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GANG STRENGTH CALCULATION USING RATIONAL FORMULA Presented By K.A.J.BABU, ADEN/E/KGP,S.E.RLY C.NAGARAJU, AXEN/C/KRMR,S.C.RLY Under the Guidance of Sri. PRAVEEN KUMAR,P/C,IRICEN/PUNE

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Gang strength G ang strength calculation by Maflin”s formula Modified Maflin’s formula Special Committee formula Rational formulae

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MAFLIN’S FORMULA Adopted in 1931 Adopted in 1931 No of gangmen required = Unit-per- No of gangmen required = Unit-per- mile*2.5 mile*2.5 Unit- per – mile depending on the traffic Unit- per – mile depending on the traffic carried carried Man power factor is constant irrespective Man power factor is constant irrespective of track gauge of track gauge

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Revised Maflin’s formula Evolved by Lobo committee in 1959 Evolved by Lobo committee in 1959 Implemented in 1962 Implemented in 1962 Gang strength was based on “Equated Gang strength was based on “Equated Track Mile” Track Mile” ETM depends on the traffic density, type ETM depends on the traffic density, type of formation, curved alignment and of formation, curved alignment and annual rainfall annual rainfall

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Special committee formula Adopted in 1979 Adopted in 1979 N = 0.95 * M * K * E N = 0.95 * M * K * E N is the no of gang men N is the no of gang men N is the no of gang men M is man power factor ( 1.47 for B.G and 1.21 for M.G and N.G) M is man power factor ( 1.47 for B.G and 1.21 for M.G and N.G) M is man power factor ( 1.47 for B.G and 1.21 for M.G and N.G) K is the correction factor due to modernisation of track,methods of maintenance K is the correction factor due to modernisation of track,methods of maintenance K is the correction factor due to modernisation of track,methods of maintenance E is Equated Track Kilometre ( ETKM) E is Equated Track Kilometre ( ETKM) E is Equated Track Kilometre ( ETKM)

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Special committee formula Correction factor Type of track Mmethod of maitenance Convent,DTM,M SP Mechanised Fish plated SWR LWR on ws/ms LWR on psc -0.50

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WHY SPECIAL COMMITTEE FORMULA NEEDS REPLACEMENT Gang is to carry out 12 activities and other 16 activities are by engaging casual labourer No uniformity of overall manpower per ETKM over the railways Maintance cost per ETKM is varying among Zonal Railways Decasualisation effect Aspect of engagement of safaiwalas for filth removal

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--Contd Aspect of carrying out monsoon patrolling, watching vulnerable locations and security patrolling by out side agencies Ageing of gang men Absenteeism among gang men, as much as 60% To identify the works to be executed through contract to limit the manpower Educational profile of the gangmen remains deficient while mechanisation is increasingly adopted

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Modifying Special Committee formula Railway Board in 1996 constituted a committee Terms of reference To study the special committee formula and suggest modified formula To take into account decasualisation done effect of maintenance and track modernisation while modifying the gang strenth formula

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Categorisation of tracks Non Sub urban sections Machine Packed Manually Packed Sub urban section,Machine packed High density

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H D suburb section Criteria for High Density Sub urban Section The train frequency per hour, on any line or in a sub section should exceed 8 The required maintenance works can be completed only by way of availing night blocks PHOD is the competent authority to classify a suburban section as ‘HDSL’PHOD is the competent authority to classify a suburban section as ‘HDSL’

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H D suburb sections Special features of H D suburb section High frequency of trains Encroachments Corridor night blocks and integrated mega blocks Large number of turn outs Lack of drainage Extensive track circuits

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CLASSIFICATION OF MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES PRIMARY MAINTENCE ACTIVITIES Directly related to P Way maintenance Need manpower based on the continuous length of the track AUXILLIARY MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES For upkeep of P Way as a whole Need manpower based on the localised problems,special features and geographical nature of P way section

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Classification -- contd PRIMARY MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES Activity T – Affected by traffic density Activity R – Routine in nature AUXILLARY MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES Activity M – Miscellaneous Activity S – Site specific

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Activity T ( For machine packed track) T1 Slack attention to Bad spots Low joints SEJ Minor curve realignment T2 For Tie Tamper working Pre-tamping operation Along with tamper Post tamping operations T3 Casual renewals Rails Sleepers Fasteners T4 Repair Welding

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Activity T ( For manually packed track) T1 Through packing T2 Slack attention to Bad spots Low joints SEJ Minor curve realignment T3 Casual renewals Rails Sleepers Fasteners T4 Creep pulling

