number of Unemployed in Suburbs Regional Economy Many factors drive suburbanizing poverty 3,116,548 6,193,048 Source: Brookings Institution analysis of Bureau of Labor Statistics LAUS data

22 Share of Employment Gains During Recovery (2010 Q1 to 2012 Q1) Types of Jobs Many factors drive suburbanizing poverty Source: National Employment Law Project, “The Low Wage Recovery and Growing Inequality”

23 Suburban poverty brings added challenges Transit Access Strained Local Services Limited Philanthropic Resources Change in School Populations

24 Transit Access Suburban poverty brings added challenges Share of Jobs Accessible from Suburban Low-Income Neighborhoods via Transit Source: Tomer et al, “Missed Opportunity”

25 Transit Access Suburban poverty brings added challenges Share of Jobs Accessible from Suburban Low-Income Neighborhoods Within 90 Minutes Source: Tomer et al, “Missed Opportunity”

26 Share of Suburban Municipalities in Chicago, DC, and LA with Registered Nonprofit Strained Local Services Substance Abuse Mental Health Food Assistance Human Services Employment Services Suburban poverty brings added challenges Source: Allard and Roth, “Strained Suburbs”

27 Grants Dollars per Poor Person, Chicago Metro Area 2008 Limited Philanthropic Resources Suburban poverty brings added challenges Source: Reckhow and Weir, “Building a Stronger Regional Safety Net”

28 Percent Change in Number of Students Enrolled in Free and Reduced Price Lunch, to Change in School Populations Suburban poverty brings added challenges Source: Brookings Institution analysis of Common Core data

29 Share of students meeting proficiency standards in Access to Quality Schools Suburban poverty brings added challenges Source: Brookings Institution analysis of Common Core data

30 Current policies are not aligned to this new geography 2

31 Substance Abuse Treatment Block Grant; Social Services Block Grant; Substance Abuse Prevention Block Grant; Community Mental Health Services Block Grant (MHSBG); Access to Recovery (ATR) Social Services The legacy system of place-based anti-poverty programs developed over decades does not map easily onto the suburban landscape Child and Adult Care Food Program; The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP); Summer Food Service Program; Commodity Supplemental Food Program; WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Food Assistance Job Training Job Corps; WIA Dislocated Worker Employment and Training Activities; WIA Youth Appropriation; WIA Adult Program; WIA Dislocated Worker National Emergency Grants; YouthBuild; Learn and Serve America: School and Community Based Programs; Supported Employment State Grants; Work Opportunity Tax Credit; Child Care and Development Block Grant Education Title I — Improving The Academic Achievement Of The Disadvantaged; Head Start and Early Head Start; Improving Teacher Quality State Grants; Adult Basic and Literacy Education State Grants; TRIO: Upward Bound; Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP); Teacher Incentive Fund; TRIO: Student Support Services; College Access Challenge Grant Program; Mathematics and Science Partnerships; TRIO:Talent Search; Race to the Top -- Early Learning Challenge; TRIO: Educational Opportunity Centers; TRIO: Upward Bound Math Science; Parental Information and Resource Centers; Advanced Placement Program (Advanced Placement Test Fee; Advanced Placement Incentive Program Grants); School Leadership Program; Innovative Approaches to Literacy; Assets for Independence (AFI); IRS Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA); 21st Century Community Learning Centers; Child Care Access Means Parents in School Program; Advanced Placement Incentive Program Grants; Qualified zone academy bonds (QZAB); Charter Schools Program Health Consolidated Health Centers (Community Health Centers, Migrant Health Centers, Health Care for the Homeless, Public Housing Primary Care, and School Based Health Centers); Affordable Care Act (ACA) Grants for Capital Development in Health Centers; Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant Program; Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Economic Development New Markets Tax Credit ; Renewal Community Tax Incentives; Community Development Financial Institutions Program; ARRA- Investments for Public Works and Economic Development Facilities; Recovery Zone Bonds; ARRA- Economic Adjustment Assistance; Economic Development: Support for Planning Organizations; Community Economic Development; Technical Assistance; Bank Enterprise Award; Economic Development: Technical Assistance; Community Services Block Grant; Community Services Block Grant: Discretionary Awards Housing Emergency Food and Shelter Program; Tenant-based Rental Assistance; Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant Program; Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency; Housing Counseling Assistance $82 billion 10 agencies 81 federal programs

32 These programs typically address place-based poverty in one of three ways Service Provision Neighborhood Improvement Expanding Choice Need dispersed geographically Program stigma/ lack of familiarity Market failures not neighborhood based Areas may lack needed locational advantages Families have already “made it” to suburbs Opportunities may lie in very different part of region

