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Using land use to make transport more sustainable www.eu-portal.net Using land use to make transport more sustainable Training Session, Tallinn, 16 October.

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Presentation on theme: "Using land use to make transport more sustainable www.eu-portal.net Using land use to make transport more sustainable Training Session, Tallinn, 16 October."— Presentation transcript:

1 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Using land use to make transport more sustainable Training Session, Tallinn, 16 October 2007 Tom Rye, Napier University, Edinburgh, with assistance from Roberto de Tommasi, Synergo, Zurich

2 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Topic of training Using land use to make travel more sustainable Higher densities Built environments to support PT, cycling and walking More mixed uses Development at nodes, on corridors Building mobility management into developments

3 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Structure of session What is sustainable urban land-use, and un-sustainable urban land-use – from a transport point of view Benefits of sustainable urban land use – transport and environment An exercise on a hypothetical development Some examples of good practice How we might achieve more sustainable land use Another exercise and short presentation by you

4 Using land use to make transport more sustainable What is sustainable land-use planning? Planning areas/neighbourhoods to: Have high densities and mixed uses so it is never far to essential services Minimise distances (in time and space) between activities to reduce travel demand Give priority to pedestrian and cycle paths as the main network for internal neighbourhood traffic Give priority to public transport as the most important element of a sustainable personal transport system

5 Using land use to make transport more sustainable What is sustainable land-use planning? Planning towns, cities and regions so that: Dense and large development is close to public transport stops and stations – especially interchanges Growth is planned along corridors or at nodes Low density suburban sprawl is controlled Brownfield land is reused Transport investment happens at same time as, or before, new development Where new roads (and junctions) are built, mechanisms exist to control development around them

6 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Benefits of sustainable land-use planning People who live in denser areas and cities travel less by car More independence for children – can walk, cycle, use PT People walk more – healthier Arguably, more social interaction

7 Using land use to make transport more sustainable More, and less, sustainable land use

8 Using land use to make transport more sustainable More, and less, sustainable land use

9 Using land use to make transport more sustainable More, and less, sustainable land use

10 Using land use to make transport more sustainable More, and less, sustainable land use

11 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Going shopping, US style

12 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Going shopping, Singapore style

13 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Exercise – 10 minutes, work in pairs A new development A developer wants to build a large new office in a town of 150,000 people. There are various possible locations: edge of town on undeveloped land near the junction of a radial road and the new ring road, on old industrial land in an outer suburb, on the site of an old hospital in an inner suburb, or in the city centre on the site of a falling down and dangerous government building. From a sustainable transport perspective, what is the optimum location? Where is it likely that the developer will want to develop, and why? What incentives could be given to the developer to choose a location that is more sustainable from a transport point of view? Whatever location was chosen, what kinds of supporting measures might a public authority want to see along with the development to make travel to and from the development more sustainable? In your country do you know of any mechanism in planning law that allows public authorities to get developers to pay for supporting measures (e.g. transport) related to a development?

14 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Some examples of good practice

15 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Sihlcity, Zurich

16 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Sihlcity, Zurich – key data aream241’990 construction period volume of investmentMio. €600 rental revenue p.a.Mio. €30 total rentable area (without parking)m297’000 rentable area for shopsm241’000 rentable area for servicesm224’000 rentable area for culture, cinema, hotelsm219’000 rentable area shopping, fitness / wellness, apartments, stocks m213’000 number of working places2’300 visitors per day (average between and 30.06)19’000 number of parking spaces850

17 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Sihlcity, Zurich: Accessibility with different modes

18 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Sihlcity, Zurich - requirements to obtain planning permission, 2002 public transport: financial contribution on study of improving PT and on re-building of PT stops bike: 600 bike parking lots pedestrians: to assure „recreation quality „ (Aufenthaltsqualität) in the area motorised transport: costs for construction of access ramp to main road, less than 805 PP and 50 P+R Mobility Management (not directly but): Parking concept (and trip quota model) implementation of a home delivery service defined in the area specific land use plan of Sihlcity and agreement between investor/ground owner and environmental association (on the base of existing right to complain of NGO’s)

19 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Better practice e.g. 1 – Vodafone head office New office 3200 staff Small town 25,000 people Strong local economy

20 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Vodafone Head Office 2 new junctions Bus stops outside front of building with private service to town 1862 parking spaces (3200 staff) Direct pedestrian routes into town 72% staff drive alone – low for UK in location like this %

21 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Freiburg Vauban 5000 people, 600 jobs, 38 ha 3 km from city centre Bus then tramline (10 tph) built in from start 40% of households have no car Limited parking Green space, walking and cycling routes

22 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Entrance close to pedestrian routes Developer paid for new junction and pedestrian crossings Supermarket close to very frequent bus routes Entrance/exit from car park not on main road Car park behind building New supermarket in Edinburgh

23 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Supermarket in London Supermarket close to main bus route, underground and railway station, and close to local shopping centre Originally developer wanted more parking spaces and the building at the back of the site In the end agreed to 25% fewer parking spaces and building at front of site, near public transport and walking routes

24 Using land use to make transport more sustainable How to deliver land use planning that makes transport more sustainable

25 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Delivery tips EU research projects not strong on this topic. You may need to (gradually): Change planning law Change planning policy Change planning structures and organisations Improve planning enforcement Use local authority land holdings carefully Help developers realise that planning can make them money

26 Using land use to make transport more sustainable UK national planning policy National guidance PPG13 In order to deliver the objectives of this guidance, when preparing development plans and considering planning applications, local authorities should: actively manage the pattern of urban growth to make the fullest use of public transport, and focus major generators of travel demand in city, town and district centres and near to major public transport interchanges; locate day to day facilities which need to be near their clients in local centres so that they are accessible by walking and cycling; accommodate housing principally within existing urban areas, planning for increased intensity of development for both housing and other uses at locations which are highly accessible by public transport, walking and cycling;

27 Using land use to make transport more sustainable UK regional planning policy East of England RSS: Policy SS1: achieving sustainable development In most instances development will be focused in or adjacent to major urban areas where there is good public transport accessibility and where strategic networks (rail, road, bus) connect. In more rural areas, development will be focused on market towns which have good public transport accessibility to key urban areas. By locating housing, jobs and services in close proximity the need for long-distance commuting will be reduced.

28 Using land use to make transport more sustainable UK local planning policy Edinburgh Local Plan: Policy Emp 1 Office Development High quality, office developments, including major developments, will be permitted: a) in the Central Area b) in the strategic business centres identified on the Proposals Map at Edinburgh Park/South Gyle, Leith and Granton c) at other accessible mixed use locations near to public transport interchanges and nodes, where the scale of development must be compatible with the accessibility of the location by public transport and the character of the local environment.

29 Using land use to make transport more sustainable All those changes – are they possible? YES! 20 years ago in the UK we had very little planning and planning did not consider sustainable transport Since then we have changed: Planning law Planning policy Planning organisations and structures City populations are growing, developments denser, more mixed use – and more walking and cycling in big cities But development industry is stronger than ever

30 Using land use to make transport more sustainable Useful links COST342 Parking: ECOCITY - Urban Development Towards Appropriate Structures for Sustainable Transport: PROPOLIS - Planning and Research for Land Use and Transport for Increasing Urban Sustainability: SCATTER - Sprawling Cities And TransporT: from Evaluation to Recommendations: SUTRA - Sustainable Urban Transportation: TRANSPLUS - Transport Planning, Land Use and Sustainability:


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