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Dr Russell G. Thompson Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Transport & Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr Russell G. Thompson Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Transport & Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr Russell G. Thompson Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering rgthom@unimelb.edu.au Transport & Health

2 Outline Background Cancer Report Active Transport Walking to Work Analysis Measuring Active Transport Understanding Active Transport Active Travel Planner Research Agenda

3 Background Rapid urbanisation Aging population Sedentary lifestyle Rising health costs Obesity epidemic Growth in cancer, heart disease & diabetes Affluenza (Hamilton & Dennis, 2002) Recognition that activity can reduce risk of disease…

4 Cancer Report Recommendation 1 Be as lean as possible within the normal range of body weight PUBLIC HEALTH GOALS Median adult body mass index (BMI) to be between 21 and 23, depending on the normal range for different populations The proportion of the population that is overweight or obese to be no more than the current level, or preferably lower, in 10 years World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007

5 Cancer Report Recommendation 2 Be physically active as part of everyday life PUBLIC HEALTH GOALS The proportion of the population that is sedentary to be halved every 10 years Average physical activity levels (PALs) to be above 1.6 World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007

6 Physical Activity Main Types  Occupational (at work)  Household (in home)  Recreation (eg. sport)  Transport (eg. journey to work)

7 p15, WCRF/AICR, 2007

8 Body Mass Index (BMI) = w/h 2 WHO BMI Categories

9 Relative risks per unit increase in BMI (Disease type by age) 30-4445-5960-6970-7980+ Ischaemic heart disease 1.131.071.051.03 Diabetes mellitus 1.361.241.181.27 Stroke deaths1.0111.021.031 Stroke1.061.081.061.041.01 Hypertensive Heart Disease 1.091.16 1.121.06 Osteoarthritis1.04 Breast Cancer1.091.16 1.121.06 Bowel Cancer1.03 Endometrial Cancer 1.1 SOURCE: Department of Human Services-Public Health Group. (2005)

10 Burden of Disease & Injury Comparison for Victoria (Years of Life Lost) Road Traffic AccidentsDiabetes Male6,8804,581 Female2,4263,984 Total9,3068,565

11 A Taxonomy of Urban Activity Categories Urban Activity At-home Activity Out-of-home Activity At-node Activity Between-node Activity People Movement Activity Active Transport Walk, Bike, PT Private Motor Car Product (Freight & Waste) Transport Activity Source: H. Kayak 2007

12 Lap Gastric Band http://www.melbourneobesitysurgery.com.au/lap_band.htm Solution?

13 Active Transport “Active transport relates to physical activity undertaken as a means of transport. It includes travel by foot, bicycle and other non-motorised vehicles. Use of public transport is also included in the definition as it often involves some walking or cycling to pick-up and from drop-off points. Active transport does not include walking, cycling or other physical activity that is undertaken for recreation.” National Public Health Partnership, 60:2005

14 Active Transport & Health All of seven chronic diseases accorded the status of National Health Priority Area by Australian health ministers benefit from active transport  Cardiovascular disease  Cancer  Diabetes  Asthma  Arthritis  Mental health  Musculoskeletal

15 Active Transport Gain exercise without noticing by becoming part of everyday life (eg. JTW) Urban areas largely comprised of "obesogenic" environments that encourage inactivity Need to “redesign cities as gyms” Engineering skills of data collection, analysis, modelling & design can assist…

16 “Active transport relates to physical activity undertaken as a means of transport. It includes travel by foot, bicycle and other non-motorised vehicles. Use of public transport is also included in the definition as it often involves some walking or cycling to pick-up and from drop-off points. Active transport does not include walking, cycling or other physical activity that is undertaken for recreation.” National Public Health Partnership, 60:2005 p377, WCRF/AICR, 2007

17 Walking to Work Analysis ABS Census 2006 data recently released by small area (approx. 1 km 2 ) and suburb areas Analysis Suburbs vary in the percentage of persons who travelled to work outside their home by walking only Min 0 (Bulla, outer suburb) Max (40.4% Females, 34.8% Males in Carlton, near The University) Average: (4.6% Females, 3.5% Males)

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19 Measurement Issues “Physical activity is rarely measured precisely. Ideally, studies would record the frequency, intensity, and duration of people’s physical activity over an extended period — day and night. But studies are generally not designed to obtain this information. Objective measures such as pedometers and microcomputer sensors are not often used in large studies. Instead, questionnaires are most frequently used.” p201, WCRF/AICR, 2007

20 Conventional Travel Surveys  Self completion mail-out/mail-back questionnaires eg. Victorian Activity and Travel Survey, (VATS & VISTA)  Expensive: data collection, entry & error checking  Times (at stops) are recorded in nearest minute  Stops are geocoded but trip distances must be estimated. –Therefore, average speed is not accurate (underestimation)…

21 GPS Data P t = (x t, y t, z t ) captured at discrete time periods t Using x & y can determine for each trip stage:  distance travelled  time travelled  average speed Using z can determine gradient

22 Analysis & Interpretation of GPS data Need to determine:  nodes (stops) to identify trip stages  mode travelled for trip segments  type of stops (eg. workplace, home or public transport stop)  trip purpose

23 GPS Data Analysis  Automatically & accurately determine: WHEN & WHERE of trip segments  Difficulty determining: –HOW (mode) –WHY (purpose) –WHAT (activity node)

24 GPS Data Analysis Methods for detecting trip characteristics  Rule based system (RBS)  Data mining (Classification)  Artificial Intelligence (learning, multi-day…)

25 Identification of mode for trip stages ModeAverage Travel Speed (km/h) Walk4 Bicycle20 Bus35 Car40 Train60

26 Determining Travel Mode  Ranges of travel speeds & acceleration  Relationship with transport network  Stopping behaviour  Location of start & end of trip stages  Duration of travel

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29 Active Transport Indicators Summary of exercise undertaken  Distance walked & cycled (per trip segment, per day)  Time walked & cycled (per trip segment, per day)  Predicted energy consumption = f(travel speed, distance, gradient,…)

30 Active Travel Planner Optimise Active Transport for individuals Objective Function Maximise Active Transport (time walking & cycling) Constraints Walking & cycling speeds Travel time budget Public transport timetables Start times to reach & location of activity nodes Decision Variables Location of travel nodes (Stops) Mode(s) used to travel between travel nodes

31 VISTA Database: 2007 N = 3909

32 Daily amount of walking & cycling (distance, time & speed) Determine influencing factors Personal (eg. age, gender, work & income) Spatial (eg. density, parkland & accessibility to public transport, employment & shops) Household (eg. # cars & composition) Using VISTA and regression (incl. Logistic) Active Travel Influencing Factors

33 VISTA Data (MS XL) MySQL (data access) MATLAB (statistics & graphics) Java (processing) MAPINFO (Spatial analysis) Software Platform

34 Research Agenda Determine what levels of active transport (esp. walking & cycling) are occurring now Investigate how GPS can be used to measure active transport How can VISTA be used to calculate PALS? Identify what personal, transport system & spatial factors influence the amount of active transport


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