33 Suburbs face additional challenges Lack of Capacity Inflexible, Unreliable FundingExtensive Fragmentation

34 Chicago’s south suburbs encountered these challenges during the housing crisis Cook County

35 Chicago’s south suburbs encountered these challenges during the housing crisis Cook County 19 communities submitted a joint NSP application

36 Chicago’s south suburbs encountered these challenges during the housing crisis Cook County 11 municipalities received individual awards

37 Yet innovators across the country are finding creative ways to navigate this system

38 Health Consolidated Health Centers (Community Health Centers, Migrant Health Centers, Health Care for the Homeless, Public Housing Primary Care, and School Based Health Centers); Affordable Care Act (ACA) Grants for Capital Development in Health Centers; Title V Maternal and Child Health Services Block Grant Program; Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting Program Food Assistance Child and Adult Care Food Program; The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP); Summer Food Service Program; Commodity Supplemental Food Program; WIC Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) Housing Emergency Food and Shelter Program; Tenant-based Rental Assistance; Sustainable Communities Regional Planning Grant Program; Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self- Sufficiency; Housing Counseling Assistance Job Training Job Corps; WIA Dislocated Worker Employment and Training Activities; WIA Youth Appropriation; WIA Adult Program; WIA Dislocated Worker National Emergency Grants; YouthBuild; Learn and Serve America: School and Community Based Programs; Supported Employment State Grants; Work Opportunity Tax Credit; Child Care and Development Block Grant Title I — Improving The Academic Achievement Of The Disadvantaged; Head Start and Early Head Start; Improving Teacher Quality State Grants; Adult Basic and Literacy Education State Grants; TRIO: Upward Bound; Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP); Teacher Incentive Fund; TRIO: Student Support Services; College Access Challenge Grant Program; Mathematics and Science Partnerships; TRIO:Talent Search; Race to the Top -- Early Learning Challenge; TRIO: Educational Opportunity Centers; TRIO: Upward Bound Math Science; Parental Information and Resource Centers; Advanced Placement Program (Advanced Placement Test Fee; Advanced Placement Incentive Program Grants); School Leadership Program; Innovative Approaches to Literacy; Assets for Independence (AFI); IRS Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA); 21st Century Community Learning Centers; Child Care Access Means Parents in School Program; Advanced Placement Incentive Program Grants; Qualified zone academy bonds (QZAB); Charter Schools Program Education Economic Development New Markets Tax Credit ; Renewal Community Tax Incentives; Community Development Financial Institutions Program; ARRA- Investments for Public Works and Economic Development Facilities; Recovery Zone Bonds; ARRA- Economic Adjustment Assistance; Economic Development: Support for Planning Organizations; Community Economic Development; Technical Assistance; Bank Enterprise Award; Economic Development: Technical Assistance; Community Services Block Grant; Community Services Block Grant: Discretionary Awards Social Services Substance Abuse Treatment Block Grant; Social Services Block Grant; Substance Abuse Prevention Block Grant; Community Mental Health Services Block Grant (MHSBG); Access to Recovery (ATR)

39 Achieve Scale Neighborhood Centers Inc. Has an annual budget of more than $275 million, 70 different sites, and a staff of over 1,000 Coordinates resources from 35 federal programs, state, local, and private sources to provide a seamless continuum of services Collaborates with other area providers Support smart consolidation Improve systems and networks Promote high-performance organizations

40 Collaborate and Integrate Identify and reduce barriers Catalyze regional capacity Reward collaborative approaches Neighborhood Opportunity Network A collaboration between the County, nonprofits, faith based community, and local philanthropy Targets high need areas with integrated and culturally competent services Builds awareness and community networks through door knocking, Neighbors Exchange, and Neighbor Circles

41 Fund Strategically HPN created the REIT with an investment of $100 million from a range of private and philanthropic investors Acquires “naturally affordable” multifamily rental properties for low-income residents without subsidies Works with 12 high-performing nonprofits across the country who own, operate, and provide wraparound services at sites Commit to enterprise-level funding Promote tools that leverage public & private resources Develop consistent, comparable data sources The Housing Partnership Equity Trust

42 Creating a Metropolitan Opportunity Challenge could help bring these solutions to scale in regions across the country Federal Place-Based Anti-Poverty Programs $82 Billion; 81 Programs; 10 Agencies Re-purpose 5% : $4 billion

43 You can find additional resources and sign up for updates on suburban poverty research and best practices on the book’s website:

44 The website provides a host of helpful resources: Profiles of the top 100 metrosCase studies of innovators Tips for taking action Video Infographic

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