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Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis

2 Human Geography Chapter 11 Urban Systems & Urban Structures Hong Kong Photo Copyright 2003 by Jon C Malinowski Insert figure CO11 © PhotoLink/Getty RF

3 Name that City…

4 How about now?...

5 Now???

6 Same City…New View ISS N lights

7 Read p. 340 (Italicized Introduction only) Cities have a life… –Describe Cairo’s Past Present The Future???

8 Human Geography 10e

9 Cities of the Future? Paes: The 4 Commandments of Cities List and explain the “Four Commandments”

10 According to Fellmann, “The vast majority of urban growth will occur in low- to middle-income countries of the developing world” ( Fellmann, 341) Discuss the factors that make this so.

11 Considering the definition of megacities (Fellmann, 340) and the location of the top ten cities in the world today, Top ten Cities _world-354) Does Fellman’s prediction (growth will occur in low/middle income countries) appear to be accurate? Is there evidence in those cities of the factors identified in #1?Top ten Cities _world-354 1.Shanghai, China Population: 17,836,133Shanghai, China 2.Istanbul, Turkey Population: 13,854,740Istanbul, Turkey 3.Karachi, Pakistan Population: 12,991,000Karachi, Pakistan 4.Mumbai, India Population: 12,478,447Mumbai, India 5.Tehran, Iran Population: 12,223,598Tehran, Iran 6.Moscow, Russia Population: 11,977,988Moscow, Russia 7.Beijing, China Population: 11,716,000Beijing, China 8.São Paulo, Brazil Population: 11,376,685São Paulo, Brazil 9. Guangzhou, China9. Guangzhou, ChinaPopulation: 11,070,654 10. Delhi, India Population: 11,007,835Delhi, India

12 Human Geography 11e An Urbanizing World Megacities –Conurbation When metropolitan complexes eventually meet and bind together at their outer margins Extensive metropolitan regions Merging Metropolises –Megalopolis Regions of continuous urbanization made up of multiple centers that have come together at their edges

13 What conurbations can you identify in this satellite image of the United States at night? ( images-of-united-states-121226.htm) images-of-united-states-121226.htm Human Geography 10e

14 Settlement Roots Brief Histories –People are gregarious and cooperative –Sense of community for protection and cooperative effort Rural Settlements –Communal dwelling became the near- universal rule with the advent of sedentary agriculture

15 Describe the origin of cities ( be sure to incorporate the term hinterland in your description.)

16 Origins and Evolution of Cities The Nature of Cities –Cities are among the oldest marks of civilization –The words “city” and “civilization” have the same Latin root, civis –Cities originated in – or diffused from – the culture hearths that first developed sedentary agriculture –Hinterlands are the productive areas surrounding a population center –Those individuals who were not involved in farming were free to specialize in other activities – metal working, pottery making, cloth weaving, perhaps – producing goods for other urbanites

17 “Whether ancient or modern, all cities show regularities appropriate to their time or place” (Fellmann, 345) Identify the four “regularities” pointed out by Fellmann. Regularities: 1. 2. 3. 4.

18 Human Geography 11e The Nature of Cities All cities perform functions Cities generate income necessary to support themselves Each city is part of a larger economy that has reciprocal connections Insert figure 11.9 © Pixtal/age fotostock RF

19 Human Geography 11e Origins and Evolution of Cities The Location of Urban Settlements –Site Characteristics: Break-of-Bulk, Head-of- Navigation, Railhead, Defensive Elements –Situational Characteristics: Raw Materials, Markets, Agriculture

20 Human Geography 11e The Location of Urban Settlements In order to adequately perform the tasks that support it, the cities must be efficiently located: –Centrality –Physical characteristics of the site - water transportation was an important localizing factor when the major American cities were established –Before the advent of railroads in the middle of the 19th century, all major American cities were associated with waterways

21 6. View the Power Point “Urban Site and Situation” Linked on the lesson plans page. Describe Chicago’s site and situation.

22 7. Describe what is meant by the economic base of an urban settlement. Include a description of basic and nonbasic sectors.

23 Human Geography 11e Origins and Evolution The Economic Base –Basic Sector Export activities Money flowing into the community is the result –Non Basic Sector Producing goods for residents of the urban unit itself Do not generate new money Responsible for the internal functioning of the urban unit

24 8. What does the urban multiplier effect refer to?