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Activity T ( For machine packed track HD suburban) T1 Slack attention to Bad spots Low joints SEJ Minor curve realignment T2 For Tie Tamper working Pre-tamping operation Along with tamper Post tamping operations T3 Casual renewals Rails Sleepers Fasteners T4 Repair Welding

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Activity R ( For machine packed track) R1Lubrication of ERCs R2Shallow screening (1/5 length) R3Loading, leading & unloading R4Overhauling of level crossing R5Watching caution spot and miscellaneous R6Tree cutting for visibility R7 Lubrication of rails in Curves R8Accident relief and carcass removal R9Bridge sleeper attention and renewal R10Pre monsoon attention such as clearing of drains, waterways, deweeding etc R11Creep pulling (approach of bridges and turn outs) R12Rectifying damage to LC

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Activity R ( For manually packed track) R1Lubrication of ERCs R2Shallow screening R3Loading, leading & unloading R4Overhauling of level crossing R5Watching caution spot and miscellaneous R6Tree cutting for visibility R7 Lubrication of rails in Curves R8Accident relief and carcass removal R9Bridge sleeper attention and renewal R10Pre monsoon attention R11Creep pulling R12Rectifying damafe to LC

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Activity R ( For machine packed HD suburban track) R1Through packing R2Shallow screening (1/5 length) R3Loading, leading & unloading R4 Lubrication of ERCs R5Overhauling of level crossing R6Watching caution spot and look out men R7Tree cutting for visibility R8 Lubrication of rails in Curves R9Accident relief and carcass removal in run over cases R10Bridge sleeper attention and renewal R11Pre monsoon attention R12 Creep pulling R13Rectifying damage to LC R14 Painting of weld collars R 15 Emergency attention R 16 Extra sssistance to key man & B/smith R17 Extra work in Night blocks R 18 Extra assistance for S&T Items

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Activity M M1Monsoon patrolling M2Hot weather patrolling M3Cold weather patrolling M4Watching vulnerable locations M5Gate keeping at level crossings M6Rest giving for keyman M7Waterman duty M8Store watchman duty

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Activity S S1Tunnel maintenance S2Bridge substructure maintenance S3Long girder maintenance S4Extra due to sharp curves, deep cutting etc S5Track on extremely bad formation S6Lookout man duty S7Fog signal man duty S8Filth removal from track S9Security patrolling S10Watching of water level in suburban section

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Work to be done through contract 1.Formation treatment 2.Ballasting 3.Deep screening 4.Sub ballast and ballast layer 5.Heavy repair to track including lifting 6.TRR,TSR,TFR 7.Complete ROC 8.Complete renewal of P&C, SEJs, traps 9.Resurfacing of crossing and switch rails 10.Loading/unloading of P way material in bulk 11.Lorrying of P way materials in bulk 12.Security of material in depot which is closed and locked

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Work to be done through contract 13.Painting of rails and weld collars 14.Painting of bridge girders 15.Heavy repair to formation, cutting,side drains &c/w drains 16.Providing and reparing road surface at LC 17.Heavy repair to bridges, protecion works,river training works and tunnels 18.Removal of major sand breaches 19.Restoration works following breaches, accidents 20.Clearing of vegetation in P/F and in the vicinity of tracks in coaching and goods yards, repairs to depots and work shops of Engg, Mech, Elec and S&T 21.Vegetation

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Authority for certifying the correctness of factors in activities M & S No of mandays for monsoon patrolling – CTE/CBE Need for hot/ cold patrolling – CTE No.of days for watching vulnerable locations- CTE/CBE Need for store w/man duty – Sr DEN/C00RD Existance of extremely bad formation – CTE Track Stretches with poor visibility – Sr DEN/Coord Need for fog signal duty – Sr DEN/Coord Need for removal of filth – Sr DEN/Coord Need for security patrol – Sr DEN/Coord No of days for watching water level in suburb- SrDEN/Co

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RATIONAL FORMULAE

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Rational formulae How the manpower requirement arrived at? Activties T & R For Main line For Main line Norms as per the actual manpower utilised on various sections on various zones and analyzing the same scientifically Periodicity of shallow screening has been changed to 5 yr instead of 3 yr Average spacing of the LC has been taken as 1.5 km Quantum of work in shallow screening in PSC sleeper track is 4 sl / head

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Contd For RYL and NRYL 1 KM of NRYL is taken as equivalent to 2/3 km of RYL Factors A,B and C are not considered Considered as ‘R’ activity