25 Human Geography 11e Origins and Evolution, (cont.) The Economic Base –Multiplier Effects As a settlement increases in size, the number of non-basic personnel grows faster than the number of new basic workers. why? –How does this affect the hinterlands? Functional Classification –Transportation Centers –Special-function Cities: Administrative, Education, Hi-Tech, etc.

26 9. How do you think the functions of Milwaukee and Madison differ?

27 Provide a brief (this is a challenge…) summary of Christaller’s Central Place Theory.

28 Human Geography 11e Central Places –Walter Christaller Develop a framework for understanding urban interdependence Developed his theory in rather idealized circumstances: 1.A plain 2.Farm population would be dispersed in an even pattern 3.People would be uniform; that is, they would possess similar tastes, demands, and incomes

29 Human Geography 11e Central Places –Walter Christaller Results –A series of hexagonal market areas that cover the entire plain will emerge –There will be a central place at the center of each of the hexagonal market areas. –The largest central places will supply all of the goods and services the consumers in that area demand and can afford –The size of the market area of a central place will be proportional to the number of goods and services offered from that central place

30 Systems of Cities Urban Hierarchy Based on figure 11.14, (p.351) which cities would be more likely to be interdependent, Minneapolis, St. Louis and Kansas City, or Milwaukee, Chicago and Detroit? Explain using the concept of urban hierarchy

31 Systems of Cities: Hierarchy World Cities

32 Systems of Cities World Cities What are the major world cities today? Why are they referred to as “…control and command centers of the global economy?” (352 )

33 Systems of Cities: Hierarchy Rank-Size and Primacy What is the difference between the urban hierarchy system found in the United States and the primate city phenomenon? Why do many developing nations display the primate city model? (cite and explain two possibly reasons.)

34 Systems of Cities Network Cities: What are the conditions necessary for the development of network cities? Would the proposed high speed rail lines connecting Chicago, Milwaukee and Madison have laid the foundation for a network city arrangement?

35 Inside the City Defining the City Today Photo by Mark Bjelland

36 Inside the City Defining the City Today –Suburb

37 Inside the City Defining the City Today: Suburb: How do suburbs differ from cities and towns?

38 Inside the City Defining the City Today –Central City/CBD –NYC Time LapseNYC Time Lapse

39 Inside the City Defining the City Today –Urbanized Area –Metropolitan Area Compare and contrast urbanized and metropolitan areas. Cite a real-world example of each. “The area is part of a larger U.S. Census division named Minneapolis–St. Paul– Bloomington, MN-WI, the country's 16th- largest metropolitan area composed of 11 counties in Minnesota and two counties in Wisconsin with a population of 3,317,308 as of the 2010 Census.metropolitan areaMinnesota Wisconsin2010 Census

40 Inside the City: The Central Business District- A single point at which the maximum possible interchange could be achieved 7. Explain the “…two separate but related distance patterns” (356) evident in the traditional mass transit city. How did the advent of the automobile change this model? Poverty, Life Expectency and Food Access Chicago Land Values

41 Inside the City (#8) Models of Urban Form –Concentric Zone –Sector Model –Multiple-Nuclei Model –Peripheral Models

42 Inside the City (#8) Metro-Peripheral ModelSector Examples

43 Human Geography 11e Social Areas of Cities Social Status Explain this statement, “social status patterning agrees with the sector model.” (360) How do gated communities (361) fit in the sector model? Is there evidence of the sector model in small communities like Bloomer? Eau Claire? Poverty, Life Expectency and Food Access

44 Human Geography 11e Social Areas of Cities Family Status and Ethnicity: How do family status and ethnicity influence choice of residence in urban areas?

45 Social Areas of Cities Institutional Controls –Zoning ordinances and land use planning –Eau Claire Zoning MapEau Claire Zoning Map Daily Ten #3 Complete by Tuesday

46 Human Geography 11e Changes in Urban Form Suburbanization –Metropolitan Growth –Ethnoburbs –Edge Cities –Exurbs and Sprawl Decline of the Central City –Population Shift –Abandonment by Commerce and Industry –Different Experience in Western U.S. Central City Renewal and Gentrification Insert figure 11.32 Photo by Lynn Betts, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

47 Human Geography 11e World Urban Diversity Western Europe Eastern Europe Rapidly Growing Non- Western Cities –Colonial and Non- Colonial Antecedents –Urban Primacy and Rapid Growth –Squatter Settlements –Planned Cities Insert figure 11.34 © Digital Vision/PunchStock RF

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