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Rational formulae

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “M” M.1 Monsoon Patrolling M.1 Monsoon Patrolling N: Total No. of beat-lengths D: No.of days needing patrolling in a year in the n th beat length. b: No.of beats in the n th beat length. s: No. of shifts in the n th beat length m: No.of men in each shift in the n th beat-length =2 in area infested with wild animals/ terrorists; otherwise m=1. 1 to N

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “M” M.2 Hot weather patrolling of LWR track Lw X 30 M.3 Cold weather patrolling of LWR track Lw X 12 Lw: Length of LWR track in km, on single line basis

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “M” M.4 Watching vulnerable locations 1 to N 1 to N M.5 Gate keeping at level crossings M.5 Gate keeping at level crossings 1 to N 1 to N N: No. of vulnerable locations s: No.of duty shifts at the n th location d:No.of days of watching at the n th location in a year. N: No. of Engg level crossings s: No.of duty shifts at the n th level crossing Ng: No. of Engg Gatekeeper posts sanctioned (Excluding LR) (Excluding LR)

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “M” M.6 Rest giving for keymen K( ) M.7Waterman duty M.7Waterman duty N * 294 M.8 Store- watchman duty N * 3 * 365 K: No. of Keyman beats N: No. of Gangs N: No. of stores in addition to SSE HQ (Not more than 2)

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “S” S.1 Tunnel Maintenance 1.2* 0.29* 1 to N 1 to N S.2 Bridge substructure maintenance 1.1* 0.29* 1.1* 0.29* 1 to N 1 to N N: No. of tunnels l: length of the n th tunnel, in metre tunnel, in metre r: No.of tracks in the n th tunnel. n th tunnel. N: No.of bridges b: Lineal waterway of the n th bridge, in metre r: No. of tracks on the n th bridge.

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “S” S.3 Long Girder Maintenance 0.64* 0.64* 1 to N 1 to N S.4Sharp curves > 3 D in BG > 6 D in MG Lc * 294 Lc * 294 N: No. of bridges each having more than 150m lineal waterway b: Lineal waterway of the n th bridge, in metre r: No. of tracks on the n th bridge n th bridge Lc: Total Length of such curve

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “S” S.5 Track maintenance in extremely bad formation 0.6 * 1 to N 1 to N S.6look out man to N 1 to N N: No.of locations where track needs more than track needs more than 4 attentions in a year 4 attentions in a year l: length of track in the n th location, in metres location, in metres N: No. of gangs v: length of track with poor visibility in the n th gang length visibility in the n th gang length g: length of the n th gang

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “S” S.7Fog signalman Mf / 3 S.8Filth removal from track f * 294 S.9Security Patrolling Ms / 3 Mf: Total Mandays actually utilised in past three years f: No. of gangs having this kind of problem f: No. of gangs having this kind of problem Ms: Total Mandays actually utilised in past three years

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “S” S.10Watching water level in suburban sections 1 to N N: No.of locations where flooding of track occurs in rainy season, due to water entering from built-up area outside. s:No.of shifts required at the nth location. d:No. of days requiring watching at the nth location. Normally s = 2; d= 60 in Mumbai suburban sections.

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MANDAYS REQUIREMENT FOR ACTIVITY “S” S.10Watching water level in suburban sections 1 to N N: No.of locations where flooding of track occurs in rainy season, due to water entering from built-up area outside. s:No.of shifts required at the nth location. d:No. of days requiring watching at the nth location. Normally s = 2; d= 60 in Mumbai suburban sections.

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EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF SPECIAL LAYOUTS a) Same as per SPECIAL COMMITTEE FORMULA Turnout 0.1 Km Diamond Diamond crossing with single slip 0.15 Km Diamond crossing with double slips 0.2 Km Cross over 0.2 Km Three-throw Scissors cross-over 0.5 Km Trap 0.02 Km Double trap 0.04 Km

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MULTIPLYING FACTORS Factor As per Special Committee As per MCNTM A 0.1 and 0.2 for bad and very bad formations 0.1 and 0.2 for bad and very bad formationsSame B =0.25 for > 1.5 D for BG > 3 D for MG > 3 D for MG > 5 D for NG > 5 D for NG Linear from 0 to 0.25 for 1 to 2 D for BG, 2 to 4 D for MG 3 to 7 D for NG thereafter constant at 0.25 C =0 up to rainfall of 200 cm =0.1 for rainfall of 200 cm =Linear from 01 to 0.2 for rainfall 200 to 300cm =0.2 for rainfall > 300 cm =0 up to rainfall of 150 cm = Linear from 0 to 0.2 for rainfall 150 to 300cm =0.2 for rainfall > 300 cm

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SUMMARY TYPE MANDAYS/KM ACTIVITY “T” MD/KM ATY “R” MAC. PACKED BG (NON- SUB URBAN) (80+2.3*GMT)X(1+A+B+C)159 MAN. PACKED BG (NON SUB URBAN) ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)168 MAC. PACKED BG (HD - SUB URBAN) ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)398 MAN. PACKED MG ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)128 MAN. PACKED NG ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)91

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SUMMARY TYPE MANDAYS/KM ACTIVITY “T” MD/KM ATY “R” MAC. PACKED BG (NON- SUB URBAN) (80+2.3*GMT)X(1+A+B+C)159 MAN. PACKED BG (NON SUB URBAN) ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)168 MAC. PACKED BG (HD - SUB URBAN) ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)398 MAN. PACKED MG ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)128 MAN. PACKED NG ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)91

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SUMMARY TYPE MANDAYS/KM ACTIVITY “T” MD/KM ATY “R” MAC. PACKED BG (NON- SUB URBAN) (80+2.3*GMT)X(1+A+B+C)159 MAN. PACKED BG (NON SUB URBAN) ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)168 MAC. PACKED BG (HD - SUB URBAN) ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)398 MAN. PACKED MG ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)128 MAN. PACKED NG ( *GMT)X(1+A+B+C)91

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SUMMARY Staff strength arrived at by rational formulae does not include –LR of 12.5 % –Posts of Gateman, Mates, Keymen, Artisans, Artisan helpers, Trollyman, Storeman –USFD team –Machine Staff for maintenance or operation Report recommended 2% training reserve, Board yet to take final view

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MMU STAFF Work load catered by MMU (Machine Packed only) Main Line Activity T= * GMT For GMT of 20, T=126 Bad spots 35 out of 35 Low joints 10 out of 16 SEJ 2 out of 4 Curves 6 out of 10 Casual renewal rail 2 out of 6 Casual sleeper rail 2 out of 6 Repair welding 6 out of I.e 50% GMT Main Line activity R= 159 Loading Unloading 12 out of 20 OH of LC 13 out of 13 Bridge sleeper renewal 7 out of 10 Creep pulling 3 out of 5 35

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MMU STAFF Work load catered by MMU (Machine Packed only) Running Yard Line R=177 Bad spots 14 out of 14 Low joints 5 out of 8 Curves 2 out of 6 Casual renewal rail 2 out of 3 Casual sleeper renewal 2 out of 3 Loading Unloading 10 out of Gross Equivalent MMU Mandays i.e GEMM = Lm( GMT) (1+A+B+C) + 35 Lm + 35 Ly Exp. on MMU 80 % of Emoluments of GEMM= Annualized cost of SEMMU + Annual emoluments of MMU staff

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CONCEPT OF EMKM Committee has proposed Equated Manpower KM (EMKM) as performance unit in place of ETKM EMKM is defined as numerical equivalent to 0.6 times the number of gang man required for activities T, R, M, S –EMKM has been defined based on a compensator p-way section requiring 1.66 men/KM

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RATIONAL FORMULAE How these are different ? Zero based approach has been adopted Formulae have been evolved on rational basis 14 non – suburban sections and 3 HD suburban sections have been studied on 7 Zonal Railways ( NR,ER,WR,SR,CR,SER,SCR) through direct interaction with the field Engineers

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Rational formulae What is new ? Mandays per annum per km for each activity are computed instead of man power factor Man power requirement for T & R activities is same irrespective of the type of sleepers and type of rails i.e., F.P,SWR,LWR All the sub activities of maintenance of RYL and NRYL are categorised under activity R (Routine maintenance ) Flexible to encourage formation of Mobile Maintenance Units ( MMUs) Concept of Equated Manpower Kilometre (EMKM) introduced EMKM = 0.6 ( G/men per km as per Rational formulae )

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Rational formula Conclusions 1.As the formulae are arrived at more rationally, there will be saving in the manpower and at the same time ensures equitable distribution of manpower in accordance with the work load. 2.The adoption of rational formulae ensures uniformity of manpower provision commensurate with work load. 3.Optimisation of manpower can be achieved 4.uniform degree of track maintenance and equitable allotment of funds. 5.The concept of EMKM enables to evaluate the manpower requirement for optimal utilization 6. The formulae are more flexible to allow for redistribution of strength of the various gangs as per the age profile of track. 7.The formulae allows for introduction of Mobile Maintenance Units

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